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Examining the Role of SDN and NFV in
the Move Towards LTE-A and 5th
Generation
Network Technology Strategy Department
Alberto Boaventura
2015-07-01
July, 1-2nd 2015
12
3
Oi’s optical backbone is among the biggest in the
world, with more than 330.000 km of optic fiber.
The only operator in Brazil which provides optic
fiber to approximately 2.200 cities, covering more
than 70% of the population.
Our mobile network, with more than 25,000 outdoor
stations and more than 1 million of Wi-Fi hotspot,
covers areas where approximately 88.5% of the
population lives and works.
We provide ADSL and VDSL services more than
4700 of 5561 Brazilian cities. We are upgrading with
fiber optic-based to support VDSL2 and facilitate
the provision of our TV services. Already we offer
services up to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps for residential
and enterprise customers respectively.
Who we are ...
40,3%
27,1% 32,6%
54,7%
23,1% 21,6%
Region 1 Region 2 Region 3
GDP Population
After privatization, the Brazilian market has been split in 3 Regions. Oi is fixed
incumbent operator in Regions 1 & 2, but has presence in all Brazilian regions.
Where we are ...
Brazil is the largest country in Latin America with 8.5 million of km2. The GDP
is 2.246 Trillion of USD and Population is 203 million of inhabitants.
16 States 10 States 1 State
174
202,9
242,2 261,8 271,1
41,5 42 43 44,3 44,8
2009 2010 2011 2012 2013
Mobile Accesses Fixed Accesses
Millions
Source: Teleco/2014
Oi is present in Antarctica, where provides voice, data and mobile telephony services and a TV signal reception solution for
the Estação Antártica Almirante Ferraz (ECAF) of the Brazilian Navy, connecting to the rest of the world the military
personnel and researchers who are working at the South Pole.
Traffic
Reveue
Voice Data
Changes ...
Rapid and consistent mobile
broadband consolidation,
doubling year over year, will
bring a tsunami of data traffic,
representing in 2020 1000x of
the traffic in 2010.
Mobile Data Traffic
2018 there will be nearly 1.4
mobile devices per capita.
There will be over 10 billion
mobile-connected devices by
2018, including machine-to-
machine (M2M) modules—
exceeding the world’s
population at that time (7.6
billion) – CISCO VNI 2014
Internet of Things
All customer requirements are
not equal. It is worthwhile to
discover which attributes of a
product or service are more
important to the customer.
Negative perception of services
is the major reasons for
changing of service provider
Customer Experience
Main broadband dilemma:
Traffic and Revenue
decoupling.
It brings a continuous research
for cost effective and affordable
solutions.
Traffic & Revenue
1000x
... Challenges
More throughput
More Connections
More Spectrum
Spectral Efficiency
Spatial Efficiency
Interference Control
Self Organized
…
More Capacity
More Elasticity
More Resiliency
More Granularity
Low latency
Synchronization
Service and Network State Awarenesses
Self Organized
…
Mobile Access Network Transport (FH/BH) & Mobile Core Network
New
Upcoming
Technologies
LTE Advanced
ITU-R M.2034
Spectral Efficiency
DL 15 bits/Hz
UL 6.75 bits/Hz
Latency
User Plane < 10 ms
Control Plane < 100 ms
Bandwidth
ITU-R M.2034 40 MHz
ITU-R M.1645 100 MHz
ADVANCED
Coverage
Capacity
SmallCells
High order MIMO
Carrier Aggregation
Hetnet/CoMP
LTE
LTE–A/B
3GPP TR 36.913
3GPP
Release 8
3GPP
Release 10
RELEASE 8/9 RELEASE 10/11 RELEASE 12/13
20 MHz OFDM
SC-FDMA
DL 4x4 MIMO
SON, HeNB
Carrier Aggregation
UL 4x4 MIMO
DL/UL CoMP
HetNet (x4.33)
MU-MIMO (x1.14)
Small Cells Enh.
CoMP Enh.
