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Elements of Factual-Nonfictional in Texts.pptx

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Elements of
Factual/Nonfictional
in Texts
It is beginning of the
story where characters,
setting, and the main
conflict are typically
introduced.
EXPOSITION
It is beginning of the story
where characters, setting,
and the main conflict are
typically introduced.
EXPOSITION
It is where the main character
is in crisis and events leading
up to facing the conflict begin
to unfold. Also, it is where the
story becomes complicated.
RISING
ACTION It is the peak of the story, it is where
major event occurs in which the main
character faces a major enemy, fear,
challenge, or other source of conflict.
The most action, drama, change, and
excitement occurs here.
CLIMAX
It is where the story begins to
slow down and work towards
its end, tying up loose ends.
FALLING ACTION
Also known as the denouement, the
resolution is like a concluding
paragraph that resolves any
remaining issues and ends the
story.
RESOLUTION
Elements of Factual/Nonfictional in Texts
A. Plot
A plot is the sequence of events that make up a story, it is either told, written, filmed, or sung. The plot is
the story, and more specifically, how the story is being developed, unfolds, and moves in time. Plots are
typically made up of five main elements:
Here are a few very short stories with sample plots:
Example 1
Kaitlin wants to buy a puppy. She goes to the pound and begins looking through the
cages for her future pet. At the end of the hallway, she sees a small, sweet brown
dog with a white spot on its nose. At that instant, she knows she wants to adopt
him. After he receives shots and a medical check, she and the dog, Berkley, go
home together.
In this example, the exposition introduces us to Kaitlin and her conflict. She wants a
puppy but does not have one. The rising action occurs as she enters the pound and
begins looking. The climax is when she sees the dog of her dreams and decides to
adopt him. The falling action consists of a quick medical check before the
resolution, or ending, when Kaitlin and Berkley happily head home.
Example 2
Scott wants to be on the football team, but he’s worried he won’t make
the team. He spends weeks working out as hard as possible,
preparing for try outs. At try outs, he amazes coaches with his skill as
a quarterback. They ask him to be their starting quarterback that year
and give him a jersey. Scott leaves the field, ecstatic!
The exposition introduces Scott and his conflict: he wants to be on the
team but he doubts his ability to make it. The rising action consists of
his training and try-out; the climax occurs when the coaches tell him
he’s been chosen to be quarterback. The falling action is when Scott
takes a jersey and the resolution is him leaving the try-outs as a new,
happy quarterback.
Each of these stories has
 an exposition as characters and conflicts are
introduced
 a rising action which brings the character to the
climax as conflicts are developed and faced, and
 a falling action and resolution as the story concludes.
Types of Plot
There are many types of plots in the world! But, realistically, most of them fit
some pattern that we can see in more than one story. Here are some classic plots
that can be seen in numerous stories all over the world and throughout history.
a. Overcoming the Monster
The protagonist must defeat a monster or force in order to save some people—
usually everybody! Most often, the protagonist is forced into this conflict, and comes
out of it as a hero, or even a king. This is one version of the world’s most universal
and compelling plot—the ‘monomyth’ described by the great thinker Joseph
Campbell.
Examples:
Beowulf, Harry Potter, and Star Wars.

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Elements of Factual-Nonfictional in Texts.pptx

  • 2. It is beginning of the story where characters, setting, and the main conflict are typically introduced. EXPOSITION It is beginning of the story where characters, setting, and the main conflict are typically introduced. EXPOSITION It is where the main character is in crisis and events leading up to facing the conflict begin to unfold. Also, it is where the story becomes complicated. RISING ACTION It is the peak of the story, it is where major event occurs in which the main character faces a major enemy, fear, challenge, or other source of conflict. The most action, drama, change, and excitement occurs here. CLIMAX It is where the story begins to slow down and work towards its end, tying up loose ends. FALLING ACTION Also known as the denouement, the resolution is like a concluding paragraph that resolves any remaining issues and ends the story. RESOLUTION Elements of Factual/Nonfictional in Texts A. Plot A plot is the sequence of events that make up a story, it is either told, written, filmed, or sung. The plot is the story, and more specifically, how the story is being developed, unfolds, and moves in time. Plots are typically made up of five main elements:
  • 3. Here are a few very short stories with sample plots: Example 1 Kaitlin wants to buy a puppy. She goes to the pound and begins looking through the cages for her future pet. At the end of the hallway, she sees a small, sweet brown dog with a white spot on its nose. At that instant, she knows she wants to adopt him. After he receives shots and a medical check, she and the dog, Berkley, go home together. In this example, the exposition introduces us to Kaitlin and her conflict. She wants a puppy but does not have one. The rising action occurs as she enters the pound and begins looking. The climax is when she sees the dog of her dreams and decides to adopt him. The falling action consists of a quick medical check before the resolution, or ending, when Kaitlin and Berkley happily head home.
