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ME 2402 – COMPUTER INTEGRATED
MANUFACTURING (CIM)
YEAR/SEMESTER : IV/VII
UNIT III – GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CAPP
Prepared By
MANIMARAN.M
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR
K.RAMAKRISHNAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
TRICHY 1/25/2016 1M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY
UNIT III GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CAPP
History Of Group Technology – role of G.T in CAD/CAM Integration –
part families classification and coding – DCLASS and MCLASS and
OPTIZ coding systems – facility design using G.T – benefits of G.T –
cellular manufacturing. Process planning - role of process planning in
CAD/CAM Integration – approaches to computer aided process
planning – variant approach and generative approaches – CAPP and
CMPP systems.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 2
GROUP TECHNOLOGY (GT)
 GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are
identified & grouped together to make advantage of their similarities
in design and production.
 Similar parts bare arranged into part families, where each part family
possesses similar design and/or manufacturing characteristics.
 Grouping the production equipment into machine cells, where each
cell specializes in the production of a part family, is called cellular
manufacturing
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 3
History of GT
• 1925 – F.W.Taylor need for standardization, inspection and supervision
• 1925 – R.Flanders presented a paper in ASME about organisationing
manufacturing, USA.
• 1937 – A.sokolovskiy essential features of GT at Soviety Union
• 1949 – A.korling of Sweden presented a paper in paris “Group Productiion”
• 1959 – S.P Mitrofanov a Russian, Published a book entitled “Scientific Principal of
GT”
• 1960 – west german and Great Britain started serios studies about GT technology
H.opitz german researcher, studied work parts manufactured and coding
system
• 1963 – Concept of GT is well recognized and widely applied in many industries
• 1990 – concepts of CMS involved
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 4
Implementing Group Technology (GT)
1. Identifying the part families If the plant makes 10,000 different
parts, reviewing all of the part drawings and grouping the parts
into families is a substantial task that consumes a significant
amount of time.
2. Rearranging production machines into cells It is time
consuming and costly to plan and accomplish this rearrangement,
and the machines are not producing during the change over.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 5
Part Families
• Part family - Group of similar parts
• Machine cell - Group of machineries used to process an
individual part family
• Part family is a Collection of parts that are similar either
because of geometric shape and size or because similar
processing steps are required in their manufacture.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 6
Part Families
Similar prismatic parts requiring similar milling operations
Dissimilar parts requiring similar machining operations (hole drilling, surface
milling
Identical designed parts requiring completely
different manufacturing processes
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 7
• One of the important manufacturing advantages of grouping work
parts into families can be explained with reference to figures below
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 8
METHODS FOR PART FAMILY
There are three general methods for solving part families grouping. All
the three are time consuming and involve the analysis of much of data
by properly trained personnel. The three methods are:
 Visual inspection.
 Parts classification and coding.
 Production flow analysis.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 9
Visual Inspection Method
• The visual inspection method is the least sophisticated and least expensive method.
• It involves the classification of parts into families by looking at either the physical parts or their
photographs and arranging them into groups having similar features.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 10
Parts Classification and Coding Method
• In parts classification and coding, similarities among parts are identified, and these
similarities are related in a coding system.
• Two categories of part similarities can be distinguished:
1. Design attributes, which concerned with part characteristics such as geometry,
size and material. (Basic external and internal shape Rotational or rectangular
shape, L/D ratio, Aspect ratio, Dimensions and Tolerances)
2. Manufacturing attributes, which consider the sequence of processing steps
required to make a part.(Major processes, Minor operations, Operation sequence,
Dimension, Surface finish, Machine tool Production cycle time)
• There are three basic code structures used in group technology
– Monocode or hierarchical code
– Polycode or attribute
– Hybrid or mixed code1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 11
Monocode or Hierarchical code
In which the interpretation of each successive symbol depends on the
value of the preceding symbols.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 12
Polycode or Attribute Code
• In which the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is always the
same, it does not depend on the value of the preceding symbols.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 13
Hybrid or Decision Code
• Construction to combine the best features of monocodes and
polycodes
• Best examples of a hybrid code is the opitz code and classification
system
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 14
OpitzClassificationSystem (H.opitz university of Aachen in Germany)
Form Code 1 2 3 4 5 for design attributes
Supplementary Code 6 7 8 9 for manufacturing attributes
Secondary Code A B C D for production operation type & sequence
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 15
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 16
Example: Optiz part coding System
• Given the rotational part design below, determine the form code in the Optiz parts
classification and coding system.