FD-MIMO (x3.53)
DiverseTraffic Support
LTE Roadmap
Carrier Aggregation
Intra & Inter Band
Band X
Band y
Multihop
Relay
Multihop Relay
Smallcells Heterogeneous
Network
Colaboration MIMO
(CoMP) e HetNet
High Order DL-MIMO
& Advanced UL-MIMO
C-plane (RRC)
Phantom Celll
Macro
Cell F1
F2
F2>F1
U-plane
D2D
New Architecture
LTE LTE-A LTE-B
2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2020+
Release 16 &
5G Enh
Release 15 & 5G
SI/WI
Evaluation &
Specification
Proposal
Submission
Tech. Requirements &
Eval. Methodology
Vision, Technology & Spectrum
5G Vision and Timeframe
ITU-R´s docs paving way to 5G:
IMT.VISION (Deadline July 2015) - Title: “Framework and overall objectives of the
future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond”
Objective: Defining the framework and overall objectives of IMT for
2020 and beyond to drive the future developments for IMT
IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS (Deadline Oct. 2014)
To provide a view of future IMT technology aspects 2015-2020 and beyond and to
provide information on trends of future IMT technology aspects
EU (Nov 2012)
China (Fev2013)
Korea (Jun 2013)
Japão (Out 2013)
2020 and
Beyond Adhoc
WRC15WRC12 WRC19
Trials and CommercializationStandardization ActivitiesPre-standardizationExploratory Research
First Release
White Paper
Requirements &
Tech. feasibility
Trial of basic
functionality Tests IoT and deployment
Release 14 & 5G SIRelease 10-13
Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) 5G Vision
USE CASES BUSINESS MODEL VALUE CREATION
Asset
Provider
Connectivity
Provider
Partner
Service
Provider
XaaS; IaaS; NaaS; PaaS
Network Sharing
Basic Connectivity
Enhanced Connectivity
Operator Offer Enriched by Partner
Parter Offer Enriched by Operator
Broadband Access in
Dense Areas
Broadband Access
Everywhere
Higher User Mobility Massive Internet of Things
Extreme Real-Time
Communications Lifeline Communications
Ultra-reliable
Communications Broadcast-like Services HIGH RELIABLE AND FLEXIBLE NETWORK
SERVICEEXPERIENCETRUST
Security
Identity
Privacy
RealTime
Seamless
Personalized
Interaction&
Charging
QoS
Context
“5G is an end-to-end ecosystem to enable a fully mobile and connected society. It empowers value
creation towards customers and partners, through existing and emerging use cases, delivered with
consistent experience, and enabled by sustainable business models”
Requirements
Atribute 3GPP Release 12 NGMN Requirements
Data rate per user Up to 100 Mbps on average Peaks of
600 Mbps (Cat11/12)
> 10 X expected on average and
peak rates > 100 X expected on cell
edge
End-to-end latency 10 ms for two-way RAN (pre-
scheduled)
Typically up to 50 ms e2e I
> 10X (smaller)
Mobility Functional up to 350 km/h
No support for civil aviation
> 1,5 X
Spectral Efficiency DL: 0,074-6,1 bps/Hz
UL: 0.07-4.3 bps/Hz
Pushing for substantial increase
Connection Density 2000 Active Users/km2 > 100 X
5G Potential Technologies
1=0º
1=45º
30
210
60
240
90
270
120
300
150
330
180
...
p1
p2
pN

 Native M2M support
 A massive number of connected devices
with low throughput;
 Low latency
 Low power and battery consumption
hnm
h21
h12
h11
 Higher MIMO order: 8X8 or more
 System capacity increases in fucntion of
number of antennas
 Spatial-temporal modulation schemes
 SINR optimization
 Beamforming
 Enables systems that illuminate and at the
same time provide broadband wireless data
connectivity
 Transmitters: Uses off-the-shelf white light
emitting diodes (LEDs) used for solid-state
lighting (SSL);
 Receivers: Off-the-shelf p-intrinsic-n (PIN)
photodiodes (PDs) or aval anche photo-diodes
(APDs)
C-plane (RRC)
Phantom Celll
Macro
Cell
F1
F2
F2>F1
U-plane
D2D
 Phantom Cell based architecture
 Control Plane uses macro network
 User Plane is Device to Device (D2D) in
another frequency such as mm-Wave and
high order modulation (256 QAM).
Net
Radio
Core
Cache
 Access Network Caching
 Network Virtualization Function
 Cloud-RAN
 Dynamic and Elastic Network
 5G Non-Orthogonal Waveforms for
Asynchronous Signalling (5GNOW)
 Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) :
Potential extension to OFDM ;
 Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC):
Sustainability fragmented spectra.
 Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)
 Sparse-Code Multiple Access (SCMA)
 High modulation constellation
MASSIVE MIMO SPATIAL MODULATION COGITIVE RADIO NETWORKS VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION
DEVICE-CENTRIC ARCHITECTURE NATIVE SUPPORT FOR M2M CLOUD NETWORK & CACHE NEW MODULATION SCHEME
 New protocol for shared spectrum
rational use
 Mitigate and avoid interference by
surrounding radio environment and
regulate its transmission accordingly.
 In interference-free CR networks, CR
users are allowed to borrow spectrum
resources only when licensed users do
not use them.
What are roles for
NFV and SDN in
5G/LTE-A?
High Density Traffic
2013
2014
2015
2016
2017
2018
2019
2020
0,0 Mbps/km2
500,0 Mbps/km2
1000,0 Mbps/km2
1500,0 Mbps/km2
2000,0 Mbps/km2
0,250 km0,350 km0,450 km0,550 km
DOWNTOWN: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC
Coverage
Radius
Capacity
2015
Capacity
2016
Capacity
2017
A +63%
C
D
+61%
+54%
B
Green line represents the system capacity density.
The capacity associated to coverage grid can capture the demand
from 2013 till 2014 – Point A;
However, for 2015 it is needed to increase 63% the number of sites,
changing the exiting grid – Point B;
In 2016 and 2017, they require more 61% and 54% more sites
respectively;
In that time, SmallCells are more appropriated infrastructure to save
CapEx and OpEx;
TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES AND TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP
$$$
$$$
$$$
$$$
$$$
$$$
1 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x
2600 MHz (10) +1800 MHz (5) +1800 MHz (10) SmallCell
2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020
Legend Notes:
2600 MHz (10) : Basic Scenario;
+1800 MHz (5): Additional 5 MHz using 1800 MHz in Basic
Scenario coverage;
+1800 (10): Same as above, but using 10 MHz;
SmallCell: using 2600 MHz with 10 MHz for bandwidth;
TIMES BASIC
SCENARIO
COVERAGE
CAPACITY
TCO

A B C
Indifference
between Macro
1800 & 2600
MHz
Macro LTE
1800 MHz for
coverage
Dual layer
Macro LTE 1800
& 2600 MHz
181 265 890
SmallCell
2600 MHz
𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔
𝒌𝒎 𝟐

X: BASIC SCENARIO
COVERAGE CAPACITY
X

DEMANDS
DOWNTOWN
DEMAND: HIGH
DENSITY TRAFFIC

Why Centralizing?
