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Using Interactive Whiteboards and Clickers to Enhance Instruction and Assessment

Using Interactive Whiteboards and Clickers to Enhance Instruction and Assessment

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  • 1. Using Interactive WhiteboardsUsing Interactive Whiteboards and Clickers to Enhance Instruction and Assessments uc o a d ssess e Debra Pickering
  • 2. M t i l i h i ht d R d d l th k dMaterials appearing here are copyrighted. Readers may reproduce only those pages marked “Reproducible.” Otherwise, no part of this material may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means (electronically, photocopied, recorded, or otherwise) without written permission of Marzano Research Laboratory, acting on its behalf or on the behalf of the copyright owner. Copyright ©2010 by Marzano Research Laboratory For permissions questions, contact pubs@solution-tree.com. For questions regarding this event, contact institutes@solution-tree.com Business Office 555 North Morton Street Bloomington, IN 47404 Phone 888.849.0851 F 866 801 1447Fax 866.801.1447 Printed in the United States of America.
  • 3. Workshop Agenda ................................................................................................................... 1 Table of Contents Workshop Focus ….................................................................................................................. 2 Profile: Debra Pickering ………………..…………………………………………........... 3 Workshop Resources Introduction: Classroom Technologies, Framing Our Challenge, Sharing a Language …………..………………………..…….. 5 Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback 15Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback …………………………………….... 15 Engaging Students—Attention and Interest ………………………………………………. 23 Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals …… 31 Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency ………………………………………… 39 Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations 47Special Topic Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations ……………….……. 47 Procedural Knowledge: Increasing Proficiency ……………………………………………... 57 Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully ………………. 65 Putting It All Together ……………………………………………………………………... 73 Tapping the Undeniable WOW 77Tapping the Undeniable WOW ……………………………………………………………. 77 Workshop Agenda ................................................................................................................... 1 Table of Contents Workshop Focus ….................................................................................................................. 2 Profile: Debra Pickering ………………..…………………………………………........... 3 Workshop Resources Introduction: Classroom Technologies, Framing Our Challenge, Sharing a Language …………..………………………..…….. 5 Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback 15Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback …………………………………….... 15 Engaging Students—Attention and Interest ………………………………………………. 23 Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals …… 31 Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency ………………………………………… 39 Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations 47Special Topic Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations ……………….……. 47 Procedural Knowledge: Increasing Proficiency ……………………………………………... 57 Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully ………………. 65 Putting It All Together ……………………………………………………………………... 73 Tapping the Undeniable WOW 77Tapping the Undeniable WOW ……………………………………………………………. 77
  • 4. Day 1 & Day 2 7:30–8:30 a.m. Registration, breakfast Workshop Agenda 7:30 8:30 a.m. Registration, breakfast 8:30–11:30 a.m. Presentation and guided practice and application* 11:30 a.m.–12:45 p.m. Lunch 12:45–3:00 p.m. Presentation and guided practice and application* *Breaks are included. Agenda is subject to change without prior notice. © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 1
  • 5. Introduction—Classroom Technologies 1. Pros and cons Workshop Focus 2. Research results 3. Strong foundations • The Art and Science of Teaching F ti A t d St d d B d G di• Formative Assessment and Standards-Based Grading 4. Building on the foundation Framing Our Challenge and Sharing a Language 5. The interaction generationg 6. Definition of terms Reviewing Instructional and Assessment Topics Each instructional and assessment topic includes an explanation of the strategy, followed by specific recommendations for and demonstrations of how technology can enhance student achievement. Participants have opportunities to apply recommendations. 7. Developing assessment and instructional feedback 8. Engaging students—Attention and interest 9. Communicating and helping students focus on clear and essential Learning Goals 10. Achieving initial understanding and proficiency 11. Special topic: Creating visuals and nonlinguistic representations 12. Procedural knowledge: Increasing proficiency 13. Deepening understanding: Using and applying knowledge meaningfully ConclusionConclusion 14. Putting it all together 15. Tapping the Undeniable WOW—This topic will be addressed throughout the workshop. © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.2
