In the name of Allah Kareem,
Most Beneficent, Most Gracious,
the Most Merciful !
SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES
Quantitative Research
Quantitative research is "a formal, objective, systematic process in
whic...
1. Theory
4. Devise measures of concepts
2. Hypothesis
5. Select research site / Respondents
6. Data Collection
7. Prepara...
PURPOSE OF THEORY
1. Prediction
2. Understanding
LEVELS OF THEORY
1. Abstract level
2. Empirical level
PROCESS OF THEORY D...
2. Hypothesis / Research Questions
A predictive statement of a relationship between two or more
variable, which may then b...
4. Devise Measure of Concepts
Concept:
Abstract realities or generalized ideas about objects,
attributes, occurrence or pr...
Operationalization is the process of
defining a concept so that it becomes
measurable variable, which is
achieved by looki...
Cont…..
Gender
1. Male
2. Female
Motivation
1. Highly Motivated
2. Moderately Motivated
3. Less Motivated
Temperature
1. 97 C
2. 9...
Binary Response
formats
Numerical Response
formats
Verbal formats
Bipolar numerical
formats
Frequency formats
Response for...
Face Validity
(Validity where measure apparently
reflects the content of the concept in
question)
Predictive
(Researcher e...
Reliability
(Accuracy in
Measurement)
Test-retest reliability
Inter-item consistency
Split- half reliability
Parallel-form...
Population
the universe of units(nations, cities, regions, firms, students employees
etc.) from which the sample is to be ...
Sampling
Sampling Technique
Probability Non-Probability
Simple random sample
Systematic sample
Stratified random sample
Co...
Methods of Data Collection
Surveys
Survey is a quantitative research strategy that involves the structured collection of
d...
Mystery shopping is a popular technique used in consumer research
that involves sending people (mystery shoppers) into a s...
SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES 18
Quantitative Research
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Quantitative Research

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  • A good hypothesis should be:A definite statementBased on observations and knowledgePredict the results very clearTestable with straight forward experiment
  • Quantitative Research

    1. 1. In the name of Allah Kareem, Most Beneficent, Most Gracious, the Most Merciful !
    2. 2. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES Quantitative Research Quantitative research is "a formal, objective, systematic process in which numerical data are utilised to obtain information about the world" (Burns and Grove cited by Cormack 1991). Quantitative research is inclined to be deductive. In other words it tests theory. General aims of quantitative research •To generalize •To be objective •To test theories
    3. 3. 1. Theory 4. Devise measures of concepts 2. Hypothesis 5. Select research site / Respondents 6. Data Collection 7. Preparation of data 10. Report Writing 9. Drawing Conclusions 8. Analysis and interpretations Quantitative Research Process
    4. 4. PURPOSE OF THEORY 1. Prediction 2. Understanding LEVELS OF THEORY 1. Abstract level 2. Empirical level PROCESS OF THEORY DEVELOPMENT 1. Induction 2. Deduction 1. THEORY Theory is a standardized principle on which basis we can explain the relationship between two or more concepts or variables.
    5. 5. 2. Hypothesis / Research Questions A predictive statement of a relationship between two or more variable, which may then be tested through research TYPES OF HYPOTHESIS 1. Null Hypothesis Ho 2. Alternative Hypothesis H1
    6. 6. 4. Devise Measure of Concepts Concept: Abstract realities or generalized ideas about objects, attributes, occurrence or processes, that can not be measured directly. Concepts are the building blocks of theory. Examples level of motivation Variable Empirical realities that may have varied (different) values that can be measured directly is called variables Example: Gender (male or female) Temperature ( 98o , 95o , 100o ) etc
    7. 7. Operationalization is the process of defining a concept so that it becomes measurable variable, which is achieved by looking at behavioral dimensions and categorizing them into observable and measurable elements. Operationalization Cont…..
    8. 8. Cont…..
    9. 9. Gender 1. Male 2. Female Motivation 1. Highly Motivated 2. Moderately Motivated 3. Less Motivated Temperature 1. 97 C 2. 98 C 3. 99 C Time 1. 10 seconds Means 10 seconds more than 0 o o o Cont…..
    10. 10. Binary Response formats Numerical Response formats Verbal formats Bipolar numerical formats Frequency formats Response formats for scales My job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored • agree • disagree My job is usually interesting enough to keep me for getting bored 5 4 3 2 1 May job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored Strongly agree__ agree__ undecided__ disagree___ strongly disagree__ I love my job 5 4 3 2 1I hate my job My job is usually interesting enough to keep me from getting bored • All of the time ____ • often _____ • fairly often ____ • occasionally ___ • none of the time ____ Cont…..
    11. 11. Face Validity (Validity where measure apparently reflects the content of the concept in question) Predictive (Researcher employs the criterion whereby a new scale predicts a future event)Validity (Are we Measuring the Right thing) Convergent (A test has convergent validity if it has a high correlation with another test that measures the same construct) Concurrent (Researcher employs the criterion whereby a new scale measures a current event) Validity Cont…..
    12. 12. Reliability (Accuracy in Measurement) Test-retest reliability Inter-item consistency Split- half reliability Parallel-form reliability Cont….. Reliability
    13. 13. Population the universe of units(nations, cities, regions, firms, students employees etc.) from which the sample is to be selected. Sample the segment of the population that is selected for the investigation. It is a subset of the population. The method of selection may be based on a probability or a non-probability approach (see below). Sampling frame the listing of all the units in the population from which the sample will be selected. Representative Sample a sample that reflects the population accurately so that it is a microcosm of the population. Sampling error the difference between a sample and the population from which it is selected, even though a probability sample has been selected. 5.Selecting Research respondents
    14. 14. Sampling Sampling Technique Probability Non-Probability Simple random sample Systematic sample Stratified random sample Convenience sampling Snowball sampling Quota sampling 5.Cont…..
    15. 15. Methods of Data Collection Surveys Survey is a quantitative research strategy that involves the structured collection of data from a pre-determined sample. It involves following methods 1.Structured interview 2.Structured Observation 3.Questionnaire Survey Questionnaire Structured Interview On-line questionnaires Postal questionnaires Self administered questionnairesTelephone Interviews Face to face interview Structured Observation Participant Observation Non -Participant Observation
    16. 16. Mystery shopping is a popular technique used in consumer research that involves sending people (mystery shoppers) into a shop to buy products with the intention to evaluate the effectiveness of retail staff. After the interaction, the shoppers typically fill out rating sheet detailing the nature of the interaction and service they receive. It’s a type of field stimulation. Mystery Shopping
    17. 17. SUPERIOR GROUP OF COLLEGES 18

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