CAPACITY & COVERAGE:
Centralized RAN acts as huge Base Station and can easily coordinate resources for interference avoiding by using
functionalities such as CoMP and e-ICIC. CoMP and e-ICIC can together increase the system capacity in 30 times
homogeneous network;
C-RAN is also suitable for non-uniformly distributed traffic due to the load-balancing capability in the distributed BBU
pool. Though the serving RRH changes dynamically according to the movement of UEs, the serving BBU is still in the
same BBU pool.
50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment, and due concentrated traffic , indoor
traffic density can represent 10-100 times outdoor environment;
Centralized RAN can be optimal solution and accordingly to Airvana and it is 69% cheaper than DAS;
TRANSMISSION & INFRASTRUCTURE:
Algorithms such as e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter latency requirement below 10 micro seconds. In general IP backhaul
transport cannot accomplish this latency level in X2 interface.
Network Synchronization can be simplified by requiring synchronism in less centralized sites
Currently almost LTE Cell Site is attended by fiber and DWDM is affordable solution for transport CPRI inside of
lambdas.
Space/Colocation, air conditioning and other site support equipment's power consumption can be largely reduced.
China Mobile estimates a reduction of 71% of power saving comparing to Distributed Cell Site;
ROLLOUT, OPERATION & MAINTENANCE :
Faster system rollout due simpler remote cell site that reduces 1/3 comparing to Distributed RAN.
Multi-Tenant BBUs are aggregated in a few big rooms, it is much easier for centralized management and operation,
saving a lot of the O&M cost associated with the large number of BS sites in a traditional distributed RAN network.
TCO :
Accordingly to China Mobile, 15% and 50% of CapEx and OpEx savings respectivelly comparing to Distributed RAN
Core
Net.
BBU
TDM
IP
BBU
BBU
Core
Net.
Fronthaul
Backhaul IP
BBU
BBU
BBU
eICIC CoMP
Distributed RAN Centralized RAN
Coherent transm. &
Non-Coherent transm.
Instantaneous
Cell Selection
X2
X2
ABS
Protected
Subframe
Aggressor Cell Victim Cell
X2
Identifies
interfered UE
Requests ABS
Configure
s ABS ABS Info
Measurement Subset Info
Uses ABS and
signals Patern
Base Station Virtualization & Cloud RAN Architecture
Fronthaul Interface Hardware
Backplane
Backhaul Interface Hardware
Hardware Poll
Virtualization Layer (Ex.: Hypervisor/VMM)
VM BBU 1 VM BBU N Core
Network
Cache &
Local
Breakout
...
O&M/Control/Orchestrator
Fronthaul: CPRI,
OBSAI, ETSI ORI
Internet
RRU/
RRH
Radio
Unit
Network Datacenter
Only Radio Unit
Backhaul IP
RRU/
RRH
Backhaul
Core
Network
BBU BBUBBU
Internet
RRU/
RRH
RRU/
RRH
GbE
Existing Deployed Topology
Fronthaul
Internet
V-BBUs V-Core
RRU/
RRH
RRU/
RRH
RRU/
RRH
CPRI/
OBSAI
Cloud RAN Topology
DEPLOYMENT PARADIGM CHANGE
PRINCIPLES AND ADVANTAGES
ARCHITECTURE
Network Function
Virtualization
Elastic & liquid resources
Operational Flexibility
Reduces space and power
consumption
Reduces CapEx, OpEx and
delivery time
Software Defined Network
Creates an abstraction layer
for: controlling; faster
development ; system service
orchestration and overall
system evolution;
Open Development Interface
Creates an open environment
for new development;
Catalyzes new SON &
interference mitigation
functionalities support;
NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION
NFV & SDN
SDN
applications
SDN
controllers
Network
Resources
Programmatic control
of abstracted network
resources (application-
control interface)
Logically centralized
control of network
resources (resource-
control interface)
Source: ITU-T Y.3300
Acceleration of innovation: Accelerates business
and/or technical innovation through more flexibility of
the network operations, thus making trials easier;
Accelerated adaptation to customer demands:
Dynamic negotiation of network service characteristics
and of dynamic network resource control;
Improved resource availability : Improves network
resource availability and efficiency,
Service-aware networking: Allows network
customization for the network services which have
different requirements, through the programming of
network resource operations, including the dynamic
enforcement of a set of policies.
Hardware Resources
Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs)
Virtualization Layer
VNF ...
NFVManagementand
Orchestration
Compute Storage Network
NFV Infrastructure
Virtual
Compute
Virtual
Storage
Virtual
Network
VNF VNF VNF
CapEx: Reduces equipment costs by consolidation,
leveraging the economies of scale;
OpEx: Reduces power consumption, space and
collocation costs, improved network monitoring.
O&M: Improves operational efficiency by taking
advantage of a homogeneous physical platform
Deployment: Easily, rapidly, dynamically provision
and instantiate new services in various locations (i.e.
no need for new equipment install)
Time to market: Minimizing a typical network
operator cycle of innovation.
Service differentiation: Rapidly prototype and test
new services
Source: ETSI
NFV+SDN => MOBILE NETWORK
SDN can enable, simplify and automate NFV
implementation
Mobile Network Simplification: Common functions
optimized for RAN , EPC and transport .
Traffic Optimization : Network status awareness
allows to optimize traffic by observing e2e congestion
level, system capacity and element capabilities.