  • 6. Debra Pickering, PhD, consults with schools and di i i ll d i i ll i Profile: Debra Pickering districts nationally and internationally as a senior scholar for Marzano Research Laboratory. Throughout her educational career, Dr. Pickering has gained practical experience as a classroom teacher, building leader, and district administrator. For many years, she has used this experience to provide training andhas used this experience to provide training and support to K–12 teachers and administrators as they seek to continually improve student learning. With a combination of theoretical grounding and over 3 decades of practical experience, Dr. Pickering has worked with educators to translate theory into practice. Her work continues to focus on the study of learning and the development of resources for curriculum, instruction, and assessment to help all educators meet the needs of all students. Key Resources Dr. Pickering has coauthored with  Dr. Pickering has a master’s degree in school administration and a doctorate in curriculum and instruction, with an emphasis in cognitive psychology. Robert J. Marzano: • Dimensions of Learning Teacher’s  Manual • Classroom Instruction That Works:  h d fResearch‐Based Strategies for  Increasing Student Achievement • Classroom Management That  Works: Research‐Based Strategies  for Every Teacher • Building Academic Vocabulary:          A Teacher’s Manual © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 3
  • 7. Introduction Classroom Technologies, Framing Our Challenge, Sharing a Languageg g g 5
  • 8. Introduction—Classroom Technologies Pros and Cons • Technologies can increase and enhance the use of effective Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas g instructional strategies. HOWEVER, they also can be used to perpetuate—even exacerbate—weak teaching. • Teachers using these technologies offer extensive testimonial• Teachers using these technologies offer extensive testimonial evidence of the positive effects in the classroom. HOWEVER, critics offer testimonials of how technologies are wasting our money. For example, critics of IWBs offer testimonials that show they can be used only as expensive chalkboards or more colorful overhead projectors.chalkboards or more colorful overhead projectors. • Teachers who use technologies report that they keep discovering MORE they can do in the classroom. HOWEVER, if teachers are going to use these tools MORE, they have to decide what they are going to do LESShave to decide what they are going to do LESS. Research Results • Quasi-experimental study (requested by Promethean) • Conditions: Experimental–control; pre- and post-tests; based onp ; p p ; classroom assessment results • Across all classroom studies, on average, in classrooms where IWBs were used, the average performance was 17 percentile points higher than the average performance of students when the IWBs were not used. S f i • 23% of studies had zero or negative effect. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 7
  • 9. Introduction—Classroom Technologies 1. What excites you about the potentials of classroom technologies? 2. What concerns you? (What are your howevers?) 3. What aspects of classroom technologies are you already using well? 4. What do you want to understand better as it relates to technology in the classroom? Notes © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.8
  • 10. Building on Effective Instructional and Assessment Strategies • The key to successful use of technology is a foundation of Introduction—Strong Foundations Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas strong instructional strategies and assessment practices. • It is important to work from a common language of instruction. • We will work using two books by Robert J. Marzano. Instruction: The Art and Science of Teaching What will I do to… 1. Establish and communicate Learning Goals, track student progress, and celebrate success? 2. Help students effectively interact with new knowledge? 3. Help students practice and deepen their understanding of newp p p g knowledge? 4. Help students generate and test hypotheses about new knowledge? (cognitively complex tasks) 5. Engage students? 6 E t bli h i t i l l d d ?6. Establish or maintain classroom rules and procedures? 7. Recognize and acknowledge adherence to and lack of adherence to rules and procedures? 8. Establish and maintain effective relationships with students? 9. Communicate high expectations for all students?g p 10. Organize lessons into a coherent unit? Assessment: Formative Assessment and Standards-Based Grading • Classrooms need summative assessment, formative assessment, and instructional feedback. • Because you cannot rely on the 100-point scale, an alternative, rubric scale is recommended. • The most important considerations are changes in behaviors of teachers and students AFTER the assessment. S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 9