  • 4. Example 2 Scott wants to be on the football team, but he’s worried he won’t make the team. He spends weeks working out as hard as possible, preparing for try outs. At try outs, he amazes coaches with his skill as a quarterback. They ask him to be their starting quarterback that year and give him a jersey. Scott leaves the field, ecstatic! The exposition introduces Scott and his conflict: he wants to be on the team but he doubts his ability to make it. The rising action consists of his training and try-out; the climax occurs when the coaches tell him he’s been chosen to be quarterback. The falling action is when Scott takes a jersey and the resolution is him leaving the try-outs as a new, happy quarterback.
  • 5. Each of these stories has  an exposition as characters and conflicts are introduced  a rising action which brings the character to the climax as conflicts are developed and faced, and  a falling action and resolution as the story concludes.
  • 6. Types of Plot There are many types of plots in the world! But, realistically, most of them fit some pattern that we can see in more than one story. Here are some classic plots that can be seen in numerous stories all over the world and throughout history. a. Overcoming the Monster The protagonist must defeat a monster or force in order to save some people— usually everybody! Most often, the protagonist is forced into this conflict, and comes out of it as a hero, or even a king. This is one version of the world’s most universal and compelling plot—the ‘monomyth’ described by the great thinker Joseph Campbell. Examples: Beowulf, Harry Potter, and Star Wars.
  • 7. b. Rags to Riches: This story can begin with the protagonist being poor or rich, but at some point, the protagonist will have everything, lose everything, and then gain it all back by the end of the story, after experiencing great personal growth. Examples: The Count of Monte Cristo, Cinderella, and Jane Eyre. c. The Quest: The protagonist embarks on a quest involving travel and dangerous adventures in order to find treasure or solve a huge problem. Usually, the protagonist is forced to begin the quest but makes friends that help face the many tests and obstacles along the way. This is also a version of Campbell’s monomyth. Examples: The Iliad, The Lord of the Rings, and Eragon
  • 8. d. Voyage and Return: The protagonist goes on a journey to a strange or unknown place, facing danger and adventures along the way, returning home with experience and understanding. This is also a version of the monomyth. Examples: Alice in Wonderland, The Chronicles of Narnia, and The Wizard of Oz e. Comedy: A happy and fun character finds a happy ending after triumphing over difficulties and adversities. Examples: A Midsummer Night’s Dream, Fantastic Mr. Fox, Home Alone
  • 9. f. Tragedy: The protagonist experiences a conflict which leads to very bad ending, typically death. Examples: Romeo and Juliet, The Picture of Dorian Gray, and Macbeth g. Rebirth: The protagonist is a villain who becomes a good person through the experience of the story’s conflict. Examples: The Secret Garden, A Christmas Carol, The Grinch As these seven examples show, many stories follow a common pattern. In fact, according to many thinkers, such as the great novelist Kurt Vonnegut, and Joseph Campbell, there are only a few basic patterns, which are mixed and combined to form all stories.
  • 10. The Importance of Using Plot The plot is what makes a story a story. It gives the story character development, suspense, energy, and emotional release (also known as ‘catharsis’). It allows an author to develop themes and most importantly, conflict that makes a story emotionally engaging; everybody knows how hard it is to stop watching a movie before the conflict is resolved.