Resilience: SDN provides greater visibility at the
network level, regardless of whether the network concept
is Layer 2, Layer 3 or even Layer 4.
Power Management: Power consumption of wireless
network elements can be optimized in real-time.
Spectrum and Interference Management: Opens a
new range of interference mitigation and spectrum
optimization techniques at the network level.
SDN
applications
SDN
controllers
Network
ResourcesHardware Resources
Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs)
Virtualization Layer
VNF ...
NFVManagementand
Orchestration
Compute Storage Network
NFV Infrastructure
Virtual
Compute
Virtual
Storage
Virtual
Network
VNF VNF VNF
SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK
Base Station Virtualization in Phases
CLOUD RANHETNETCENTRALIZED RANMULTI STANDARD RAN
Multi-sector BBU or BBU Hotel
Overall TCO (CapEx+OpEx) saving of New
Cell Site
Network elasticity based on resource
pooled in a single BBU
Network synchronization simplification
Fronthaul Rollout
Vendor consolidation
MSR and SDR deployment
2G+3G+4G in single BBU
CellSite Modernization
IP Backhauling
Lifecycle Management Optimization
SmallCell Rollout
Capacity improvement by using CoMP,
eICIC, CA etc.
Taking advantage of LTE-A & B (Rel.11 and
Rel.12)
Baseband pooled across BBU
Using General Purpose HW
EPC and Cloud RAN in a same Network
Datacenter
Core
Net.
2G
3G
4G
2G
3G
4G
2G
3G
4G
TDM
IP
Core
Net.
2G +3G+4G
TDM
IP
2G +3G+4G
2G +3G+4G
Core
Net.
BBU
TDM
IP
BBU
BBU
Core
Net.
BBU
Fronthaul
Backhaul IP
BBU
BBU
Core
Net.
BBU
Fronthaul
Backhaul IP
BBU
BBU
Core
Net.
Fronthaul
Backhaul IP
BBU
BBU
BBU
Core
Net.
Fronthaul
Backhaul IP
BBU
BBU
BBU
Fronthaul
Backhaul IP
SBI/Fronthaul
NBI/Internet
Hardware Poll
Virtualization Layer
BBU1
...
O&M/Orchestrator
BBU2
BBUn
EPC
IMS
MTAS
Mobile Network Evolution
ALL SDN: VIRTUALIZED & OPTIMIZEDNFV: VERTICALLY VIRTUALIZEDCURRENTLY: MONOLITHIC & DEDICATED HARDWARE
Internet
SGi
MME HSS PCRF IMS OCS
OFCSAttach
Auth
Mobility
Bearer
Context
Attach
Auth
Policy Policy
Billing
Policy
Billing
Mobility
S/PGW
Policy
Billing
Attach
Mobility
Bearer
Context
Data
IP Backhaul
Macro Radio
Access
Network
Network Datacenter
Fronthaul
MME HSS PCRF IMS OCS
OFCS
CRAN S/PGW
Internet
Mobility
Bearer
Context
Attach
Auth
Mobility
Bearer
Context
Attach
Auth
Policy Policy
Billing
Policy
Billing
Mobility
Policy
Billing
Attach
Mobility
Bearer
Context
DataData
Heterogeneous
Radio Access
Network
Network Datacenter
(SBI) Open Flow
Infrastructure
Layer
(NBI)
Control
Layer
SGi
Hardware and Software are monolithic and based
on well defined and standardized Network
Functions;
All-SDN network can simplify the existing EPC architecture
by eliminating and collapsing common functionalities in
specialized Network Functions, such as: MME, S/PGW, IMS,
PCRF, HSS etc.
Thus, it can optimize latency accomplishing the 5G
requirements via set of hierarchical controllers as opposed
to a single centralized controller associated with various
control functionalities of the mobile network;
Easy service development by Service Chain orchestration,
application abstraction layer and Open API Interface;
CapEx reduction by using network functions through
software virtualization techniques running on
commodity hardware;
OpEx reduction due collocation and energy
consumption by consolidating networking appliances
Decreasing time to market of a new service by changing
the typical innovation cycle of network operators (e.g.,
through software-based service deployment);
PCRF
HLR/HSS
OCS/
OFCS
Internet
S-GW
P-GW
MME
IMS
Ro/Rf
S11
S5
GxRx
S6a
Gy/Gz
Sy
Cx/Sh
Evolved Packet Core
S1-US1-AP
Macro Radio
Access
Network
SGi
Sp
5G Architecture (NGNM)
Public &
Private IP
Network
5G RAT Family
E2EManagement&Orchestration
Operator
Services
Enterprise Vertical
OTT &
3rd. Party
Library of Modular Network Functions
& Value Enabling Capabilities
Library of Modular Network Functions
& Value Enabling Capabilities
Common Information Repository
CP
Functions
UP
Functions
RAT
Config
State
Info
Virtualization
Business Enabler APIs
E2E MANAGEMENT AND ORCHESTRATION ENTITY
Is the contact point to translate the use cases and business models into actual network
functions and slices.
Defines the network slices for a given application scenario, chains the relevant modular
network functions, assigns the relevant performance configurations, and finally maps all
of this onto the infrastructure resources.
BUSINESS APPLICATION LAYER
Contains specific applications and services of the operator, enterprise, verticals or third
parties that utilize the 5G network.
The end-to-end management and orchestration entity allows, for example, to build
dedicated network slices for an application, or to map an application to existing network
slices.