  • 11. Introduction—Building on the Foundation InstructionKey Ideas, Questions, Ahas • What will I do to engage students—to influence their level of attention, perceptions of importance, and sense of efficacy? • What will I do to enhance and expand student interactions with• What will I do to enhance and expand student interactions with knowledge and people? • What will I do to communicate and help students focus on Learning Goals? • What will I do to help students achieve initial understanding and• What will I do to help students achieve initial understanding and proficiency? • What will I do to help students deepen understanding and increase proficiency? • What will I do to help students use and apply knowledge• What will I do to help students use and apply knowledge meaningfully? Summary and Reflections Student Interactions Student Engagement Learning Goals Achieve Initial Understanding and Proficiency Deepen Understanding Increase Proficiency Use and Apply Knowledge Meaningfully © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.10
  • 12. Introduction—Building on the Foundation AssessmentKey Ideas, Questions, Ahas • Summative assessment • Formative assessment • Instructional feedback Summative Assessment When scores are recorded and treated as the final measure of whether a student has achieved Learning Goals Formative Assessment When scores are recorded to track student performance over time. Results are used to plan subsequent learning opportunities associated with Learning Goals. Instructional Feedback When assessment is used to plan subsequent learning opportunitiesWhen assessment is used to plan subsequent learning opportunities associated with Learning Goals Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 11
  • 13. Introduction—Classroom Technologies 1. To what extent does your school or district work from an agreed-upon model–language of instruction and assessment that identifies and defines important areas of teacherp expertise? 2. To what extent is formative assessment used to influence subsequent behaviors of teachers and students? Notes © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.12
  • 14. Introduction—Framing Our Challenge and Sharing a Language Our Challenge: A Commitment to the Interaction Generation Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Generation We must use technologies to enhance and expand student interactions with knowledge and people. Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) Terms h i di id l di l• slides, flipcharts: The individual page displays • classroom whiteboard: When the IWB is used by teachers and students during lesson segments; nothing is designed ahead. • predesigned lesson: A series of slides designed to help students: 1. Gain initial understanding or beginning competencies with new knowledge. 2. Practice to develop fluency, automaticity, accuracy. 3. Deepen understanding and use knowledge in meaningful contexts. • predesigned resource: A slide or series of slides that can be apredesigned resource: A slide or series of slides that can be a stand-alone activity or integrated into a number of different instructional sessions. Examples include warm-ups, games, practice problems and situations, assessment items, and images. Learner Response Systems (Clickers) Termsp y ( ) • vote: Often used to prompt students to select from among specific choices • content specific: Asks for responses to questions that require some understanding or skill important to a content area • confidence opinion scale: Asks students to answer with an• confidence–opinion scale: Asks students to answer with an opinion or to rate themselves on levels of understanding or confidence Note: Other technologies will be referenced during this workshop, including the Internet, social networking Websites, and 1:1 laptops. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 13
  • 15. Notes
  • 16. Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback 15
  • 17. Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback • Teachers enhance and monitor student performance through: Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas • Summative assessment • Formative assessment • Instructional feedback • Formative assessment and instructional feedback: It is important to use assessments to enhance not just measureimportant to use assessments to enhance—not just measure— student performance. The most important thing is what happens AFTER assessment results are in. • John Hattie: The most important innovation in education is feedback. When students receive feedback on particular objectives, achievement has been shown to be 37 percentile points higher than for students who receive no feedback. • Hattie: “The mistake I made was seeing feedback as from teacher to students. It is most powerful when it is from students to teacher ” (Visible Learning 2009)to teacher. (Visible Learning, 2009) Examples of Responses to Assessment Results Teachers • Reteach. • Group students for peer Students • Seek help—teacher, tutor, peers.p p interaction. • Create support classes. • Provide alternative resources. ASS SS p • Review and restudy. • Seek other resources— Internet, books. • THEN REASSESS. • Another challenge is to design questions that assess increasingly complex levels of thinking. • You cannot rely on the 100-point scale to provide effective Summary and Reflections You cannot rely on the 100 point scale to provide effective feedback for particular objectives. © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 17