Solution
• Length-to-diameter ratio: L/D = 1.5 Digit 1 = 1
• External shape: both ends stepped with screw thread on one end Digit 2 = 5
• Internal shape: part contains a through hole Digit 3 = 1
• Plane surface machining: none Digit 4 = 0
• Auxiliary holes, gear teeth, etc.: none Digit 5 = 0
The form code in the Optiz system is 151001/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 17
MICLASS System
• It stands for Metal Institute Classification system and developed by Netherlands
Organization for Applied Scientific research. It is referred as Multiclass system.
• MICLASS classification range from 1 to 30 digits. Universal code the first 12 digits
code and next 18 digits are Supplementary code
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 18
DCLASS Coding system
DCLASS Stands for Design and Classification Information System It was
developed at Brigham Young University
The DCLASS part family code is comprised of eight digits partitioned into
five code segments
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 19
Production Flow Analysis (PFA)
• Production flow analysis (PFA) is a method for identifying part families and
associated machine groupings that uses the information contained on process plans
rather than on part drawings.
• Steps involved in PFA
 Data collection
 Sortation of process routings
 Preparation of a PFA chart and
 Cluster analysis1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 20
Production Flow Analysis (PFA)
• The procedure of Production flow analysis (PFA) consists of the following steps:
1. Data Collection. The minimum data needed in the analysis are the part number and operation
sequence, which is obtained from process plans.
2. Sortation of process plans A sortation procedure is used to group parts with identical process
plans.
3. PFA Chart The processes used for each group are then displayed in a PFA chart as shown
below.
4. Clustering Analysis From the pattern of data in the PFA chart, related groupings are identified
and rearranged into a new pattern that brings together groups with similar machine sequences.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 21
Part ‘Number’
MachineID
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1 1
2 1 1
3 1 1
4 1 1 1
5 1 1 1
Example #1
Consider a problem of 5 machines and 6 parts. Try to group them by using
Rank Order Clustering Algorithm.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 22
Step 1:
Part Numbers
Decimal
equivalent
Rank
MachineID 1 2 3 4 5 6
B.
Wt:
25 24 23 22 21 20
1 1 1 23+21 = 10 5
2 1 1 24+23 = 24 4
3 1 1 25+22=36 2
4 1 1 1
24+23+21 =
26
3
5 1 1 1 25+22+20=37 1
Step 2: Must Reorder!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 23
Step 2:
Part Number
1 2 3 4 5 6
MachineID 5 1 1 1
3 1 1
4 1 1 1
2 1 1
1 1 1
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 24
Step 3:
Part Number
B. WT. 1 2 3 4 5 6
MachineID
5 24 1 1 1
3 23 1 1
4 22 1 1 1
2 21 1 1
1 20 1 1
Decimal
equivalent
24+23
= 24
22+21=
6
22+21+
20=7
24+23=
24
22+20=
5
24=16
Rank 1 5 4 2 6 3
Step 4: Must Reorder1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 25
Back at Step 1:
Part Number D. Eqv Rank
1 4 6 3 2 5
B Wt: 25 24 23 22 21 20
5 1 1 1 25+24+ 23=56 1
3 1 1 25+24= 48 2
4 1 1 1 22+21+ 20 = 7 3
2 1 1 22+21=6 4
1 1 1 22+20=5 5
Order stays the same: STOP!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 26
Plant layout using GT
The objective of the plant layout, refers to the physical arrangement that
most economically meets the required output quantity and quality.
