Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.

Radio Challenges and Opportunities for Large Scale Small Cell Deployments

469 views

Published on

Presentation by Iris Barcia of Keima at Cambridge Wireless Event on Small Cells, 3rd Oct. 2012. Details here: https://blog.3g4g.co.uk/2012/10/summary-of-cambridge-wireless-event-on.html

*** Shared with Permission ***

Published in: Technology
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

Radio Challenges and Opportunities for Large Scale Small Cell Deployments

  1. 1. Radio Challenges and Opportunities for Large Scale Small Cell Deployments Keima Wireless Small Cell SIG Event Cambridge, Oct 2012
  2. 2. Cell Planning 1947 to 1984 • “Mobile radiotelephones” first encounter interference effects in 1946. • The cellular concept1,2 invented c. 1946. • Cell planning is managing interference while we: – increase site numbers; and – shrink the reuse distance. 2 D.H. Ring, Bell Labs – Telephony – Wide Area Coverage, 11 December 1947 1 J.R. Brinkley – J.I.E.E. – 1946, 93, Part III, pp.159-166
  3. 3. 1947 “Cellular” Design in New York 8 km
  4. 4. Disruptive Events – Racal vs. BritishTelecom • The start of the macro era: • Cell Phones for the Masses… • The new Vodafone network was launched on 1st January 1985. The smaller company’s innovative approach to network planning allowed them to compete with the UK’s biggest company. • Vodafone became the largest mobile network …
  5. 5. 1984 • Predicted coverage, Guildford 1984 • Main input: terrain
  6. 6. Cell Planning since 1984 25 25 1600 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 Quantity of Spectrum Cell Spectrum Efficiency Number of Cells How do we provide capacity to match Cooper’s demand progression?
  7. 7. 1947 “Cellular” Design in New York 8 km
  8. 8. 2008 Macros 8 km
  9. 9. Disruptive Event - iPhone The growth of data demand has doubled Every 1 year A rate greater than Cooper’s predictions. Macros networks no longer effective. Reduction in the cell size => small cells
  10. 10. The “Super Cooper” Expansion Challenges 1 1984 & 2012: cell location is still the key factor 64 QAM 64 QAM 64 QAM Small Cell Size : 100m Macro Cell Size : 500m Wi-Fi AP Size : 40m QPSK
  11. 11. Quantisation Error • Cell Radius, R. • Quantisation1 ΔX < R/40 • So, if a cell is ~ 400 m, ΔX < 10 m. 1 Pete Bernardin and Kanagalu Manoj – IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, Vol 49, No. 5, 2000
  12. 12. • We need to model the environment to 1 m accuracy. Quantisation Type R ΔX Macro 500 m 12.5 m Small Cell 100 m 2.5 m Wi-Fi 40 m 1 m
  13. 13. Boston
  14. 14. Boston, raster clutter @ 25m
  15. 15. Boston, PV clutter @ 0.5 m
  16. 16. Boston
  17. 17. JFK Airport
  18. 18. JFK Airport
  19. 19. Demand estimates should take account of non uniformity. Techniques that cannot identify usage clustering at the scale of the cell radius will have limited use. The “Super Cooper” Expansion Challenges 2 Non Uniform Demand 64 QAM 64 QAM Clusters of demand
  20. 20. Clustering Accuracy • New small cells should be placed to coincide with areas of highest demand (e.g. hotspots) to maximise capacity. • Small cells have radii ~100 m which means their spectrally efficient 64-QAM zones are ~50 m or less. • Demand estimates should take account of non uniformity and be capable of resolving clustering accuracy <50 m. • Geotagged social data (Twitter, foursquare, …) use Wi-Fi assisted GPS for location accuracy (including indoors) ~ 20 m or less … • (And using the Bernadine rule, we must use 1 m quantisation to resolve such small demand clustering.)
  21. 21. 7 km Images generated in Overture by Keima Twitter London
  22. 22. 3 km Twitter London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  23. 23. 1.5 km Twitter London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  24. 24. 0.8 km Twitter London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  25. 25. 400 m High demand areas Twitter London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  26. 26. Demand is complex: Road users; Pedestrians; Residential; Business; Railroads; Etc.
  27. 27. 200 m Overall Demand (composite map) Images generated in Overture by Keima
  28. 28. 200 m Indoor Demand Images generated in Overture by Keima
  29. 29. 200 m Outdoor Demand Images generated in Overture by Keima
  30. 30. What is the deployment focus? Macro / outdoors, continuous coverage; Macro / high mobility demand, highways; Small cells / outdoors, hotspots; Small cells + Wi-Fi / offload, POIs; Etc 200 m Outdoor Demand with Small Cells (light blue) and Wi-Fi + Small Cells (dark blue) Images generated in Overture by Keima