BUSINESS ENABLEMENT LAYER
Is a library of all functions required within a converged network in the form of modular
architecture building blocks, including functions realized by software modules that can be
retrieved from the repository to the desired location, and a set of configuration
parameters for certain parts of the network, e.g., radio access.
INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCE LAYER
Consists of the physical resources of a fixed-mobile converged network, comprising access
nodes, cloud nodes (which can be processing or storage resources), 5G devices (in the
form of (smart) phones, wearables, CPEs, machine type modules and others), networking
nodes and associated links.
NETWORK SLICE
Supports the communication service of a particular connection type with a specific way of
handling the C- and U-plane for this service.
Is composed of a collection of 5G network functions and specific RAT settings that are
combined together for the specific use case or business model.
Source: NGMN/2015
Alberto Boaventura
alberto@oi.net.br
¡GRACIAS!
THANKS!
OBRIGADO!

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Examining the Role of SDN and NFV in the Move Towards LTE-A and 5th Generation

  • 1. Examining the Role of SDN and NFV in the Move Towards LTE-A and 5th Generation Network Technology Strategy Department Alberto Boaventura 2015-07-01 July, 1-2nd 2015
  • 2. 12 3 Oi’s optical backbone is among the biggest in the world, with more than 330.000 km of optic fiber. The only operator in Brazil which provides optic fiber to approximately 2.200 cities, covering more than 70% of the population. Our mobile network, with more than 25,000 outdoor stations and more than 1 million of Wi-Fi hotspot, covers areas where approximately 88.5% of the population lives and works. We provide ADSL and VDSL services more than 4700 of 5561 Brazilian cities. We are upgrading with fiber optic-based to support VDSL2 and facilitate the provision of our TV services. Already we offer services up to 100 Mbps and 1 Gbps for residential and enterprise customers respectively. Who we are ... 40,3% 27,1% 32,6% 54,7% 23,1% 21,6% Region 1 Region 2 Region 3 GDP Population After privatization, the Brazilian market has been split in 3 Regions. Oi is fixed incumbent operator in Regions 1 & 2, but has presence in all Brazilian regions. Where we are ... Brazil is the largest country in Latin America with 8.5 million of km2. The GDP is 2.246 Trillion of USD and Population is 203 million of inhabitants. 16 States 10 States 1 State 174 202,9 242,2 261,8 271,1 41,5 42 43 44,3 44,8 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 Mobile Accesses Fixed Accesses Millions Source: Teleco/2014 Oi is present in Antarctica, where provides voice, data and mobile telephony services and a TV signal reception solution for the Estação Antártica Almirante Ferraz (ECAF) of the Brazilian Navy, connecting to the rest of the world the military personnel and researchers who are working at the South Pole.
  • 3. Traffic Reveue Voice Data Changes ... Rapid and consistent mobile broadband consolidation, doubling year over year, will bring a tsunami of data traffic, representing in 2020 1000x of the traffic in 2010. Mobile Data Traffic 2018 there will be nearly 1.4 mobile devices per capita. There will be over 10 billion mobile-connected devices by 2018, including machine-to- machine (M2M) modules— exceeding the world’s population at that time (7.6 billion) – CISCO VNI 2014 Internet of Things All customer requirements are not equal. It is worthwhile to discover which attributes of a product or service are more important to the customer. Negative perception of services is the major reasons for changing of service provider Customer Experience Main broadband dilemma: Traffic and Revenue decoupling. It brings a continuous research for cost effective and affordable solutions. Traffic & Revenue 1000x
  • 4. ... Challenges More throughput More Connections More Spectrum Spectral Efficiency Spatial Efficiency Interference Control Self Organized … More Capacity More Elasticity More Resiliency More Granularity Low latency Synchronization Service and Network State Awarenesses Self Organized … Mobile Access Network Transport (FH/BH) & Mobile Core Network
  • 6. LTE Advanced ITU-R M.2034 Spectral Efficiency DL 15 bits/Hz UL 6.75 bits/Hz Latency User Plane < 10 ms Control Plane < 100 ms Bandwidth ITU-R M.2034 40 MHz ITU-R M.1645 100 MHz ADVANCED Coverage Capacity SmallCells High order MIMO Carrier Aggregation Hetnet/CoMP LTE LTE–A/B 3GPP TR 36.913 3GPP Release 8 3GPP Release 10 RELEASE 8/9 RELEASE 10/11 RELEASE 12/13 20 MHz OFDM SC-FDMA DL 4x4 MIMO SON, HeNB Carrier Aggregation UL 4x4 MIMO DL/UL CoMP HetNet (x4.33) MU-MIMO (x1.14) Small Cells Enh. CoMP Enh. FD-MIMO (x3.53) DiverseTraffic Support LTE Roadmap Carrier Aggregation Intra & Inter Band Band X Band y Multihop Relay Multihop Relay Smallcells Heterogeneous Network Colaboration MIMO (CoMP) e HetNet High Order DL-MIMO & Advanced UL-MIMO C-plane (RRC) Phantom Celll Macro Cell F1 F2 F2>F1 U-plane D2D New Architecture LTE LTE-A LTE-B