  • 18. 4 All of Level 3 PLUS Demonstrate Essential Targeted Knowledge with significant depth of understanding–level of ability in the Level 3 assessment A Scale That Encourages Continuous Learning g p g y or in new challenging application or situations 3.5 Demonstrate understanding and abilities from 3 beyond-targeted levels 3 Essential Targeted Knowledge Demonstrate Simpler Foundational (Level 2) and Complex Targeted Knowledge Knowledge 2. 5 Demonstrate all of 2 and some understanding or abilities from 3 2 Essential Foundational Knowledge Demonstrate Simpler Foundational Knowledge (No major errors or omissions in the simpler) Knowledge 1.5 Demonstrate some understandings or abilities of 2 1 With help, demonstrate some understandings and abilities .5 With help, demonstrate very limited understanding or abilityp y g y 0 Cannot demonstrate, even with help IE Insufficient evidence or no attempt made 3 Essential Targeted Knowledge Demonstrate that they: • Understand inheritable and noninheritable traits and the relative impact each has on phenotype. • Can make predictions using Mendelian squares 2. 5 Demonstrate all of 2 and some understanding or abilities from 3 2 Essential Foundational Knowledge Demonstrate that they understand: Terms: genetic, phenotype, genotype, inheritable noninheritable, dominant, and recessive, allele Facts: Some traits are inherited and some are results of environment. Mendel is the “father of modern genetics.” © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.18
  • 19. Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback Technology can help. E l Cli k Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Example: Clickers • Summative assessment can be much more effective because immediate results are available and scoring time is saved. • Formative assessment and instructional feedback in classrooms requires frequent assessments of student progress. Cli k k hi f ibl b f ffi i i diClickers make this feasible because of efficiency, immediacy, and anonymity. o Efficiency: Teachers are not dragging papers home or taking class time to grade them. Banks of questions can be accumulated over time. I di R l di l d i di l do Immediacy: Results are displayed immediately, and teachers and students can collaborate to determine next steps. o Anonymity: Unlike many visual methods of checking understanding, clickers allow students to answer without fear of embarrassmentfear of embarrassment. Example: IWBs • Graphics, software tools, and the Internet can provide authentic and dynamic contexts for assessments. Caution! • Avoid using for ONLY efficient summative, i.e., score- keeping. S f i • Although possible, it is more difficult to design clicker questions that assess higher levels of thinking. Avoid letting the technology limit the use of higher-level thinking. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 19
  • 20. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this aspect of instruction: Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas S d R fl tiSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.20
  • 21. Developing Assessment and Instructional Feedback 1. To what extent are results of assessments used to change behaviors of students and teachers in your: • Classroom? • School? • District? 2. What options do you or teachers consider when responding to students who have not yet achieved the level of performance desired? 3. To what extent do students have the opportunity to consider and report their own level of understanding and confidence before they are assessed? 4. As I think about how technology can influence formative assessment and instruction feedback, lid d b ill f d bI am validated by… I am still confused or unsure about... I wonder… I can’t help but... I plan to… I just think that… I can’t wait to… I want to remember... © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 21
  • 22. Notes
  • 23. Engaging Students Attention and Interest 23
  • 24. Student Engagement—Attention and Interest • Engagement relies on student Attention–interest Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Perceptions of importance Sense of efficacy • It is important to distinguish between compliant behavior and cognitive engagement. • Engagement is essentially a challenge of winning the battle for working memory. • Attention and interest is the gatekeeper. • In their repertoire, teachers have multiple strategies to capture and maintain student attention. Strategies include: Academic games Inconsequential competition Questions and response rates Physical movement Pacing Intensity and enthusiasm Friendly controversy Opportunities for students to talk about themselvesOpportunities for students to talk about themselves Unusual information S d R fl iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 25
