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Endocrine glands

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Endocrine glands

  1. 1. By – Mr. Ashok Bishnoi Lecturer,JINR 1
  2. 2.  Gland:- It is a group of cell which take certain material from tissue fluid & make new substances of them.  Classification:- it is classified in to two groups. ◦ Exocrine & duct gland -which secrete in to cavity. ◦ Endocrine & ductless gland:- which secrete in to tissue & blood. 2
  3. 3.  Hypothalamus  Pineal gland (1)  Pituitary (1) ◦ Anterior P. ◦ Posterior P.  Thyroid gland (2)  Parathyroid glands (4)  Thymus (1)  Adrenal Glands (2) ◦ Cortex ◦ Medulla  Islets of Langerhans (1)  Gonads ◦ Ovaries in female (2) ◦ Testes in male (2) 3
  4. 4. 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt 4
  5. 5. Figure 11-3: Autonomic control centers in the brain Hypothalamus:-
  6. 6.  It Regulates , emotions, feeding/satiety, thirst, body temperature, etc.  Controls the release of hormones from the anterior and posterior pituitary 6
  7. 7. “7” releasing hormones are made in the hypothalamus Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) Corticotropin-Releasing Hormone (CRH) Gonadotropin-Releasing hormone (GnRH) Growth hormone-Releasing Hormone (GHRH)
  8. 8. Growth hormone-Release Inhibiting Hormone (GHIH) Prolactin-Releasing factor (PRF) Prolactin-Inhibiting Hormone (PIH)  All of these are released into the blood in the capillaries and travel immediately 8
  9. 9. 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt 9
  10. 10.  It is lie in the hypophyseal phosa of the sphenoid bone below the hypothalamus.  Weight is about “500” mg Endocrine-Glands.ppt 10
  11. 11.  Anterior P. (Adenohypophysis):- ◦ Growth Hormone (GH) ◦ Prolactin Hormone (PH) ◦ Melanocyte-Stimulating Hormone (MSH) ◦ Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) ◦ Adrenocorticotropic Hormone(ACTH) ◦ Follicle-Stimulating Hormone (FSH) ◦ Luteinizing Hormone (LH) 11
  12. 12. Endocrine-Glands.ppt 12
  13. 13.  Posterior p (Neurohypophysis):- ◦ Oxytocin ◦ Antidiuretic H. (ADH) Endocrine-Glands.ppt 13
  14. 14.  Oxytocin ◦ Stimulates smooth muscle contraction of uterus & mammary glands.  Antidiuretic H. ◦ Stimulates water reabsorption in collecting ducts. ◦ Stimulates vasoconstriction (vasopressin) ◦ Lack  diabetes insipidus
  15. 15. Endocrine-Glands.ppt 16
  16. 16.  Position:- Situated in the neck in front of the larynx & trachea at the level of 5th ,6th & 7th cervical & 1st thoracic vertebrae.  Weight it is about:- 25 gm  Shape:- Butterfly in shape 17
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  18. 18.  It consisting of two lobes one on either side of thyroid cartilage  The lobe are cone shaped  About 5cm long  3 cm wide 19
  19. 19.  Blood supply by:- Superior & inferior thyroid artery.  Venous drainage by:- thyroid vein 20
  20. 20. Secretion of hormone:- 1. T3 (Tri-iodothyronine) 2. T4 (Thyroid) Function:- ◦ Increases BMR & produce energy ◦ It help in metabolism of protein ,fat 3. Calcitonin Function:- ◦ Reduce blood calcium level ◦ It reduce reabsorbtion of calcium level from bone 21
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  22. 22.  Location:- The parathyroid gland is located in the neck  There are “4”small parathyroid glands.  Two abunded in the posterior surface of each lob of the thyroid glands. 23
  23. 23.  Shape:- Spherical in shape  Length:- 0.3-0.6cm long  Weight:- 25mg 24
  24. 24. Endocrine-Glands.ppt 25
  25. 25.  Arterial supply: inferior thyroid artery (superior thyroid,)  Venous drainage: Inferior, middle, superior thyroid veins 26
  26. 26.  Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Function:-  Increase blood calcium level when it is low (9-10.5 mg/dl) 27
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  29. 29.  Position:-One situated on the upper pole of the each kidney  Length:- About “4” cm long  Around “3” cm thick Endocrine-Glands.ppt 31
  30. 30. Endocrine-Glands.ppt 32
  31. 31.  The gland compose of two parts which have different structure & function.  The outer part is Cortex  The inner parts is Medulla 33
  32. 32. Secretion of hormone:- A. Adrenal Cortex:- 1. Glucocorticoid ( Regulation of metabolism of glucose) 2. Mineralocorticoids-(Aldosterone-maintain water & electrolyte) 3. Sex hormone-(Androgen in male-play role in reproductive activity) Endocrine-Glands.ppt 34
  33. 33. B-Renal Medulla:- 1. Adrenaline ( Epinephrine) 2. Noradrenalin (Nor epinephrine) Function:-  Increase HR  Increase BP  Increase Metabolic rate  Dilating pupiles 35
  34. 34.  Hypo-secretion Addison’s disease - glucocorticoid deficiency person becomes highly susceptible to disease and deteriorating effects of stress  Hyper-secretion: Cushing’s Syndrome mobilization of fat from lower body to the thoracic and upper abdominal regions giving raise to “Buffalo Torso”
  35. 35.  Control centers for blood glucose  Insulin from beta cells  Glucagon from alpha cells  Somatostanin from delta cell Endocrine-Glands.ppt 37
  36. 36. 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt 38
  37. 37.  Ovaries in female:- ◦ Estrogens ◦ Progesterone  Testes in male:- ◦ Testosterone, etc.  Reproductive functions when we study reproductive system. Endocrine-Glands.ppt 39
  38. 38.  Suspended in third ventricle from diencephalon  Melatonin ◦ ? Inhibits early puberty ◦ ? Day/night cycles  Timing of sleep, body temperature, appetite 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt 40
  39. 39.  = “Thymus gland”  Thymopoietins, thymic factor, thymosins ◦ Influence development of T lymphocytes 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt 41
  40. 40.  Stomach (gastrointestinal hormones)  Heart  ANP(Atrial natriuretic peptide)  Kidneys  erythropoietin  Adipose tissue  leptin  Skin  cholecalciferol (vit. D precursor)  Placenta  progesterone 09 Jan. 2013Endocrine-Glands.ppt 42
  41. 41.  Growth  Healing  Water balance & Blood Pressure  Calcium Metabolism  Energy Metabolism  Stress  Regulation of other Endocrine Organs

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