Haitian revolution

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Overview of the Haitian Revolution used to set the context for the Who Was Toussaint L'Ouverture? History Lab

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Haitian revolution

  1. 1. Brief Overview ofthe Haitian Revolution, 1791-1804 Eric Beckman Anoka HS, MN The Louverture Project Liberty, Equality, Fraternity @GMU McKay, et al, History of Western Society
  2. 2. Who was Toussaint Louverture?Print made from an 1838 engraving French print from An 1802 engraving
  3. 3. Haiti
  4. 4. Haiti
  5. 5. Haiti  Hayti, Taino word for the island  Western half of Santo Domingo, aka Hispaniola  French colony of Saint- Domingue, 1697-1804  Second Independent nation- state in Western Hemisphere  Site of largest successful slave revolt in history
  6. 6. French Saint-Domingue (Haiti) Sugar, coffee, and Sugar Mill, engraving from 17th c. indigo French book Slave labor Richest colony
  7. 7. People of French St.-Domingue African Slaves Free people of color Some biracial Some black Whites Petit blancs Plantation owners Many absentee owners
  8. 8. Boukman Rebellion, a massive slave revolt, 1791• Secret meetings • Vodou• Armies • Rebelling slaves • Free men of color • Royalist whites • Republican whites• Toussaint Louverture emerged as a leader • Spanish support• French Revolution: Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
  9. 9. Boukmans Rebellion became a warToussaint Louvertures•army wins victories10,000 whites flee St.-•Domingue (Haiti)National Assembly in France•enfranchises free men ofcolor But, maintains slavery •Racial violence:• petit blancs v. free people of • color
  10. 10. Civil War in Haiti, years of fightingoRoyalist v RepublicanoWhite elite v Free men ofcoloroRebelling SlavesToussaint Louverturesoarmy conquers northern Haiti o Spanish gunsoSeveral armies
  11. 11. End of Slavery• Rebelling Slaves• French Proclamations • St. Domingue, 1793 • All French territory, 1794• Revolutionary armies in Haiti join with French
  12. 12. Toussaint Louverture became a French Official Leads his Army against  Spanish & British  Other Haitian armies  Others lead by biracial Haitians Toussaint Louverture won victories over the whole island of Santo Domingo
  13. 13. Napoloeon Bonaparte seizes powerin France, 1799• Rules as dictator in the name of the French Revolution (?)
  14. 14. Toussaint Louverture rules all of Santo Domingo as Governor-General, 1801-1802Constitution of 1801 (forall of Santo Domingo)  Abolished slavery  Elected legislature Santo Domingo remains French Toussaint Louverture = Governor General for life
  15. 15. Napoleon Sends an Army toReconquer St. Domingue (Haiti), 1802Eventually, attempts toreinstitute slavery Massive French casualties 50,000 of 58,000 die French commanderdeceives and imprisonsToussaint Louverture
  16. 16. Louverture in French PrisonToussaint Louverture•dies in French prison,1803
  17. 17. Who was Toussaint Louverture?Print made from an 1838 engraving French print from An 1802 engraving
  18. 18. Source:Tobias Lear
  19. 19. Haitian Independence!Former Slave JeanJacques Dessalineand former “free manof color” AlexandrePetion unite to leadHaitian revolutionariesto victories overFrench troops
  20. 20. Haitian Independence, 1804French forces abandonHaitiDessalines declaresHaitian independence,1/1/1804Dessalines declareshimself Emperor of Haiti,rules 1804-1806 Desalines with the Haitian bicolor, blue over red
  21. 21. Haitian Revolution in World History Napoleon abandons idea of empire in the Americas  sells Louisiana to the USA News spreads to the US  Rebellious slaves  Paranoid slave Haitian government shelters Simon Bolivar, before his successful wars of independence Toussaint Louverture becomes a hero to millions striving for freedom

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