  • 25. Technology can help. • The WOW factors of technology are attention-getters Student Engagement—Attention and Interest Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas The WOW factors of technology are attention getters. • Technology can make it easier to use attention strategies listed earlier. Example: IWBs M k it h bit t i t t t t i i t l d b ild i• Make it a habit to integrate strategies into lessons and build in cues as reminders to “mix it up.” • Develop and store easily accessible resources for using things like games and unusual information. • Feature student ideas on the board and integrate their images d i di tl d i di tland experiences, directly and indirectly. • Build cues in your lessons as reminders to mix it up. • Use tools in the software, e.g., recording devices and camera tools, to capture the lesson and allow students to review at their own pace at a later time. Examples: Clickers • Use clickers to increase the number of students who respond and their level of commitment to the prompt. (They have “skin in the game.”) • Clickers are particularly helpful in setting up friendly controversy and inconsequential competition. Caution! • Remember, multiple approaches are needed because what S d R fl i Remember, multiple approaches are needed because what captures students’ attention does not necessarily maintain their attention.. • Engagement also requires that students believe that what they are doing is important and doable. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.26
  • 26. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this aspect of instruction: Student Engagement—Attention and Interest Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 27
  • 27. Student Engagement—Attention and Interest 1. To what extent are these types of strategies used to engage students (gain and maintain their attention) in your: • Classroom? • School? • District? 2. To what extent do you believe this area of teacher expertise should be an explicit part of your model or language of instruction? 3. As I think about how technology can influence this area of teacher expertise, lid d b ill f d bI am validated by… I am still confused or unsure about... I wonder… I can’t help but... I plan to… I just think that… I can’t wait to… I want to remember... © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.28
  • 28. Notes
  • 29. Notes
  • 30. Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals 31
  • 31. • A Learning Goal identifies what students learn, separate from h h d d h l i Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas what they do to demonstrate that learning. • There are two major types of Learning Goals. Declarative information and ideas: Students demonstrate that they know and understand: o Terms and details o Generalizations and principles Procedural skills and processes: Students demonstrate that they are proficient at: o Mental and psychomotor skills and processes • It is often a challenge to ensure that students focus on and achieve essential Learning Goals. Students sometimes focus too much on activities and assignment completion. • Meeting this challenge means that teachers need to help students interact with knowledge by: Focusing and REFOCUSING students on clear Learning Goals Teaching Learning Goals that are IMPORTANT and GENERAL enough to apply. When working with declarative knowledge, consider focusing on principles and generalizations that are important, not just on terms and details. S f i Using activities that SERVE Learning Goals and stimulate cognitive interactions. It is easy to be content with physical interactions; be sure that activities stimulate cognitive interactions. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 33
  • 32. Technology can help. Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Technology can help. Example: Interactive Whiteboards (IWBs) To enhance and expand student interactions with knowledge, set standards for materials that are designed and distributed. Those standards should state that IWB materials need to: y , Q , standards should state that IWB materials need to: • Integrate Learning Goals throughout the lesson by, for example, stating Learning Goals in clear language at the presentation’s beginning, using software tools to refer regularly to Learning Goals, and sprinkling lessons with lid th t i d th t h d t d t f L i G lslides that remind the teacher and students of Learning Goals. • Develop Learning Goals that are powerful and transferable, e.g., generalizations and principles. • Use software tools and electronic media to design activities that ser e the Learning Goalthat serve the Learning Goal. Caution! • It is easy to be distracted by what we CAN do with technology instead of what we SHOULD do. S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.34
  • 33. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas aspect of instruction: y , Q , S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 35
  • 34. 1. To what extent do students understand and focus on Learning Goals—more so than on the Communicating and Helping Students Focus on Clear and Essential Learning Goals 1. To what extent do students understand and focus on Learning Goals more so than on the activities—in your: • Classroom? • School? • District? 2. To what extent do you believe this area of teacher expertise should be an explicit part of your model–language of instruction? 3. As I think about how technology can influence this area of teacher expertise, I am validated by… I am still confused or unsure about... I wonder… I can’t help but... I plan to… I just think that… I can’t wait to… I want to remember... © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.36
  • 35. Notes
  • 36. Notes
  • 37. Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency 39
