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Unit ii Process Planning

Asha A
Asha A

Dr. A. Asha Professor/Mechanical Engineering Kamaraj College of Engineering & Technology

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UNIT II
PROCESS PLANNING
By
Dr. A. Asha
Professor/Mechanial Engineering
Kamaraj College of Engineering &
Technology
PROCESS PLANNING
 According to the American Society of
Tool and Manufacturing Engineers
“ Process Planning is the systematic
determination of the methods by which
a product is to be manufactured
economically and competitively”
OBJECTIVES
 To prepare a set of instructions that
describes how to manufacture the
product and its parts.
 To prepare a detailed specification
which lists the operations, tools and
facilities
 The prepare the functional
requirements of the product, quantity,
tools and equipment, and eventually
the cost for manufacture.
OVERALLDEVELOPMENTSOFPROCESSING
PLANS
PROCESS PLANNING ACTIVITIES
Analyze the Part Requirements
Determine the Operation
Sequence
Select the necessary
equipment
Calculate the Processing time
Document Process Planning
Communicate
Mfg. engr. Shop
ANALYSE FINISHED PART
REQUIREMENTS
 To analyze the finished part
requirements as specified in the
engineering design.
 The engineering design may be
shown as a drawing or CAD model
format.
 Based on the feature, dimensions and
tolerance specifications the
corresponding processing
requirements are identified.

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Unit ii Process Planning

  • 1. UNIT II PROCESS PLANNING By Dr. A. Asha Professor/Mechanial Engineering Kamaraj College of Engineering & Technology
  • 2. PROCESS PLANNING  According to the American Society of Tool and Manufacturing Engineers “ Process Planning is the systematic determination of the methods by which a product is to be manufactured economically and competitively”
  • 3. OBJECTIVES  To prepare a set of instructions that describes how to manufacture the product and its parts.  To prepare a detailed specification which lists the operations, tools and facilities  The prepare the functional requirements of the product, quantity, tools and equipment, and eventually the cost for manufacture.
  • 5. PROCESS PLANNING ACTIVITIES Analyze the Part Requirements Determine the Operation Sequence Select the necessary equipment Calculate the Processing time Document Process Planning Communicate Mfg. engr. Shop
  • 6. ANALYSE FINISHED PART REQUIREMENTS  To analyze the finished part requirements as specified in the engineering design.  The engineering design may be shown as a drawing or CAD model format.  Based on the feature, dimensions and tolerance specifications the corresponding processing requirements are identified.
  • 7. DETERMINE THE OPERATING SEQUENCE  To determine the type of processing operation that has the capability to generate the various types of features based on the tolerance.  Two alternative ways of viewing the decision (a) As a conventional production shop, material is removed or modified on the rough part in stages in order to convert it to the finished part
  • 8. DETERMINE THE OPERATING SEQUENCE  (b) The reverse of the first case Finished part Rough part Here the material is added onto the part.
  • 9. SELECT MACHINE  Economic considerations  Production rate and unit cost of production  Durability and dependability  Lower process rejection  Minimum set up times  Longer productive life of machines.  Functional versatility
  • 10. MATERIAL SELECTION PROCEDURE  Function : Material must perform in terms of mechanical, physical, electrical and thermal properties.  Appearance : The aesthetic value of the material must be considered.  Reliability: Increasing consumer demands for trouble free products  Service Life : The length of the service life over which a material retains its characteristics.
  • 11. MATERIAL SELECTION PROCEDURE  Environment : The material should sustain the environmental conditions whether it is beneficial or harmful.  Compatibility: When more than one material is used in a product or assembly.  Producibility : Material should be able to be used for which it is intended to  Cost : The cost of the material should
  • 12. CALCULATE PROCESSING TIMES  Calculate the set up times and cycle times.  Set up time is calculated based on the available tooling and sequence of steps.  The processing time based on the sequence of operations is calculated  Part loading and part unloading time is calculated.  Standard cycle time = set up time + processing time + part loading + Part unloading + allowances  Standard cost calculated for the given part
  • 14. ROUTE SHEET  Part identification  Description of the processing steps in each operation.  Operation sequence and machines  Standard set up time and cycle times  Tooling requirements  Production control information showing the planning, lead time at each operation.
  • 15. REASONS FOR DOCUMENTATION  To have a record on how a part is processed in order to plan future parts with similar design requirements  To provide a record for future job quoting, cost estimating and standard costing systems  To act as a means for communication
  • 16. COMMUNICATE  Communicate the manufacturing knowledge to the shop floor.  To ensure that the route sheet is followed properly.  To maintain quality in manufacturing.
  • 17. APPROACHES TO PROCESS PLANNING  MANUAL PROCESS PLANNING  COMPUTER AIDED PROCESS PLANNING (CAPP) (a) Retrieval type (b) Generative type
  • 18. MANUAL PROCESS PLANNING  Examining and interpreting the drawings  Making decisions on machining process selection.  Equipment selection, tools etc.  Dependent on the skill and judgment of the process planner.  Different planners may produce different process plans.
  • 19. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES ADVANTAGES :  Used for small scale industries where there only few processes involved.  Highly flexible  Low investment costs DISADVANTAGES :  Time consuming involving large amount of data.  Skilled process planner  Human error  Increases paper work  Inconsistent process plans result in lower productivity
  • 20. CAPP  Reduces routine clerical work  Generates rational, consistent and optimal plans  Interfaces CAD and CAM.
  • 22. RETRIEVAL CAPP  Idea behind retrieval CAPP is that similar parts have similar process plans.  Based on the principle of group technology.  Parts classified and coding.  For each part family a standard process plan (route sheet) is prepared and stored in computer.
  • 23. RETRIEVAL CAPP  Code number is generated for each part family.  When needed for a new part the standard plans are retrieved and edited for a new part.
  • 24. ADVANTAGES& DISADVANTAGES Advantages :  Using a standard plan a variety of new parts can be planned.  Simple programming  Easy to understand and implement.  User friendly. Disadvantages :  Experienced process planners are required to modify the standard plan. (Multi CAPP, MIPLAN)  The components to be planned are limited in number
  • 25. GENERATIVE CAPP  Generates the process plans based on the decision logic and pre coded algorithms.  The computer stores the rules of manufacturing and equipment capability.  A Specific process plan for a specific part can be generated without the involvement of a process planner.  The human role includes (a) Input the GT codes for the part
  • 26. COMPONENTS OF A GENERATIVE CAPP  A part description : identifies series of component characteristics, including geometric features.  Machining Parameters : To decide the cutting parameters.  Select and Sequence individual operations : Decision logic and Decision trees, algorithms are used to calculate the sequence and operation times
  • 27. COMPONENTS OF A GENERATIVE CAPP  Data base : Available machines and tooling  Report Generator : Prepares the process plan reports
  • 28. ADVANTAGES & DISADVANTAGES  Advantages : (1) Consistent process plans (2) New components can be planned easily. (3) Automation is easy because it gives a detailed control information.  Disadvantages : (1) Complex and very difficult to develop  Software's used : CMPP, EXCAP XPLAN