There are basic ways to arrange the machines in shop
Line (or) product layout
Functional (or) process layout
Group (or) combination layout
T D M S G
M T D T G
D M M S T
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 27
Functional (or) process layout
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 28
Group (or) Combination Layout
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 29
BENEFITS OF GT
 Engineering Design
 Tooling and setups
 Materials and Handling
 Production and Inventory control
 Process planning
 Management and employees
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 30
Cellular Manufacturing
Application of group technology in which dissimilar machines or processes
are aggregated into cells, each of which is dedicated to the production of a
part family or limited group of families
Typical objectives of cellular manufacturing:
 To shorten manufacturing lead times
 To reduce WIP
 To improve quality
 To simplify production scheduling
 To reduce setup times
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 31
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 32
Rank Order Clustering Algorithm (ROC)
Rank Order Clustering Algorithm is a simple algorithm used to form machine-part
groups.
Step 0: Total number of components and components sequence
Step 1: Form the machine-component incidence matrix using the component
sequences.
Step 2: Assign binary weight and calculate a decimal weight for each row.
Step 3: Rank the rows in order of decreasing decimal weight values.
Step 4: Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each column.
Step 5: Continue preceding steps until there is no change in the position of each
element in the row and the column.1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 33
Component (j)
Machines(i)
1 2 3 4 5 6
1 1 1
2 1 1
3 1 1
4 1 1 1
5 1 1 1
Example #1
Consider a problem of 5 machines and 6 parts. Try to group them by using
Rank Order Clustering Algorithm.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 34
Step 1:
Component (j)
Decimal
equivalent
Rank
Machines(i) 1 2 3 4 5 6
B.
Wt:
25 24 23 22 21 20
1 1 1 23+21 = 10 5
2 1 1 24+23 = 24 4
3 1 1 25+22=36 2
4 1 1 1
24+23+21 =
26
3
5 1 1 1 25+22+20=37 1
Step 2: Must Reorder!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 35
Step 2:
Component (j)
1 2 3 4 5 6
Machines(i) 5 1 1 1
3 1 1
4 1 1 1
2 1 1
1 1 1
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 36
Step 3:
Component (j)
B. WT. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Machines(i)
5 24 1 1 1
3 23 1 1
4 22 1 1 1
2 21 1 1
1 20 1 1
Decimal
equivalent
24+23
= 24
22+21=
6
22+21+
20=7
24+23=
24
22+20=
5
24=16
Rank 1 5 4 2 6 3
Step 4: Must Reorder1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 37
Back at Step 1:
Component (j) D. Eqv Rank
1 4 6 3 2 5
B Wt: 25 24 23 22 21 20Machines(i)
5 1 1 1 25+24+ 23=56 1
3 1 1 25+24= 48 2
4 1 1 1 22+21+ 20 = 7 3
2 1 1 22+21=6 4
1 1 1 22+20=5 5
Order stays the same: STOP!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 38
Clustering Methods
• Using Process Similarity methods:
• Create Machine – Part Matrices
• Compute machine ‘pair-wise’ similarity Coefficient comparisons:
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 39
DefiningProcessplanning
• Process planning can be defined as the systematic determination of the detailed methods by
which work pieces or parts can be manufactured economically and competitively from initial
stages (raw material form) to finished stages (desired form). The activity of developing such
a plan is called process planning.
Initial FormFinal Form
• Geometrical features, dimensional sizes, tolerances, materials, and surface finishes are
analyzed and evaluated to determine an appropriate sequence of processing operations.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 40
Process Planning Steps
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 41
Responsibilities of Process Planning
• Part print analysis and symbols
• Gathering the fundamental details of product design
• Selecting the machining processes
• Selecting proper machining tool
• Sequencing the operations
• Deciding on the inspection equipment
• Determining appropriate production tolerances
• Proper cutting tools and cutting conditions
• Calculating the overall times using work measurement techniques1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 42
PROCESS PLANNING ACTIVITES
ANALYSIS (part requirements)
DETERMINE (operation sequence)
SELECTION OF MACHINES (equipment)
CALCULATE (processing times)
DOCUMENT (process planning)
COMMUNICATION (mfg. engr. To shop floor)1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 43
Role of Process Planningin CAD/CAM Integration
Process Planning In Product Cycle
• Process planning acts as a bridge between design and manufacturing.