  • 7. 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2020+ Release 16 & 5G Enh Release 15 & 5G SI/WI Evaluation & Specification Proposal Submission Tech. Requirements & Eval. Methodology Vision, Technology & Spectrum 5G Vision and Timeframe ITU-R´s docs paving way to 5G: IMT.VISION (Deadline July 2015) - Title: “Framework and overall objectives of the future development of IMT for 2020 and beyond” Objective: Defining the framework and overall objectives of IMT for 2020 and beyond to drive the future developments for IMT IMT.FUTURE TECHNOLOGY TRENDS (Deadline Oct. 2014) To provide a view of future IMT technology aspects 2015-2020 and beyond and to provide information on trends of future IMT technology aspects EU (Nov 2012) China (Fev2013) Korea (Jun 2013) Japão (Out 2013) 2020 and Beyond Adhoc WRC15WRC12 WRC19 Trials and CommercializationStandardization ActivitiesPre-standardizationExploratory Research First Release White Paper Requirements & Tech. feasibility Trial of basic functionality Tests IoT and deployment Release 14 & 5G SIRelease 10-13
  • 8. Next Generation Mobile Network (NGMN) 5G Vision USE CASES BUSINESS MODEL VALUE CREATION Asset Provider Connectivity Provider Partner Service Provider XaaS; IaaS; NaaS; PaaS Network Sharing Basic Connectivity Enhanced Connectivity Operator Offer Enriched by Partner Parter Offer Enriched by Operator Broadband Access in Dense Areas Broadband Access Everywhere Higher User Mobility Massive Internet of Things Extreme Real-Time Communications Lifeline Communications Ultra-reliable Communications Broadcast-like Services HIGH RELIABLE AND FLEXIBLE NETWORK SERVICEEXPERIENCETRUST Security Identity Privacy RealTime Seamless Personalized Interaction& Charging QoS Context “5G is an end-to-end ecosystem to enable a fully mobile and connected society. It empowers value creation towards customers and partners, through existing and emerging use cases, delivered with consistent experience, and enabled by sustainable business models” Requirements Atribute 3GPP Release 12 NGMN Requirements Data rate per user Up to 100 Mbps on average Peaks of 600 Mbps (Cat11/12) > 10 X expected on average and peak rates > 100 X expected on cell edge End-to-end latency 10 ms for two-way RAN (pre- scheduled) Typically up to 50 ms e2e I > 10X (smaller) Mobility Functional up to 350 km/h No support for civil aviation > 1,5 X Spectral Efficiency DL: 0,074-6,1 bps/Hz UL: 0.07-4.3 bps/Hz Pushing for substantial increase Connection Density 2000 Active Users/km2 > 100 X
  • 9. 5G Potential Technologies 1=0º 1=45º 30 210 60 240 90 270 120 300 150 330 180 ... p1 p2 pN   Native M2M support  A massive number of connected devices with low throughput;  Low latency  Low power and battery consumption hnm h21 h12 h11  Higher MIMO order: 8X8 or more  System capacity increases in fucntion of number of antennas  Spatial-temporal modulation schemes  SINR optimization  Beamforming  Enables systems that illuminate and at the same time provide broadband wireless data connectivity  Transmitters: Uses off-the-shelf white light emitting diodes (LEDs) used for solid-state lighting (SSL);  Receivers: Off-the-shelf p-intrinsic-n (PIN) photodiodes (PDs) or aval anche photo-diodes (APDs) C-plane (RRC) Phantom Celll Macro Cell F1 F2 F2>F1 U-plane D2D  Phantom Cell based architecture  Control Plane uses macro network  User Plane is Device to Device (D2D) in another frequency such as mm-Wave and high order modulation (256 QAM). Net Radio Core Cache  Access Network Caching  Network Virtualization Function  Cloud-RAN  Dynamic and Elastic Network  5G Non-Orthogonal Waveforms for Asynchronous Signalling (5GNOW)  Universal Filtered Multi-Carrier (UFMC) : Potential extension to OFDM ;  Filter Bank Multi Carrier (FBMC): Sustainability fragmented spectra.  Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)  Sparse-Code Multiple Access (SCMA)  High modulation constellation MASSIVE MIMO SPATIAL MODULATION COGITIVE RADIO NETWORKS VISIBLE LIGHT COMMUNICATION DEVICE-CENTRIC ARCHITECTURE NATIVE SUPPORT FOR M2M CLOUD NETWORK & CACHE NEW MODULATION SCHEME  New protocol for shared spectrum rational use  Mitigate and avoid interference by surrounding radio environment and regulate its transmission accordingly.  In interference-free CR networks, CR users are allowed to borrow spectrum resources only when licensed users do not use them.
  • 10. What are roles for NFV and SDN in 5G/LTE-A?