  • 11. Plots can be found in all kinds of fiction. Here are a few examples. Example 1 The Razor’s Edge by Somerset Maugham In The Razor’s Edge, Larry Darrell returns from World War I disillusioned. His fiancée, friends, and family urge him to find work, but he does not want to. He embarks on a voyage through Europe and Asia seeking higher truth. Finally, in Asia, he finds a more meaningful way of life. In this novel, the plot follows the protagonist Larry as he seeks meaningful experiences. The story begins with the exposition of a disillusioned young man who does not want to work. The rising action occurs as he travels seeking an education. The story climaxes when he becomes a man perfectly at peace in meditation.
  • 12. Example 2 The Road not Taken’ by Robert Frost Two roads diverged in a yellow wood, And sorry I could not travel both And be one traveler, long I stood And looked down one as far as I could Then took the other, as just as fair, And having perhaps the better claim And both that morning equally lay In leaves no step had trodden black. I shall be telling this with a sigh Somewhere ages and ages hence: Two roads diverged in a wood, and I, I took the one less traveled by, And that has made all the difference. Robert Frost’s famous poem “The Road Not Taken,” has a very clear plot: The exposition occurs when a man stands at the fork of two roads, his conflict being which road to take. The climax occurs when he chooses the unique path. The resolution announces that “that has made all the difference,” meaning the man has made a significant and meaningful decision.
  • 13. Plot Devices are ways of propelling the storyline to move forward. It serves to motivate the characters, creating urgency of resolving complicated situations. This however can be compared with moving a story forward using a dramatic method by making it happen since the character are capable of doing “well developed reasons”. Plot Outline is a narrative of a story that can be transformed into a film. It consists of a page with longer and detailed synopsis summarized into one or two paragraphs.
  • 14. B. Conflict are problems, issues, or situations that the character needs to resolve through time. Conflict is often expressed through the actions and dialogues of the character(s). Types of Conflict (1)One Character Against Another Conflict shows one character having a grievance against another character. (2)A Character or Group Against Society Conflict demonstrates a character who is against society’s values, ideas, norms, culture, and values. (3)A Character Against Nature Conflict reflects a character who is wrestling with natural disasters or calamities. (4)Character Against Himself or Herself Conflict illustrates the inner struggles and emotions of the character (wood, 2013).
  • 15. Theme pertains to the idea that philosophers deeply think or it is simply the subject of the story. Character A character is an individual (could be an object or animal but usually as a person) in a narrative in a work of fiction or creative nonfiction. The act or method of creating a character in writing is known as characterization. Characters perform actions, create dialogues, and can be seen through their physical appearance. “A character may provide background information, description, or an assessment of another character’s life or personality. However, be sure to filter out character’s bias (woods, 2013, p.142).
  • 16. Types of Characterization 1.Direct (Explicit) Characterization- informs the readers of what the character is like which can be deciphered through the narrator, or through how the characters behave, act, or speak. 2.Indirect (Implicit) Characterization – allows the readers to infer about the character’s thoughts, actions, conversations, physical appearance, idiosyncrasies, and workmanship or team play with other characters. The Character’s conversations will reflect his or her personality, determining whether the character is educated or not, the formality and informality of the situation.
  • 17. Point of view is the perspective from which a speaker or writer recounts a narrative or presents information. This is also known as a viewpoint. This depends on the topic, purpose, and audience. Writers of nonfiction may rely on the first-person point of view (I, we), the second-person (you, your, you're), or the third-person (he, she, it, they).
  • 18. With first-person point of view, the character is telling the story. You will see the words "I," "me," or "we" in first-person point of view. This point of view is commonly used for narratives and autobiographies. First-person point of view can be singular or plural. The singular form uses "I" or "me" and plural form uses the word "we." Both are used to give the writer's personal perspective. Some examples of first-person narrative include:  I always look forward to my summer vacation at the beach. I like to collect seashells and swim in the ocean.  We love walking the dogs in the woods. We all think it is so much fun.  If it was up to me, I would choose the white car. We didn't want to drive so we took the train to the city and back home
  • 19. When writing in second-person point of view, the writer has the narrator speaking to the reader. The words "you," "your," and "yours" are used in this point of view. Some common uses for second- person point of view are directions, business writing, technical writing, song lyrics, speeches, and advertising. Some examples of second-person point of view are:  In just a few simple steps you can make a big change in your life!  To make a great chili is you must season it early and often.  Management is very happy with the progress you are all making.  You gotta fight for your right to party! - "Fight for Your Right," Beastie Boys
  • 20. Third-person point of view has an external narrator telling the story. The words "he," "she," "it," or "they" are used in this point of view. This point of view can either be omniscient where the reader knows what all the characters are doing in the story or it can be limited to having the reader only know what is happening to one specific character. Third person can also be gender specific or neutral, singular or plural. Third-person point of view is often used in academic writing and fictional writing. Some examples of third person point of view:  He is a great football player. He scored the most touchdowns this season.  She was the one who knew all the answers on the test. She had the highest grade in the entire class.  What they told her was not the truth.  She heard a loud crash in the middle of the night. She was so scared that she didn't know what she should do next.