  • 38. • To build an initial understanding or beginning competency, students receive critical-input experiences that help them Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas interact with new knowledge. • A major goal must be to help students go beyond physical– sensory interactions to achieve cognitive interactions. • When presenting new knowledge, teachers can enhance interactions by having students: P i h t th l d kPreview what they already know. Process knowledge in appropriately paced chunks. Connect with peers as they process knowledge. Elaborate on what they learn. Record and represent what they learn. Reflect on their learning. S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 41
  • 39. Technology can help. Example: IWBs Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Example: IWBs To enhance and expand student interactions with knowledge, we can set standards for materials that are designed and distributed. Those standards should state that IWB materials need to: • Separate lessons into clear chunks—with slides signaling those chunks. • Build in processing and questioning cues. • Integrate reminders to allow students to take notes— teacher prepared or student generated. • Use prompts and resources that encourage interactions with peers and essential knowledge. I l d t iti f t d t t d th b d• Include opportunities for students to respond on the board, then use those responses over time. Example: Clickers To enhance and expand student interactions with knowledge, set standards for increasing the number and quality of responses. Thoseg q y p standards need to state that when using the clickers, teachers should consider: • Designing questions and prompts that encourage diverse answers • Following up questions with peer interactions, such as i di id l l i d findividual explanations and support for answers • Using student responses to guide phases of interacting to acquire the new knowledge • Asking students to communicate their level of understanding and communicate whether they are ready to move on Caution! • It is easy to be distracted by and content with physical– sensory interactions. Focus on cognitive interactions. • Eliciting and displaying answers does not necessarily stimulate cognitive interactions with knowledge. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.42
  • 40. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this aspect of instruction: Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas • BrainPOP • GoogleEarth S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 43
  • 41. Achieving Initial Understanding and Proficiency 1. To what extent are these types of strategies ensure that students interact with new knowledge in your: • Classroom? • School? • District? 2. To what extent do you believe this area of teacher expertise should be an explicit part of your d l l f i t ti ?model–language of instruction? 3. As I think about how technology can influence this area of teacher expertise, I am validated by… I am still confused or unsure about... I wonder… I can’t help but... I plan to… I just think that… i bI can’t wait to… I want to remember... © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.44
  • 42. Notes
  • 43. Notes
  • 44. Special Topic Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations 47
  • 45. Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations • A new area of teaching expertise is designing the visual presentation of content to enhance learning. Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas • We know students learn better with a combination of linguistic and nonlinguistic presentations of knowledgelinguistic and nonlinguistic presentations of knowledge. • For predesigned lessons and resources on IWBs, work to design, not to decorate. • IWBs in particular require that we increase our• IWBs in particular require that we increase our understanding of and ability to use visual presentation principles, such as those associated with: Clarity–focus Consistency–flow Simplicity–parsimony Color–contrast Space—Proximity • When using the IWB as classroom whiteboard apply the S f i When using the IWB as classroom whiteboard, apply the same guidelines for effective visuals. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 49
  • 46. Guidelines for Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations C i Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Clarity–Focus Where should the learner look? What should be the focus of attention and for what purpose? (What is the Learning Goal?) The top of the page, especially to the left, should hold areas of focus (Learning goal? Directions? First in a sequence?). ________________________________________________ Consistency–Flow How are visuals organized across slides to help learners construct scaffolds of ideas in their minds? Repeat images (including placement) to build an increasingly complex idea. Repeat layout features (border, bleeding) to connect ideas among a set of slides. Tell a story. ________________________________________________ Simplicity–Parsimony How do images and use of negative space on slides help learners stay focused on what is important? Let go of the “save a tree” mentality. Images should guide the eye to a particular point.g g y p p Avoid random decorative, loosely associated images. Use words precisely and sparingly. Do whatever you can to  eliminate the words you  don’t need  to  Don’t use too many  communicate the crux of  what you want the  students to learn. Make  your point and then get  out. y words to make what  should be a simple point. Adapted from Williams, The Non‐Designer’s Presentation Book (2009) Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.50