  • 11. High Density Traffic 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 0,0 Mbps/km2 500,0 Mbps/km2 1000,0 Mbps/km2 1500,0 Mbps/km2 2000,0 Mbps/km2 0,250 km0,350 km0,450 km0,550 km DOWNTOWN: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC Coverage Radius Capacity 2015 Capacity 2016 Capacity 2017 A +63% C D +61% +54% B Green line represents the system capacity density. The capacity associated to coverage grid can capture the demand from 2013 till 2014 – Point A; However, for 2015 it is needed to increase 63% the number of sites, changing the exiting grid – Point B; In 2016 and 2017, they require more 61% and 54% more sites respectively; In that time, SmallCells are more appropriated infrastructure to save CapEx and OpEx; TECHNOLOGY ALTERNATIVES AND TOTAL COST OWNERSHIP $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ $$$ 1 x 3 x 5 x 7 x 9 x 2600 MHz (10) +1800 MHz (5) +1800 MHz (10) SmallCell 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 Legend Notes: 2600 MHz (10) : Basic Scenario; +1800 MHz (5): Additional 5 MHz using 1800 MHz in Basic Scenario coverage; +1800 (10): Same as above, but using 10 MHz; SmallCell: using 2600 MHz with 10 MHz for bandwidth; TIMES BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY TCO  A B C Indifference between Macro 1800 & 2600 MHz Macro LTE 1800 MHz for coverage Dual layer Macro LTE 1800 & 2600 MHz 181 265 890 SmallCell 2600 MHz 𝑴𝒃𝒑𝒔 𝒌𝒎 𝟐  X: BASIC SCENARIO COVERAGE CAPACITY X  DEMANDS DOWNTOWN DEMAND: HIGH DENSITY TRAFFIC 
  • 12. Why Centralizing? CAPACITY & COVERAGE: Centralized RAN acts as huge Base Station and can easily coordinate resources for interference avoiding by using functionalities such as CoMP and e-ICIC. CoMP and e-ICIC can together increase the system capacity in 30 times homogeneous network; C-RAN is also suitable for non-uniformly distributed traffic due to the load-balancing capability in the distributed BBU pool. Though the serving RRH changes dynamically according to the movement of UEs, the serving BBU is still in the same BBU pool. 50% of voice traffic and 80% of data traffic are performed in indoor environment, and due concentrated traffic , indoor traffic density can represent 10-100 times outdoor environment; Centralized RAN can be optimal solution and accordingly to Airvana and it is 69% cheaper than DAS; TRANSMISSION & INFRASTRUCTURE: Algorithms such as e-ICIC and CoMP have tighter latency requirement below 10 micro seconds. In general IP backhaul transport cannot accomplish this latency level in X2 interface. Network Synchronization can be simplified by requiring synchronism in less centralized sites Currently almost LTE Cell Site is attended by fiber and DWDM is affordable solution for transport CPRI inside of lambdas. Space/Colocation, air conditioning and other site support equipment's power consumption can be largely reduced. China Mobile estimates a reduction of 71% of power saving comparing to Distributed Cell Site; ROLLOUT, OPERATION & MAINTENANCE : Faster system rollout due simpler remote cell site that reduces 1/3 comparing to Distributed RAN. Multi-Tenant BBUs are aggregated in a few big rooms, it is much easier for centralized management and operation, saving a lot of the O&M cost associated with the large number of BS sites in a traditional distributed RAN network. TCO : Accordingly to China Mobile, 15% and 50% of CapEx and OpEx savings respectivelly comparing to Distributed RAN Core Net. BBU TDM IP BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU eICIC CoMP Distributed RAN Centralized RAN Coherent transm. & Non-Coherent transm. Instantaneous Cell Selection X2 X2 ABS Protected Subframe Aggressor Cell Victim Cell X2 Identifies interfered UE Requests ABS Configure s ABS ABS Info Measurement Subset Info Uses ABS and signals Patern
  • 13. Base Station Virtualization & Cloud RAN Architecture Fronthaul Interface Hardware Backplane Backhaul Interface Hardware Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer (Ex.: Hypervisor/VMM) VM BBU 1 VM BBU N Core Network Cache & Local Breakout ... O&M/Control/Orchestrator Fronthaul: CPRI, OBSAI, ETSI ORI Internet RRU/ RRH Radio Unit Network Datacenter Only Radio Unit Backhaul IP RRU/ RRH Backhaul Core Network BBU BBUBBU Internet RRU/ RRH RRU/ RRH GbE Existing Deployed Topology Fronthaul Internet V-BBUs V-Core RRU/ RRH RRU/ RRH RRU/ RRH CPRI/ OBSAI Cloud RAN Topology DEPLOYMENT PARADIGM CHANGE PRINCIPLES AND ADVANTAGES ARCHITECTURE Network Function Virtualization Elastic & liquid resources Operational Flexibility Reduces space and power consumption Reduces CapEx, OpEx and delivery time Software Defined Network Creates an abstraction layer for: controlling; faster development ; system service orchestration and overall system evolution; Open Development Interface Creates an open environment for new development; Catalyzes new SON & interference mitigation functionalities support;
  • 14. NETWORK FUNCTION VIRTUALIZATION NFV & SDN SDN applications SDN controllers Network Resources Programmatic control of abstracted network resources (application- control interface) Logically centralized control of network resources (resource- control interface) Source: ITU-T Y.3300 Acceleration of innovation: Accelerates business and/or technical innovation through more flexibility of the network operations, thus making trials easier; Accelerated adaptation to customer demands: Dynamic negotiation of network service characteristics and of dynamic network resource control; Improved resource availability : Improves network resource availability and efficiency, Service-aware networking: Allows network customization for the network services which have different requirements, through the programming of network resource operations, including the dynamic enforcement of a set of policies. Hardware Resources Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) Virtualization Layer VNF ... NFVManagementand Orchestration Compute Storage Network NFV Infrastructure Virtual Compute Virtual Storage Virtual Network VNF VNF VNF CapEx: Reduces equipment costs by consolidation, leveraging the economies of scale; OpEx: Reduces power consumption, space and collocation costs, improved network monitoring. O&M: Improves operational efficiency by taking advantage of a homogeneous physical platform