  • 21. Angle of the Story Angle is the precise way to choose on how to tell a story — it’s the element that sets your story apart from all the rest. In other words, a way of presenting your information and telling the story that makes it interesting, unique, and memorable. Angle can be opposite to the ending of the essay, it can be comparisons, or opposing point of views.
  • 22. black – evil or death ladder – connection between heaven and earth broken mirror – separation light – good, power dark – death, shadows night – end of road, peace, death or darkness day – beginning, good, opportunities red rose – love and romance dove – peace water – baptism, purification fire – danger, anger, passion, love, pain or death Symbols or Symbolism Symbols in literary writing is usually applied in poetry and each symbol signifies a meaning. When an author introduces a particular mood or emotion, the writer uses symbolism, hinting it rather than saying it literally. Some common types of symbols are: Symbolism is employed by writers to make the literary piece interesting and the ability of not giving the literal sense of the ideas or things. Likewise, an action, event, or exchange of words in a conversation may illicit symbolic values (Literary Devices).
  • 23. Irony Irony is the use of words to convey a meaning that is the opposite of its literal meaning. Irony is a storytelling tool used to create a contrast between how things seem and how they really are beneath the surface. The term comes from the Latin word ironia, which means “feigned ignorance.” The three main types used in literature are dramatic, situational, and verbal, as mentioned above. People often conflate irony with sarcasm, coincidence, or bad luck. While these concepts can have ironic characteristics, they’re not interchangeable with irony. So for example, if you run to catch the bus and miss it by two seconds, that’s not ironic — unless the reason you’re late is that you were bragging about how you wouldn’t miss the bus. This creates an unexpected and comic contrast to what would otherwise just be an unfortunate situation.
  • 24. Figures of Speech A figure of speech is a word or phrase that possesses a separate meaning from its literal definition. It can be metaphor or simile, designed to make a comparison. It can be the repetition of alliteration or the exaggeration of hyperbole to provide a dramatic effect.
  • 25. Types of Figure of Speech There are countless figures of speech in every language, and they fall into hundreds of categories. Here, though, is a short list of some of the most common types of figure of speech: A. Metaphor Many common figures of speech are metaphors. That is, they use words in a manner other than their literal meaning. However, metaphors use figurative language to make comparisons between unrelated things or ideas. The “peak of her career,” for example, is a metaphor, since a career is not a literal mountain with a peak, but the metaphor represents the idea of arriving at the highest point of one’s career.
  • 26. B. Idiom An idiom is a common phrase with a figurative meaning. Idioms are different from other figures of speech in that their figurative meanings are mostly known within a particular language, culture, or group of people. In fact, the English language alone has about 25,000 idioms. Some examples include “it’s raining cats and dogs” when it is raining hard, or “break a leg” when wishing someone good luck. Example This sentence uses an idiom to make it more interesting: There’s a supermarket and a pharmacy in the mall, so if we go there, we can kill two birds with one stone. The idiom is a common way of saying that two tasks can be completed in the same amount of time or same place.
  • 27. C. Proverb A proverb is a short, commonplace saying that is universally understood in today’s language and used to express general truths. “Don’t cry over spilt milk” is a popular example. Most proverbs employ metaphors (e.g. the proverb about milk isn’t literally about milk). Example This example uses a proverb to emphasize the situation: I know you think you’re going to sell all of those cookies, but don’t count your chickens before they hatch! Here, “don’t count your chickens before they hatch” means that you shouldn’t act like something has happened before it actually does.
