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Korean Soil Information System

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Fifth Asian Soil Partnership workshop
26 February - 1 March 2019, New Delhi, India
Sangho Jeon, National Institute of Agricultural Sciences

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Korean Soil Information System

  1. 1. Sangho Jeon, Suk-Young Hong, Byung-Keun Hyun, Yeon-Kyu Sonn, Myung-Suk Kong Korean Soil Information System 2019.02.28
  2. 2. National Institute of Agricultural SciencesRDA Introduction International Cooperation Extension Service Technology Transfer R & D • Stable supply of food for people • Enhancement of agricultural competitiveness for the market • Enhancing farmer’s welfare and vitalizing rural economy • Sharing experience and technology to devel. countries
  3. 3. (Suwon) (Jeonju) (1,168 Scientists / 96 Extension specialists / 22 Senior Officials / 561 Others) US$ 834 M (R&D 82%, Operational Expenses 18%) National Institute of Agricultural Sciences (NAS), National Institute of Crop Science (NICS), National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science (NIHHS), National Institute of Animal Science (NIAS) National Institute of Agricultural SciencesRDA Introduction
  4. 4. Sustainable Development of Agri-Business thru Innovation of Agricultural Tech. Vision • Ag. & Rural Environ. • Bio Resources • Agri-Product Safety • Climate Change • Food Security • Stable Food Production, • Horticultural & Herbal Crops • Livestock Industry • Agricultural Business • Environmentally Friendly Agriculture, Energy Saving • Biotech. • Convergence Core Tech. National Institute of Agricultural SciencesRDA Introduction
  5. 5. 농과원 원예원 식량원 National Institute of Agricultural Sciences National Institute of Horticultural & Herbal Science National Institute of Crop Science National Institute of Animal Science National Institute of Agricultural SciencesRDA Introduction
  6. 6. National Institute of Agricultural SciencesNAS Introduction NAS 530/900 26/36
  7. 7. National Institute of Agricultural SciencesNAS Introduction Soil and Fertilizer Division Soil Survey Soil Physics Soil Chemistry Plant Nutrition Organic Resources •Soil and environment information system •Soil survey and digitizing soil maps •Digital soil mapping •Soil water management •Water saving irrigation methods •Soil conservation •Improving soil physical properties •Soil chemical properties management •Onsite soil analysis •Soil heavy metals •Soil testing program •Soil monitoring program •Plant nutrient management •Fertilizer recommendation •Nutrition Physiology •Smart nutrient management system •Agricultural utilization of organic resources •Soil carbon assessment •Evaluation of food waste compost quality Mission: Researches on soil management for sustainable agriculture
  8. 8. 2. Soil and Environment Information System 3. Fertilizer recommendation system 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring
  9. 9. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Soil Health, Soil Quality, Soil Security Soil Health “the countinued capacity of the soil to function as a vital living ecosystem that sustains plants, animals and humans” (USDA-NRCS, 20122; Soil Renaissance, 2014) Soil Quality “the capacity of a soil to function, within ecosystem and land use boundaries, to sustain productivity, maintain environmental quality, and promote plant and animal health” (Doran and Parkin, 1994) Soil Security is “concerned with maintaining and improving the world’s soil resources to produce food, fibre and freshwater, maintain the biodiversity and ecosystem services and contribute to human health” (McBratney, Field & Koch, 2014) - Dimensions: Capability, Condition, Capital, Connectivity, Codification Bio-physical Socio-Economic 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  10. 10. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Why Spatial Data? Why Map? Spatial data or mapping products will illustrate the combined effects of various layers or dimensions(i.e. biophysical, socio- economic, etc.) at different spatial scales. The maps can be reviewed by individuals, stakeholders, markets and policy makers, either as an overall assessment of the whole or for each of its layers for a range of enterprises. * Spatial patterns reveal what is happening where! Spatial Soil Database for Sustainable Soil Management in Korea 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  11. 11. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Reconnaisance Soil Survey(`64~`67) 1:250,000, 1:50,000 (MMU, 6.25 ha) Detailed Soil Survey(`68~`90) 1:25,000 (MMU, 1.56 ha) Highly Detailed Soil Survey(`95~`99) 1:5,000 (MMU, 10 a) Soil Thematic Maps, Fertilizer Recommendation, Ag. Environment data, etc. ※MMU: Minimum Mapping Unit Soil Survey History in Korea 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  12. 12. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Soil Survey History in Korea Reconnaissance Detailed Highly detailed  Periods 1964-1969 1970-1989 1995-1999  Nation wide  Suitability class  Surve y  Major cultivation area - crop types  Field management - Fertilization - Soil classification: soil series(horizon, drainage, soil texture, 1. Soil survey: manpower(1964~1999, update: ~present) (1:250,000, 1:50,000) (1:25,000) (1:5,000) 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  13. 13. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences 2. Soil and Environment Monitoring Project(1999~present) - Soil & Environments Monitoring at a Regular Basis: Fixed Points(0-20 cm) ∙ Spatial and Temporal Change of Soil Properties at a National Scale -Soil: Paddy, Upland, Orchard, Plastic Film House, and etc. (≒ about 1,500~2,000 sites for each Ag. field type) ∙ Every year: Soils, Heavy metals, Water Quality(3 times) ∙ Data: Soil physico-chemical properties, Soil heavy metals, Water quality, Microbial activities, Pesticides, etc. 3. Soil Testing Project(1980~present) - Soil Testing at Random Points(0-20 cm) mainly for fertilizer recommendation ∙ Every Year at Paddy, Upland, Orchard, and Plastic Film House ∙ Data: Soil Chemical properties(pH, OM, Av.P, Ex.cation, etc.) ∙ RDA project : 50,000 soil samples/year x 3 years (* About 500,000 samples every year are collected through Ag. Technical Center) Fixed points Random points 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  14. 14. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Contents Soil Map Database Soil Fertility & Monotroing Database Characteristics Morphological, physical, and chemical characteristics from topsoil to subsoil - Chemical properties of top soil - Soil physio-chemical properties, heavy metals, water quality, etc. Sampling Unit Soil boundary Each field with parcel information Purpose Soil survey - Soil testing - Supporting agricultural policy Utilization Landuse recommendation, crop suitability, land suitability - Fertilizer recommendation - Spatial & temporal change at national scale DB Spatial database Non-spatial database => GIS DB Data form A variety scale of soil map - 1:250,000, 1:50,000, 1:25,000, 1:5,000 - Soil testing : 600,000 samples/year - Soil monitoing: ≒ 2,000 points/year Characteristics of soil map and soil monitoring database 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  15. 15. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Figure. Soil properties of Korea based on detailed soil map (1:25,000). Soils in Korea 1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea
  16. 16. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences1. National Soil Survey and Monitoring Projects in Korea Soil Classification in Korea Order (7) Suborder (17) Series (405) Ratio(%) Inceptisols Aquepts Udepts 54 98 56.1* Entisols Aquents Fluvents Orthents Psamments 11 6 29 12 9.3 Ultisols Aquults Humults Udults 5 10 49 11.5 Alfisols Aqualfs Udalfs 23 46 7.5 Andisols Udands Vitrands 42 1 1.2 Mollisols Aquolls Udolls 2 15 0.6 Histosols Saprists Hemists 1 1 0.0 * Ratio includes water, rocks, and other non-soil classes Based on “USDA Soil Taxonomy” Based on the results of soil survey, Korea is currently classified as 405 soil series(RDA, 2017).
  17. 17. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences2. Soil and Environment Information System of Korea
  18. 18. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Figure. Main page of ‘Soil and Environment Information System of Korea’ and four major parts of the system including web-based GIS map service, fertilizer recommendation, and statistics. 1. Overview (http://soil.rda.go.kr) 2. Soil and Environment Information System of Korea
  19. 19. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences Soil Theme Maps No. of Attributes Soil Attributes Soil profile characteristics 12 Soil texture, drainage class, available depth, slope, grave l content, soil color, soil erosion class, parent material, e tc. Soil topography 2 Soil topography, sedimentation pattern Soil classification 3 Soil order, suborder, great group Crop suitability maps 64 Apple, pear, mandarin orange, water melon, grapes, stra wberry, tomato, cucumber, cabbage, etc. Land Interpretation 13 Land suitability(paddy, upland, orchard, grass, forest), la nd use, land use recommendation, soil type, etc. Soil chemical property m aps 25 pH, organic matter, available phosphate, potassium, calc ium, available silicate, etc. for each cropland unit 2. Soil Attributes Provided : 119 layers 2. Soil and Environment Information System of Korea
  20. 20. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences 3. Soil properties(55): Morphological, physical, and chemical properties 2. Soil and Environment Information System of Korea
  21. 21. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences 4. Crop Suitability(64 crops): <watermelon> 2. Soil and Environment Information System of Korea
  22. 22. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences2. Soil and Environment Information System of Korea 5. Mobile version Soil texture Effective soil depth Soil drainage class Crop suitability map for watermelon
  23. 23. National Institute of Agricultural Sciences3. Fertilizer recommendation system Web-based fertilizer recommendation system : 143 crops - based on soil test analysis
  24. 24. Fertilizer Recommendation System National Institute of Agricultural Sciences • Development of fertilizer recommendation program Year Program Crop Notice Before ‘90 RDA-controlled computer Rice Agri-field enhancement undertaking ‘91 PC ver. 1.0 Rice PC issuing Distribution after teaching ‘92 PC ver. 2.0 13 crops Issuing of fertilization manual by crops ‘95 PC ver. 3.0 23 crops Improvement of fertilization standard ‘98 PC ver. 4.0 44 crops Windows95 Addition of field management item ‘01 Soil management ’98 91 crops Standard fertilization : 77 crops Soil testing-based : 64 crops ‘02 Soil management program 95 crops Combined fertilizer using method ‘04 Soil management ‘04 96 crops ’11~ Wed-based program 143 crops - Mobile ‘Huktoram’ - Improvement of fertilization standard 25/39 3. Fertilizer recommendation system
  25. 25. Fertilizer Recommendation System National Institute of Agricultural Sciences • Issue the fertilizer recommendation sheet Fertilizer recommendation for Paddy soil 3. Soil testing results 1. General information : crop, area, address, farmer’s name 4. Fertilizer application rates 5. Comments 2. Soil characteristics : soil series, soil texture, drainage, etc. 26/39 3. Fertilizer recommendation system

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