Deployment: Easily, rapidly, dynamically provision and instantiate new services in various locations (i.e. no need for new equipment install) Time to market: Minimizing a typical network operator cycle of innovation. Service differentiation: Rapidly prototype and test new services Source: ETSI NFV+SDN => MOBILE NETWORK SDN can enable, simplify and automate NFV implementation Mobile Network Simplification: Common functions optimized for RAN , EPC and transport . Traffic Optimization : Network status awareness allows to optimize traffic by observing e2e congestion level, system capacity and element capabilities. Resilience: SDN provides greater visibility at the network level, regardless of whether the network concept is Layer 2, Layer 3 or even Layer 4. Power Management: Power consumption of wireless network elements can be optimized in real-time. Spectrum and Interference Management: Opens a new range of interference mitigation and spectrum optimization techniques at the network level. SDN applications SDN controllers Network ResourcesHardware Resources Virtualized Network Functions (VNFs) Virtualization Layer VNF ... NFVManagementand Orchestration Compute Storage Network NFV Infrastructure Virtual Compute Virtual Storage Virtual Network VNF VNF VNF SOFTWARE DEFINED NETWORK
  • 15. Base Station Virtualization in Phases CLOUD RANHETNETCENTRALIZED RANMULTI STANDARD RAN Multi-sector BBU or BBU Hotel Overall TCO (CapEx+OpEx) saving of New Cell Site Network elasticity based on resource pooled in a single BBU Network synchronization simplification Fronthaul Rollout Vendor consolidation MSR and SDR deployment 2G+3G+4G in single BBU CellSite Modernization IP Backhauling Lifecycle Management Optimization SmallCell Rollout Capacity improvement by using CoMP, eICIC, CA etc. Taking advantage of LTE-A & B (Rel.11 and Rel.12) Baseband pooled across BBU Using General Purpose HW EPC and Cloud RAN in a same Network Datacenter Core Net. 2G 3G 4G 2G 3G 4G 2G 3G 4G TDM IP Core Net. 2G +3G+4G TDM IP 2G +3G+4G 2G +3G+4G Core Net. BBU TDM IP BBU BBU Core Net. BBU Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU Core Net. BBU Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU Core Net. Fronthaul Backhaul IP BBU BBU BBU Fronthaul Backhaul IP SBI/Fronthaul NBI/Internet Hardware Poll Virtualization Layer BBU1 ... O&M/Orchestrator BBU2 BBUn EPC IMS MTAS
  • 16. Mobile Network Evolution ALL SDN: VIRTUALIZED & OPTIMIZEDNFV: VERTICALLY VIRTUALIZEDCURRENTLY: MONOLITHIC & DEDICATED HARDWARE Internet SGi MME HSS PCRF IMS OCS OFCSAttach Auth Mobility Bearer Context Attach Auth Policy Policy Billing Policy Billing Mobility S/PGW Policy Billing Attach Mobility Bearer Context Data IP Backhaul Macro Radio Access Network Network Datacenter Fronthaul MME HSS PCRF IMS OCS OFCS CRAN S/PGW Internet Mobility Bearer Context Attach Auth Mobility Bearer Context Attach Auth Policy Policy Billing Policy Billing Mobility Policy Billing Attach Mobility Bearer Context DataData Heterogeneous Radio Access Network Network Datacenter (SBI) Open Flow Infrastructure Layer (NBI) Control Layer SGi Hardware and Software are monolithic and based on well defined and standardized Network Functions; All-SDN network can simplify the existing EPC architecture by eliminating and collapsing common functionalities in specialized Network Functions, such as: MME, S/PGW, IMS, PCRF, HSS etc. Thus, it can optimize latency accomplishing the 5G requirements via set of hierarchical controllers as opposed to a single centralized controller associated with various control functionalities of the mobile network; Easy service development by Service Chain orchestration, application abstraction layer and Open API Interface; CapEx reduction by using network functions through software virtualization techniques running on commodity hardware; OpEx reduction due collocation and energy consumption by consolidating networking appliances Decreasing time to market of a new service by changing the typical innovation cycle of network operators (e.g., through software-based service deployment); PCRF HLR/HSS OCS/ OFCS Internet S-GW P-GW MME IMS Ro/Rf S11 S5 GxRx S6a Gy/Gz Sy Cx/Sh Evolved Packet Core S1-US1-AP Macro Radio Access Network SGi Sp
  • 17. 5G Architecture (NGNM) Public & Private IP Network 5G RAT Family E2EManagement&Orchestration Operator Services Enterprise Vertical OTT & 3rd. Party Library of Modular Network Functions & Value Enabling Capabilities Library of Modular Network Functions & Value Enabling Capabilities Common Information Repository CP Functions UP Functions RAT Config State Info Virtualization Business Enabler APIs E2E MANAGEMENT AND ORCHESTRATION ENTITY Is the contact point to translate the use cases and business models into actual network functions and slices. Defines the network slices for a given application scenario, chains the relevant modular network functions, assigns the relevant performance configurations, and finally maps all of this onto the infrastructure resources. BUSINESS APPLICATION LAYER Contains specific applications and services of the operator, enterprise, verticals or third parties that utilize the 5G network. The end-to-end management and orchestration entity allows, for example, to build dedicated network slices for an application, or to map an application to existing network slices. BUSINESS ENABLEMENT LAYER Is a library of all functions required within a converged network in the form of modular architecture building blocks, including functions realized by software modules that can be retrieved from the repository to the desired location, and a set of configuration parameters for certain parts of the network, e.g., radio access. INFRASTRUCTURE RESOURCE LAYER Consists of the physical resources of a fixed-mobile converged network, comprising access nodes, cloud nodes (which can be processing or storage resources), 5G devices (in the form of (smart) phones, wearables, CPEs, machine type modules and others), networking nodes and associated links. NETWORK SLICE Supports the communication service of a particular connection type with a specific way of handling the C- and U-plane for this service. Is composed of a collection of 5G network functions and specific RAT settings that are combined together for the specific use case or business model. Source: NGMN/2015