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personality & value

personality & value

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  • 1. Chapter TWO Personality and Values© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. What is Personality? What is Personality? Personality The sum total of ways in which an individual reacts and interacts with others; measurable traits a person exhibits. Personality Personality Personality Traits Determinants Determinants Enduring characteristics • •Heredity Heredity that describe an • •Environment individual’s behavior. Environment • •Situation Situation© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 3. The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator The Myers-Briggs Type Indicator Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI) A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types. Personality Types Personality Types • •Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) Extroverted vs. Introverted (E or I) • •Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) Sensing vs. Intuitive (S or N) • •Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) Thinking vs. Feeling (T or F) • •Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Judging vs. Perceiving (P or J) Score is a combination of Score is a combination of all four (e.g., ENTJ) all four (e.g., ENTJ)© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. Extraversion/IntroversionExtraversion/IntroversionExtraversion-A preference indicating that an individual is energized with other people.Introversion-A preference indicating that an individual is energized by time alone. EXTRAVERSION- (E) INTROVERSION- (I)  Outgoing  Quiet  Publicly Expressive  Reserved  Interacting  Concentrating  Speaks, then thinks  Thinks, then speaks  Gregarious  Reflective
  • 5. 2-Sensing/Intuiting2-Sensing/IntuitingSensing- Gathering information through the five senses.Intuiting- Gathering information through “sixth sense” and focusing on what could be rather than what actually exists. SENSING- S INTUITING- N  Practical  General  General  Abstract  Abstract  Specific  Head in the clouds  Head in the clouds  Possibilities  Possibilities  Feet on the ground  Theoretical  Theoretical  Details  Concrete
  • 6. 3-Thinking // Feeling3-Thinking FeelingThinking- Making decisions in a logical, objective fashion.Feeling- Making decisions in a personal, value oriented way. THINKING - T FEELING - F  Analytical  Subjective  Clarity  Harmony  Head  Heart  Justice  Mercy  Rules  Circumstances
  • 7. 4-Judging // Perceiving4-Judging PerceivingJudging- Preferring closure and completion in making decisions.Perceiving- Preferring to explore many alternatives and flexibility. JUDGING -J PERCEIVING- P  Structured  Flexible  Time Oriented  Open ended  Decisive  Exploring  Makes lists/  Makes lists/ uses them loses them  Organized  Spontaneous
  • 8. Meyers-Briggs, Continued Meyers-Briggs, ContinuedA Meyers-Briggs score – Can be a valuable too for self-awareness and career guidanceBUT – Should not be used as a selection tool because it has not been related to job performance!!!© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 9. The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions The Big Five Model of Personality Dimensions Extroversion Sociable, gregarious, and assertive Agreeableness Good-natured, cooperative, and trusting. Conscientiousness Responsible, dependable, persistent, and organized. Emotional Stability Calm, self-confident, secure under stress (positive), versus nervous, depressed, and insecure under stress (negative). Openness to Experience Curious, imaginative, artistic, and sensitive© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 10. Measuring Personality Measuring PersonalityPersonality is Measured By Self-report surveys Observer-rating surveys Projective measures© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 11. Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB Major Personality Attributes Influencing OB  Core Self-evaluation – Self-esteem – Locus of Control  Machiavellianism  Narcissism  Self-monitoring  Risk taking  Type A vs. Type B personality  Proactive Personality© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 12. Core Self-Evaluation: Two Main ComponentsCore Self-Evaluation: Two Main Components •Self Esteem Individuals’ degree of liking or disliking themselves. •Locus of Control The degree to which people believe they are masters of their own fate. •Internals (Internal locus of control) Individuals who believe that they control what happens to them. •Externals (External locus of control) Individuals who believe that what happens to them is controlled by outside forces such as luck or chance.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 13. Machiavellianism Machiavellianism Machiavellianism (Mach) Degree to which an individual is pragmatic, maintains emotional distance, and believes that ends can justify means. Conditions Favoring High Machs Conditions Favoring High Machs ••Direct interaction with others Direct interaction with others ••Minimal rules and regulations Minimal rules and regulations ••Emotions distract for others Emotions distract for others© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 14. Narcissism Narcissism A Narcissistic Person •Has grandiose sense of self-importance •Requires excessive admiration •Has a sense of entitlement •Is arrogant •Tends to be rated as less effective© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 15. Self-Monitoring Self-MonitoringSelf-MonitoringA personality trait that measuresan individual’s ability to adjusthis or her behavior to external,situational factors. High Self-Monitors High Self-Monitors ••Receive better performance Receive better performance ratings ratings ••Likely to emerge as leaders Likely to emerge as leaders ••Show less commitment to Show less commitment to their organizations their organizations© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 16. Risk-Taking Risk-Taking High Risk-taking Managers – Make quicker decisions – Use less information to make decisions – Operate in smaller and more entrepreneurial organizations Low Risk-taking Managers – Are slower to make decisions – Require more information before making decisions – Exist in larger organizations with stable environments© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 17. Personality Types Personality Types Type A’s 1. are always moving, walking, and eating rapidly; 2. feel impatient with the rate at which most events take place; 3. strive to think or do two or more things at once; 4. cannot cope with leisure time; 5. are obsessed with numbers, measuring their success in terms of how many or how much of everything they acquire. Type B’s 1. never suffer from a sense of time urgency with its accompanying impatience; 2. feel no need to display or discuss either their achievements or accomplishments; 3. play for fun and relaxation, rather than to exhibit their superiority at any cost; 4. can relax without guilt.