• If the design of the product has evolved, its manufacturing necessitates careful
planning and scheduling of the various processes of manufacture.
• The cycle from concept to design, planning, production, quality control and
feedback to design goes on in which one can easily understand the crucial role
of planning.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 44
Role of Process Planningin CAD/CAM Integration
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 45
Manual process planning
AdvantagesofMPP
Very much suitable for small scale company
Low investment cost
DisadvantagesofMPP
Skilled process planner
Very complex and time consuming job
More possibilities for human error
Increases paper work
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 46
Computer Aided Process Planning
• Process rationalization and standardisation
• Productivity improvement
• Product cost reduction
• Elimination of human error
• Reduction in time
• Reduced paper work
• Faster response
• Improved legibility
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 47
Approaches to CAPP
Types of Approaches
• Variant Approach - Computer search for existing or similar process
plans of similar part families using codes, retrieves and then edit
according to new process sequence.
• Generative Approach - Computer generates new process plan every
time when a new plan is needed.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 48
Data Input to CAPP
• Generally the geometric model of the part is the input for the process planning
system.
• The input to the process planning system may be engineering drawing or CAD
model.
The other prerequisites for process planning are given below:
- Parts list
- Annual demand/batch size
- Accuracy and surface finish requirement (CAD Database)
- Equipment details (Work centre Database)
- Data on cutting fluids, tools, jigs & fixtures, gauges
- Standard stock sizes
- Machining data, data on handling and setup1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 49
Variant or Retrieval Approaches to CAPP
Part
Description GT Code Process Plan
Retrieve/Edit
New
Process Plan
Master Plans
Database
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 50
Retrieval CAPP system
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 51
Variant CAPP Examples
System name Company Part data IP Decision logic Planning functions
CUTPLAN Metcut Code
Standard plans and
decision tree
Process sequence
Materials
Machines
Tools and Fixtures
CAPP CAM-I Code Standard plans
Process sequence
DCLASS CAM lab BYU
Intractive Part
Description
Decision Tree
Process sequence
Materials
Machines
Tools and Fixtures
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 52
Advantages / Disadvantages of Variant type CAPP
Advantages
• Reduction of time and labour requirement.
• Processing and evaluation of complicated activities and managerial issues are done in
an efficient manner.
• Structuring manufacturing knowledge of the process plans to company’s needs
through standardized procedures.
Disadvantages
• Difficult to maintain consistency during editing.
• Proper accommodation of various combinations of attributes such as material,
geometry, size, precision, quality, alternate processing sequence and machine loading
among many other factors are difficult.
• Quality is dependent on knowledge and skill of planner.1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 53
Generative Approaches to CAPP
Part
Descriptive
System
New
Process Plan
Process Plan
Logic
Machine
Tool
Cutting
Tool
Jigs &
Fixtures Material
Manufacturing Database
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 54
Generative CAPP Examples
• APPAS
• CADAM
• BYUPLAN
• GENPLAN
• PROPLAN
MERITS AND DEMERTIS
• New components can be planned easily as existing components
• Drawbacks is complex and very difficult to develop1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 55
Computer Managed Process Planning (CMPP)
 It is a generative system capable of automatically making process
decisions.
 An extensive interactive capability is provided which permits the use to
examine and modify a process plan as it is developed.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 56
CMPP System Overview
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 57
Computerized Manufacturing Process Planning (CMPP)