  • 47. Guidelines for Visuals and Nonlinguistic representations Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Color–Contrast How does the array of color choices contribute to cognitive and affective processing of knowledge? Use contrast to make it easy to see images and text (light on dark?). Avoid busy backgrounds; they make you lose contrastAvoid busy backgrounds; they make you lose contrast. You want students to see images and text, not color. Space—Proximity How does placement of images and words on a slide help communicate relationships in knowledge?relationships in knowledge? Put words on or near images that they explain. Put images in groups when they are connected to a single idea. Show relationships with placement of images and text, e.g., when something is PART of something else, show that; when something PRECEDES something else, show that. S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 51
  • 48. Key ideas from the research of Richard E. Mayer’s Multimedia Learning (2009): Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Coherence principle: People learn better when extraneous words and pictures are eliminated. Redundancy principle: People learn better from animation and narration than from animation, narration, and on-screen text presented simultaneously. Signaling principle: People learn better when words include cues about the presentation’s organization. Spatial contiguity principle: People learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near rather than far from each other on the page or screen.p g Temporal contiguity principle: People learn better when di d d i t t d i lt l S f i corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.52
  • 49. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this aspect of instruction: Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Additional resources (books) from outside of education: • Durante, N. (2008). Slide:ology: The Art and Science of Creating Great Presentations • Mayer R E (2009) Multimedia Learning• Mayer, R. E. (2009). Multimedia Learning. • Reynolds, G. (2010). Presentation Zen Design: Simple Design Principles and Techniques to Enhance Your Presentations • Williams, R. (2009). The Non-Designer’s Presentation BookBook Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 53
  • 50. Special Topic—Creating Visuals and Nonlinguistic Representations 1. Interactive whiteboards present new challenges to teachers in terms of designing and using visuals effectively. To what extent do you believe that all teachers should increase their level of expertise in this area? 2. What challenges or barriers exist when pursuing this new area of teaching?g p g g 3. What can or should schools and districts do to make skillful use of visuals a priority?p y © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.54
  • 51. Notes
  • 52. Notes
  • 53. Procedural Knowledge Increasing Proficiency 57
  • 54. Procedural Knowledge: Increasing Proficiency • Phases of learning essential skills and processes Learning the steps requires Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Learning the steps requires explicit modeling and written steps. Shaping and adapting requires learning important variations and avoiding common errors. Developing fluency and automaticity requires massed and distributed practice. • The systemic challenge is making sure students develop fluency or automaticity for essential skills and processes, especially given that students learn skills and processes in such different timeframes. It can be helpful to group and regroup students for practice sessions. Students can pass a test without having reached fluency or automaticity. S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 59
  • 55. Technology can help. Procedural Knowledge: Increasing Proficiency Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Example: IWBs • The tools of the board and the Internet make it easier to provide a diverse array of practice contexts. • The recording devices allows for students to review the skills– processes at their own pace as many times as needed. Example: Clickers • Using clickers allows for quick, frequent practice in-class sessions for some skills. This makes it easier to identify which students have internalized the skill–process and which ones need morehave internalized the skill process and which ones need more time. S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.60
  • 56. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this aspect of instruction: Procedural Knowledge: Increasing Proficiency Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 61
  • 57. 1. To what extent are students using massed and distributed practice to achieve proficiency and fluency in your: Procedural Knowledge: Increasing Proficiency • Classroom? • School? • District?District? 2. To what extent do you believe this area of teacher expertise should be an explicit part of your model–language of instruction? 3. As I think about how technology can influence this area of teacher expertise, I am validated by… I am still confused or unsure about... I wonder… I can’t help but... I plan to… I just think that… I can’t wait to… I want to remember... © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.62