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 18. Personality Types Personality Types Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities, shows initiative, takes action, and perseveres until meaningful change occurs. Creates positive change in the environment, regardless or even in spite of constraints or obstacles.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 19. Values Values Definition: Mode of conduct or end state is personally or socially preferable (i.e., what is right & good) – Terminal Values • Desirable End States – Instrumental Values • The ways/means for achieving one’s terminal values Value System: A hierarchy based on a ranking of an individual’s values in terms of their intensity.Note: Values Vary by Cohort© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 20. Importance of Values Importance of Values Provide understanding of the attitudes, motivation, and behaviors of individuals and cultures. Influence our perception of the world around us. Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong.” Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over others.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 21. Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey Types of Values –- Rokeach Value Survey Terminal Values Desirable end-states of existence; the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. Instrumental Values Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 22. Values in Values in the the Rokeach Rokeach Survey Survey Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 4-3 E X H I B I T 4-3© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 23. Values in Values in the the Rokeach Rokeach Survey Survey (cont’d) (cont’d) Source: M. Rokeach, The Nature of Human Values (New York: The Free Press, 1973). E X H I B I T 4-3 (cont’d) E X H I B I T 4-3 (cont’d)© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 24. Mean Value Rankings of Mean Value Rankings of Executives, Union Executives, Union Members, and Activists Members, and Activists Source: Based on W. C. Frederick and J. Weber, “The Values of Corporate Managers and Their Critics: An Empirical Description and Normative Implications,” in W. C. Frederick and L. E. Preston (eds.) Business Ethics: Research Issues and Empirical Studies (Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, 1990), pp. 123–44. E X H I B I T 4-4 E X H I B I T 4-4© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 25. Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Values, Loyalty, and Ethical Behavior Ethical Values and Behaviors of Leaders Ethical Climate in Ethical Climate in© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 26. Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s Values across Cultures: Hofstede’s Framework Framework Power Distance Individualism vs. Collectivism Masculinity vs. Femininity Uncertainty Avoidance Long-term and Short-term orientation© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 27. Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing Cultures Hofstede’s Framework for Assessing CulturesPower DistanceThe extent to which a society accepts thatpower in institutions and organizations isdistributed unequally.Low distance: relatively equal powerbetween those with status/wealth and thosewithout status/wealthHigh distance: extremely unequal powerdistribution between those with status/wealthand those without status/wealth © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 28. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Individualism Vs. Collectivism A tight social framework in The degree to which which people expect people prefer to act as others in groups of which individuals rather than a they are a part to look member of groups. after them and protect them.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 29. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Masculinity Vs. FemininityThe extent to which the The extent to whichsociety values work roles there is littleof achievement, power, differentiationand control, and where between roles forassertiveness and men and women.materialism are alsovalued. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 30. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Uncertainty Avoidance The extent to which a society feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous situations and tries to avoid them. •High Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not like ambiguous situations & tries to avoid them. •Low Uncertainty Avoidance: Society does not mind ambiguous situations & embraces them.© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 31. Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d) Hofstede’s Framework (cont’d)Long-term Orientation Vs. Short-term OrientationA national culture A national culture attributeattribute that that emphasizes theemphasizes the future, present and the here andthrift, and persistence. now. © 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 32. Achieving Person-Job Fit Achieving Person-Job Fit Personality-Job Fit Theory (Holland) Personality Types Personality Types Identifies six personality types and proposes that ••Realistic Realistic the fit between personality ••Investigative Investigative type and occupational ••Social Social environment determines satisfaction and turnover. ••Conventional Conventional ••Enterprising Enterprising ••Artistic Artistic© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 33. Holland’s Holland’s Typology of Typology of Personality Personality and and Congruent Congruent Occupations Occupations E X H I B I T 4–8 E X H I B I T 4–8© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 34. Relationships Relationships among among Occupational Occupational Personality Personality Types TypesSource: Reprinted by special permission of the publisher, PsychologicalAssessment Resources, Inc., from Making Vocational Choices, copyright 1973, E X H I B I T 4–91985, 1992 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 4–9© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 35. Organizational Culture Profile (OCP) Organizational Culture Profile (OCP)  Useful for determining person- organization fit  Survey that forces choices/rankings of one’s personal values  Helpful for identifying most important values to look for in an organization (in efforts to create a good fit)© 2007 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 36. Organizational ValuesOrganizational Values  Power  Elitism (superiority)  Rewards  Effectiveness  Efficiency  Fairness  Teamwork  Law and Order  Defense  Competitiveness  Opportunism
  • 37. Work ValuesWork Values  Commitment  Self-Motivation  Integrity  Hard Work  Trust  Achievement  Contentment  Career progress