Turning
Operations
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 58
IMPORTANT QUESTIONS
1. Define Group Technology and its role in CAD/CAM Integration.
2. What is Part Families Classification And Coding?
3. Explain – DCLASS / MCLASS with suitable examples.
4. Explain OPTIZ Coding Systems with illustrations.
5. Explain facility design using G.T and its benefits of GT.
6. Define Cellular Manufacturing.
7. What is Process Planning and explain its role Of Process Planning in CAD/CAM Integration.
8. What are the types/approaches to CAPP? Explain Variant or Retrieval Approach / Generative
Approaches
9. Compare and contrast CAPP And CMPP Systems.
1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 59

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GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CAPP

  • 1. ME 2402 – COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING (CIM) YEAR/SEMESTER : IV/VII UNIT III – GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CAPP Prepared By MANIMARAN.M ASSISTANT PROFESSOR K.RAMAKRISHNAN COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING TRICHY 1/25/2016 1M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY
  • 2. UNIT III GROUP TECHNOLOGY AND CAPP History Of Group Technology – role of G.T in CAD/CAM Integration – part families classification and coding – DCLASS and MCLASS and OPTIZ coding systems – facility design using G.T – benefits of G.T – cellular manufacturing. Process planning - role of process planning in CAD/CAM Integration – approaches to computer aided process planning – variant approach and generative approaches – CAPP and CMPP systems. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 2
  • 3. GROUP TECHNOLOGY (GT)  GT is a manufacturing philosophy in which similar parts are identified & grouped together to make advantage of their similarities in design and production.  Similar parts bare arranged into part families, where each part family possesses similar design and/or manufacturing characteristics.  Grouping the production equipment into machine cells, where each cell specializes in the production of a part family, is called cellular manufacturing 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 3
  • 4. History of GT • 1925 – F.W.Taylor need for standardization, inspection and supervision • 1925 – R.Flanders presented a paper in ASME about organisationing manufacturing, USA. • 1937 – A.sokolovskiy essential features of GT at Soviety Union • 1949 – A.korling of Sweden presented a paper in paris “Group Productiion” • 1959 – S.P Mitrofanov a Russian, Published a book entitled “Scientific Principal of GT” • 1960 – west german and Great Britain started serios studies about GT technology H.opitz german researcher, studied work parts manufactured and coding system • 1963 – Concept of GT is well recognized and widely applied in many industries • 1990 – concepts of CMS involved 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 4
  • 5. Implementing Group Technology (GT) 1. Identifying the part families If the plant makes 10,000 different parts, reviewing all of the part drawings and grouping the parts into families is a substantial task that consumes a significant amount of time. 2. Rearranging production machines into cells It is time consuming and costly to plan and accomplish this rearrangement, and the machines are not producing during the change over. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 5
  • 6. Part Families • Part family - Group of similar parts • Machine cell - Group of machineries used to process an individual part family • Part family is a Collection of parts that are similar either because of geometric shape and size or because similar processing steps are required in their manufacture. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 6
  • 7. Part Families Similar prismatic parts requiring similar milling operations Dissimilar parts requiring similar machining operations (hole drilling, surface milling Identical designed parts requiring completely different manufacturing processes 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 7
  • 8. • One of the important manufacturing advantages of grouping work parts into families can be explained with reference to figures below 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 8
  • 9. METHODS FOR PART FAMILY There are three general methods for solving part families grouping. All the three are time consuming and involve the analysis of much of data by properly trained personnel. The three methods are:  Visual inspection.  Parts classification and coding.  Production flow analysis. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 9
  • 10. Visual Inspection Method • The visual inspection method is the least sophisticated and least expensive method. • It involves the classification of parts into families by looking at either the physical parts or their photographs and arranging them into groups having similar features. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 10