  • 28. D. Simile A simile is a very common figure of speech that uses the words “like” and “as” to compare two things that are not related by definition. For example, “he is as tall as a mountain,” doesn’t mean he was actually 1,000 feet tall, it just means he was really tall. Example This example uses a simile for comparison: The internet is like a window to the world—you can learn about everything online! The common phrase “window to the world” refers to a hypothetical window that lets you see the whole world from it. So, saying the internet is like a window to the world implies that it lets you see anything and everything.
  • 29. E. Oxymoron An oxymoron is when you use two words together that have contradictory meanings. Some common examples include small crowd, definitely possible, old news, little giant, and so on. F. Metonym A metonym is a word or phrase that is used to represent something related to bigger meaning. For example, fleets are sometimes described as being “thirty sails strong,” meaning thirty (curiously, this metonym survives in some places, even when the ships in question are not sail-powered!) Similarly, the crew on board those ships may be described as “hands” rather than people.
  • 30. G. Irony Irony is when a word or phrase’s literal meaning is the opposite of its figurative meaning. Many times (but not always), irony is expressed with sarcasm (see Related Terms). For example, maybe you eat a really bad cookie, and then say “Wow, that was the best cookie I ever had”—of course, what you really mean is that it’s the worst cookie you ever had, but being ironic actually emphasizes just how bad it was
  • 31. Dialogue Dialogue is a written or spoken conversational exchange between two or more people, and a literary and theatrical form that depicts such an exchange. Dialogue, when used as a literary technique, helps to advance the plot of a narrative, as characters engage in dialogue to reveal plans of action and their inner thoughts and emotions. Sometimes, authors show us a character's inner dialogue where thoughts and feelings are revealed as the character has a conversation with him or herself. Often, we read outer dialogue, which occurs between two characters as spoken language. Other literary devices: (1)Hyperbole is a term for overstatement or exaggeration. (2)Understatement is exactly the opposite of hyperbole, when the writer tries to play down the significance, magnitude, or intensity of a situation or event. (3)Incongruity is a circumstance when something is out of proportion or strange situations knit together. (4)Irony is a position when there is “a gap between what is said and what is meant” (woods, 2013).
  • 32. Examples of Dialogue: "Lisa," said Kyle, "I need help moving this box of toys for the garage sale. Will you help me?" "Sure!" Lisa put her book down and moved to lift one end of the box for her brother. She glanced down into the box. "Hey!" she exclaimed. "You can't give away your Harry Potter collection!" "Well, I am not taking them to college with me." Kyle smiled at his little sister. "Do you want them?" "Yes!" Lisa smiled back. "I will read them all again, and it will remind me of how we used to pretend to be Harry and Hermione." "They are yours, Squirt." As Kyle smiled as his sister, he realized how much things would change in the next few days.
  • 33. Scene A scene is where the place and time where the action of the literary and factual narrative takes place. The word ‘scene’ has multiple literary definitions. On one hand, it is ‘A place or setting regarded as having a particular character or making a particular impression.’ (OED). When we talk of a scene as a unit of story structure, a scene is ‘A sequence of continuous action in a play, film, opera, or book’ (OED). It’s also ‘A representation of an incident, or the incident itself.’ (OED) How do these definitions combine? Scenes, individual story units smaller than chapters (but somewhat self-contained), show us sequences of actions and incidents that reveal place and time, characters’ actions, reactions or dilemmas. Scenes (in short fiction and novels, plays and films) serve several functions. They:  Move the story forward: They keep us engaged, asking ‘what happens next?’  Establish characters’ arcs or cause and effect. This links to the first point. For example, a scene might begin with a character missing a train. As a result, the character may be late for a meeting. The reader wonders what impact this small misfortune will have  Reveal consequences of earlier events. A subsequent scene following the missed train, for example, might show the consequences for the character when they are late for a crucial meeting  Make a story easier to follow. Scenes chunk what could be a narrative mess into digestible units of action and event. They allow us to play with how we release information to the reader (for example, a scene resolving an earlier subplot might only take place much later in a novel. As writers we can make some plot gratification instant and some delayed)