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referencing and bib.

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  1. 1. In the name of Allah Kareem, Most Beneficent, Most Gracious, the Most Merciful !
  2. 2. Referencing  Referencing means systematically showing what information or ideas you are quoting or paraphrasing, and where they come from.
  3. 3. Why Reference? Referencing is necessary to  Authenticate your research with evidence from literature  Acknowledge the original author  to enable readers follow-up the source  avoid plagiarism,
  4. 4. WHAT MUST I REFERENCE?  All work done by other researchers  Other writers' words
  5. 5. DIFFERENT REFERENCING SYSTEMS  APA Referencing  Harvard Referencing  Oxford-Cambridge Referencing  MLA  AMA  APA (American Psychological Association) Style: This system is primarily used by those writing in the social sciences.
  6. 6. Basic components of Referencing 1) In text referencing (citation) 2) End list Referencing
  7. 7. In-text Reference An in-text reference to show that a piece of information, idea, quotation, etc. It is always designed to be short because it is interrupting the text. Example: Much of this research has demonstrated that there is relationships between HR practices and firm profitability (Allen, 1996). Author Name Year
  8. 8. End list Referencing An End list reference to show the detailed information of source. It includes following contents Example:  Allen, N. J. and Meyer, J. P. (1996) ‘Affective, continuance and normative commitment and turnover’, Academy of Management Journal, 37: 670-87. Contents Example Author Name Allen, N. J. & Meyer, J. P. (1996) Year 1996 Title Affective, continuance and normative commitment and turnover Journal Academy of Management Journal Volume no 37 Page no 670-87
  9. 9. Examples Source In-text Example End-List Example Article Wharton (1996) Wharton, N. (1996). Health and safety in outdoor activity centers. Journal of Adventure Education and outdoor Leadership, 12(4), 8-9 Book Comfort (1997, p. 58) Comfort, A. (1997). A good age. London: Mitchell Beazley. Website Dawson & Smith, (2002) Dawson, J., Smith, L., (2002). Retrieved october 31, 2002, from
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