  • 11. Parts Classification and Coding Method • In parts classification and coding, similarities among parts are identified, and these similarities are related in a coding system. • Two categories of part similarities can be distinguished: 1. Design attributes, which concerned with part characteristics such as geometry, size and material. (Basic external and internal shape Rotational or rectangular shape, L/D ratio, Aspect ratio, Dimensions and Tolerances) 2. Manufacturing attributes, which consider the sequence of processing steps required to make a part.(Major processes, Minor operations, Operation sequence, Dimension, Surface finish, Machine tool Production cycle time) • There are three basic code structures used in group technology – Monocode or hierarchical code – Polycode or attribute – Hybrid or mixed code1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 11
  • 12. Monocode or Hierarchical code In which the interpretation of each successive symbol depends on the value of the preceding symbols. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 12
  • 13. Polycode or Attribute Code • In which the interpretation of each symbol in the sequence is always the same, it does not depend on the value of the preceding symbols. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 13
  • 14. Hybrid or Decision Code • Construction to combine the best features of monocodes and polycodes • Best examples of a hybrid code is the opitz code and classification system 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 14
  • 15. OpitzClassificationSystem (H.opitz university of Aachen in Germany) Form Code 1 2 3 4 5 for design attributes Supplementary Code 6 7 8 9 for manufacturing attributes Secondary Code A B C D for production operation type & sequence 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 15
  • 17. Example: Optiz part coding System • Given the rotational part design below, determine the form code in the Optiz parts classification and coding system. Solution • Length-to-diameter ratio: L/D = 1.5 Digit 1 = 1 • External shape: both ends stepped with screw thread on one end Digit 2 = 5 • Internal shape: part contains a through hole Digit 3 = 1 • Plane surface machining: none Digit 4 = 0 • Auxiliary holes, gear teeth, etc.: none Digit 5 = 0 The form code in the Optiz system is 151001/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 17
  • 18. MICLASS System • It stands for Metal Institute Classification system and developed by Netherlands Organization for Applied Scientific research. It is referred as Multiclass system. • MICLASS classification range from 1 to 30 digits. Universal code the first 12 digits code and next 18 digits are Supplementary code 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 18
  • 19. DCLASS Coding system DCLASS Stands for Design and Classification Information System It was developed at Brigham Young University The DCLASS part family code is comprised of eight digits partitioned into five code segments 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 19
  • 20. Production Flow Analysis (PFA) • Production flow analysis (PFA) is a method for identifying part families and associated machine groupings that uses the information contained on process plans rather than on part drawings. • Steps involved in PFA  Data collection  Sortation of process routings  Preparation of a PFA chart and  Cluster analysis1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 20
  • 21. Production Flow Analysis (PFA) • The procedure of Production flow analysis (PFA) consists of the following steps: 1. Data Collection. The minimum data needed in the analysis are the part number and operation sequence, which is obtained from process plans. 2. Sortation of process plans A sortation procedure is used to group parts with identical process plans. 3. PFA Chart The processes used for each group are then displayed in a PFA chart as shown below. 4. Clustering Analysis From the pattern of data in the PFA chart, related groupings are identified and rearranged into a new pattern that brings together groups with similar machine sequences. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 21
  • 22. Part ‘Number’ MachineID 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 Example #1 Consider a problem of 5 machines and 6 parts. Try to group them by using Rank Order Clustering Algorithm. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 22
  • 23. Step 1: Part Numbers Decimal equivalent Rank MachineID 1 2 3 4 5 6 B. Wt: 25 24 23 22 21 20 1 1 1 23+21 = 10 5 2 1 1 24+23 = 24 4 3 1 1 25+22=36 2 4 1 1 1 24+23+21 = 26 3 5 1 1 1 25+22+20=37 1 Step 2: Must Reorder!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 23
  • 24. Step 2: Part Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 MachineID 5 1 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 24
  • 25. Step 3: Part Number B. WT. 1 2 3 4 5 6 MachineID 5 24 1 1 1 3 23 1 1 4 22 1 1 1 2 21 1 1 1 20 1 1 Decimal equivalent 24+23 = 24 22+21= 6 22+21+ 20=7 24+23= 24 22+20= 5 24=16 Rank 1 5 4 2 6 3 Step 4: Must Reorder1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 25
  • 26. Back at Step 1: Part Number D. Eqv Rank 1 4 6 3 2 5 B Wt: 25 24 23 22 21 20 5 1 1 1 25+24+ 23=56 1 3 1 1 25+24= 48 2 4 1 1 1 22+21+ 20 = 7 3 2 1 1 22+21=6 4 1 1 1 22+20=5 5 Order stays the same: STOP!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 26
