Free blacks (usually mixed-race) These tended to be educated, literate and often served in the army or as administrators on plantations. Many were children of white planters and enslaved mothers. The males often received education or artisan training, sometimes received property from their fathers, and freedom. The third group, outnumbering the others by a ratio of ten to one, was made up of mostly African-born slaves.
The Haitian Revolution
The Haitian Revolution 1791 - 1803
Pre-Revolution Conditions in St. Domingue• 500,000 slaves producing 40% of the world’s sugar• Slaves outnumber all other groups 10 to 1• Declaration of the Rights of Man, 1789 – all are born free, due process, etc• France is unstable in the years following the French Revolution• Wealthy plantation owners, free blacks, middle class white (Petit Blancs) all struggling for control of the island• The French government gives control to the wealthy landowners (Grand Blancs).• Free blacks revolt• All sides arm slaves
An “Unthinkable Revolution”Unthinkable, before, during, and after•No abolitionists ever envisioned this sort of thing•Attempts were made by other slave-holding nations to conceal it as itoccurred•It was unthinkable after because didn’t fit into historians framework aboutthe age of revolution. It was erased.