  31. 31. Interference Continuum - Macro / Small Cell Power Difference Macros are 10 – 20 dB more powerful Distant macros can have a significant effect on small cells The “Super Cooper” Expansion Challenges 3 Interference It is important to deal with such an interference continuum by predicting the signal and interference across entire cities.
  32. 32. Interference continuum Images generated in Overture by Keima Boston 8 km
  33. 33. Boston Images generated in Overture by Keima 4 km
  34. 34. Boston Images generated in Overture by Keima 1 km
  35. 35. Boston Images generated in Overture by Keima
  36. 36. Boston Images generated in Overture by Keima 250 m
  37. 37. Boston Images generated in Overture by Keima 100 m
  38. 38. Combinatorial Explosion – Complex interplay of dependent objectives. The “Super Cooper” Expansion Challenges 4 Cell planners will have to consider for each new cell during future 100,000+ rollouts: Location, configuration and technology parameters; Backhaul proximity and wireless clearance; Rental costs; Latency; Etc.
  39. 39. 2012 N2012 ~ 290,000 Images generated in Overture by Keima Macros 500 km
  40. 40. 2015 N2015 ~ 600,000 Images generated in Overture by Keima Macros + Small Cells (estimate) 500 km
  41. 41. Cells will only be deployed in areas where there is a positive return on investment. Return on investment should consider: Sites that pay their way by locating near high demand “hotspots”; Sites with manageable interference impact; AND Backhaul or rental costs are affordable. Only by considering ALL objectives can we maximise return on investment: plan small cells holistically.
  42. 42. • Automation seeks to maximise RoI by considering: – Optimal traditional towers; – Optimal utility poles; – Optimal wall mounting; – Suggesting search ring; – Backhaul costs; rental costs; – Etc.
  43. 43. Example 1 • New York Case Study: – Low powered small cells (1W); – Street furniture: lighting fixtures, kiosks, power lines, etc.; – Primary and secondary attachments; – Wireless and fiber backhaul; – High spectral efficiency.
  44. 44. Total candidate set: > 470,000 Small cells (1W) required: 1852 Primary location – green Secondary location – orange Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima 1 km
  45. 45. All candidate locations are street furniture elements -> road alignment 0.5 km Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  46. 46. 0.5 km Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima Number of cells follows demand
  47. 47. Holistic Analyses 1 km Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  48. 48. Wireless @ 60 GHz 0.5 km Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  49. 49. Wireless @ 10 GHz 0.5 km Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  50. 50. Fibre Routes 250 m Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  51. 51. 0.5 km Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima CINR 1 Mbps cell edge performance
  52. 52. 100 m Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  53. 53. Manhattan Images generated in Overture by Keima
  54. 54. Location is key to maximise spectral efficiency Data accuracy more important than ever (1m resolution) Interference continuum Different environments and different cell types Non uniform demand Design focus is to maximise spectrum utilisation Demand clusters served by 64 QAM zone Automation Deployable business case depends on holistic network design The “Super Cooper” Expansion Conclusions
  55. 55. Example 2 • London Case Study: – Low powered small cells (2 W) + Wi-Fi systems; – Street furniture: lighting fixtures, kiosks, power lines, etc.; – Wireless and fibre backhaul; – High spectral efficiency.
  56. 56. Indoors Demand Outdoor Demand with selected Small Cells and Wi-Fi Small cell service area Wi-Fi service area
  57. 57. 800 m NLOS Connections London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  58. 58. 800 m 10 GHz Fresnel Connections London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  59. 59. 800 m 60 GHz Fresnel Connections London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  60. 60. London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  61. 61. London Images generated in Overture by Keima
  62. 62. Thank You Contact Us Iris Barcia iris.barcia@keima.co.uk Simon Chapman simon.chapman@keima.co.uk

×