  • 27. Plant layout using GT The objective of the plant layout, refers to the physical arrangement that most economically meets the required output quantity and quality. There are basic ways to arrange the machines in shop Line (or) product layout Functional (or) process layout Group (or) combination layout T D M S G M T D T G D M M S T 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 27
  • 28. Functional (or) process layout 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 28
  • 29. Group (or) Combination Layout 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 29
  • 30. BENEFITS OF GT  Engineering Design  Tooling and setups  Materials and Handling  Production and Inventory control  Process planning  Management and employees 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 30
  • 31. Cellular Manufacturing Application of group technology in which dissimilar machines or processes are aggregated into cells, each of which is dedicated to the production of a part family or limited group of families Typical objectives of cellular manufacturing:  To shorten manufacturing lead times  To reduce WIP  To improve quality  To simplify production scheduling  To reduce setup times 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 31
  • 33. Rank Order Clustering Algorithm (ROC) Rank Order Clustering Algorithm is a simple algorithm used to form machine-part groups. Step 0: Total number of components and components sequence Step 1: Form the machine-component incidence matrix using the component sequences. Step 2: Assign binary weight and calculate a decimal weight for each row. Step 3: Rank the rows in order of decreasing decimal weight values. Step 4: Repeat steps 2 and 3 for each column. Step 5: Continue preceding steps until there is no change in the position of each element in the row and the column.1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 33
  • 34. Component (j) Machines(i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 1 1 2 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 5 1 1 1 Example #1 Consider a problem of 5 machines and 6 parts. Try to group them by using Rank Order Clustering Algorithm. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 34
  • 35. Step 1: Component (j) Decimal equivalent Rank Machines(i) 1 2 3 4 5 6 B. Wt: 25 24 23 22 21 20 1 1 1 23+21 = 10 5 2 1 1 24+23 = 24 4 3 1 1 25+22=36 2 4 1 1 1 24+23+21 = 26 3 5 1 1 1 25+22+20=37 1 Step 2: Must Reorder!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 35
  • 36. Step 2: Component (j) 1 2 3 4 5 6 Machines(i) 5 1 1 1 3 1 1 4 1 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 36
  • 37. Step 3: Component (j) B. WT. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Machines(i) 5 24 1 1 1 3 23 1 1 4 22 1 1 1 2 21 1 1 1 20 1 1 Decimal equivalent 24+23 = 24 22+21= 6 22+21+ 20=7 24+23= 24 22+20= 5 24=16 Rank 1 5 4 2 6 3 Step 4: Must Reorder1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 37
  • 38. Back at Step 1: Component (j) D. Eqv Rank 1 4 6 3 2 5 B Wt: 25 24 23 22 21 20Machines(i) 5 1 1 1 25+24+ 23=56 1 3 1 1 25+24= 48 2 4 1 1 1 22+21+ 20 = 7 3 2 1 1 22+21=6 4 1 1 1 22+20=5 5 Order stays the same: STOP!1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 38
  • 39. Clustering Methods • Using Process Similarity methods: • Create Machine – Part Matrices • Compute machine ‘pair-wise’ similarity Coefficient comparisons: 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 39
  • 40. DefiningProcessplanning • Process planning can be defined as the systematic determination of the detailed methods by which work pieces or parts can be manufactured economically and competitively from initial stages (raw material form) to finished stages (desired form). The activity of developing such a plan is called process planning. Initial FormFinal Form • Geometrical features, dimensional sizes, tolerances, materials, and surface finishes are analyzed and evaluated to determine an appropriate sequence of processing operations. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 40
  • 41. Process Planning Steps 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 41
  • 42. Responsibilities of Process Planning • Part print analysis and symbols • Gathering the fundamental details of product design • Selecting the machining processes • Selecting proper machining tool • Sequencing the operations • Deciding on the inspection equipment • Determining appropriate production tolerances • Proper cutting tools and cutting conditions • Calculating the overall times using work measurement techniques1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 42
  • 43. PROCESS PLANNING ACTIVITES ANALYSIS (part requirements) DETERMINE (operation sequence) SELECTION OF MACHINES (equipment) CALCULATE (processing times) DOCUMENT (process planning) COMMUNICATION (mfg. engr. To shop floor)1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 43
  • 44. Role of Process Planningin CAD/CAM Integration Process Planning In Product Cycle • Process planning acts as a bridge between design and manufacturing. • If the design of the product has evolved, its manufacturing necessitates careful planning and scheduling of the various processes of manufacture. • The cycle from concept to design, planning, production, quality control and feedback to design goes on in which one can easily understand the crucial role of planning. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 44
  • 45. Role of Process Planningin CAD/CAM Integration 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 45
  • 46. Manual process planning AdvantagesofMPP Very much suitable for small scale company Low investment cost DisadvantagesofMPP Skilled process planner Very complex and time consuming job More possibilities for human error Increases paper work 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 46
  • 47. Computer Aided Process Planning • Process rationalization and standardisation • Productivity improvement • Product cost reduction • Elimination of human error • Reduction in time • Reduced paper work • Faster response • Improved legibility 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 47
  • 48. Approaches to CAPP Types of Approaches • Variant Approach - Computer search for existing or similar process plans of similar part families using codes, retrieves and then edit according to new process sequence. • Generative Approach - Computer generates new process plan every time when a new plan is needed. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 48
  • 49. Data Input to CAPP • Generally the geometric model of the part is the input for the process planning system. • The input to the process planning system may be engineering drawing or CAD model. The other prerequisites for process planning are given below: - Parts list - Annual demand/batch size - Accuracy and surface finish requirement (CAD Database) - Equipment details (Work centre Database) - Data on cutting fluids, tools, jigs & fixtures, gauges - Standard stock sizes - Machining data, data on handling and setup1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 49
  • 50. Variant or Retrieval Approaches to CAPP Part Description GT Code Process Plan Retrieve/Edit New Process Plan Master Plans Database 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 50
  • 51. Retrieval CAPP system 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 51
  • 52. Variant CAPP Examples System name Company Part data IP Decision logic Planning functions CUTPLAN Metcut Code Standard plans and decision tree Process sequence Materials Machines Tools and Fixtures CAPP CAM-I Code Standard plans Process sequence DCLASS CAM lab BYU Intractive Part Description Decision Tree Process sequence Materials Machines Tools and Fixtures 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 52
  • 53. Advantages / Disadvantages of Variant type CAPP Advantages • Reduction of time and labour requirement. • Processing and evaluation of complicated activities and managerial issues are done in an efficient manner. • Structuring manufacturing knowledge of the process plans to company’s needs through standardized procedures. Disadvantages • Difficult to maintain consistency during editing. • Proper accommodation of various combinations of attributes such as material, geometry, size, precision, quality, alternate processing sequence and machine loading among many other factors are difficult. • Quality is dependent on knowledge and skill of planner.1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 53
  • 54. Generative Approaches to CAPP Part Descriptive System New Process Plan Process Plan Logic Machine Tool Cutting Tool Jigs & Fixtures Material Manufacturing Database 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 54
  • 55. Generative CAPP Examples • APPAS • CADAM • BYUPLAN • GENPLAN • PROPLAN MERITS AND DEMERTIS • New components can be planned easily as existing components • Drawbacks is complex and very difficult to develop1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 55
  • 56. Computer Managed Process Planning (CMPP)  It is a generative system capable of automatically making process decisions.  An extensive interactive capability is provided which permits the use to examine and modify a process plan as it is developed. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 56
  • 57. CMPP System Overview 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 57
  • 58. Computerized Manufacturing Process Planning (CMPP) Turning Operations 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 58
  • 59. IMPORTANT QUESTIONS 1. Define Group Technology and its role in CAD/CAM Integration. 2. What is Part Families Classification And Coding? 3. Explain – DCLASS / MCLASS with suitable examples. 4. Explain OPTIZ Coding Systems with illustrations. 5. Explain facility design using G.T and its benefits of GT. 6. Define Cellular Manufacturing. 7. What is Process Planning and explain its role Of Process Planning in CAD/CAM Integration. 8. What are the types/approaches to CAPP? Explain Variant or Retrieval Approach / Generative Approaches 9. Compare and contrast CAPP And CMPP Systems. 1/25/2016 M.MANIMARAN KRCE TRICHY 59