  • 58. Notes
  • 59. Notes
  • 60. Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully 65
  • 61. Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully • Deepening understanding requires different thinking skills than does developing initial understanding. Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas • Asking higher-level questions is not enough in that you often get lower-level answers. • A major challenge is getting beyond “21st century rhetoric” by committing to teach to students the thinking skills they need. • This requires that schools and districts develop a common language of thinking skills that includes consistent definitions and guidelines across grade levels and subject areas. • When presented with or creating their own questions and tasks that require specific types of thinking skills, students should: Have access to instructive resources that increase their understanding of and ability to use thinking skillsunderstanding of and ability to use thinking skills. Receive feedback that guides them to increase higher levels of thinking. Collaborate with peers to use common thinking skills as they engage in cognitively complex tasks. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 67
  • 62. Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully • Meaningful-use tasks should be increasingly cognitively complex. Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas • Similar to deepening understanding, cognitively complex tasks require different types of thinking skills. • Designing cognitively complex tasks does not mean students know how to use thinking skills necessary. Reinforcing • This requires that schools and districts develop a common language of thinking skills that includes consistent definitions and guidelines for use across grade levels and subject areas.g g j • When presented with or creating their own questions and tasks that require specific types of thinking skills, students should: H i i h i h iHave access to instructive resources that increase their understanding of and ability to use thinking skills. Receive feedback that guides them to increase higher levels of thinking. Collaborate with peers to use common thinking skills as they i i i l l kengage in cognitively complex tasks. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.68
  • 63. Technology can help. Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas Example: IWBs To stimulate deepening of understanding and engagement in cognitively complex tasks, teachers and schools can: • Develop premium content available on a network to all teachers. Thi t t h ld id i t t ff ti i t ti iThis content should provide consistent, effective instruction in designated thinking skills, such as comparing, metaphorical thinking, analyzing errors, analyzing perspectives, decision makings, problem solving. • Generate multiple sample questions and tasks to use for instructional and assessment across the curriculuminstructional and assessment across the curriculum. Example: Clickers To stimulate deepening of understanding and engagement in cognitively complex tasks: • Structure questions that stimulate and guide students to use specific thinking skills they are being taught. • Follow up questions with teacher–students and peer–peer interactions that help students “produce” knowledge, e.g., discover, rethink, conclude, question, create, invent. Caution! M k h id li f hi ki kill d i• Make sure the guidelines for thinking skills are not used as strict algorithms for thinking. Summary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 69
  • 64. Other technologies and electronic resources to enhance this aspect of instruction: Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas p S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.70
  • 65. 1. To what extent are students receiving effective, consistent instruction in the use of specific thinking skills in your: Deepening Understanding: Using and Applying Knowledge Meaningfully • Classroom? • School? • District?District? 2. To what extent do you believe this area of teacher expertise should be an explicit part of your model–language of instruction? 3. As I think about how technology can influence this area of teacher expertise, I am validated by… I am still confused or unsure about... I wonder… I can’t help but... I plan to… I just think that… I can’t wait to… I want to remember... © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 71
  • 66. Notes
  • 67. Putting It All Together 73
  • 68. Putting It All Together • What will I do to communicate and help students focus on Learning Goals? What are Learning Goals?What are Learning Goals? Declarative knowledge: Students demonstrate that they know or understand… Procedural knowledge: Students demonstrate that they are proficient at… How will I design resources to help students maintain focus on Learning Goals? • What will I do to help students achieve initial understanding and proficiency? Achieve initial understanding?Achieve initial understanding? Achieve initial proficiency? • What will I do to help students deepen understanding and increase proficiency? Deepen understanding? Increase proficiency? • What will I do to help students use and apply knowledge meaningfully? • What will I do to engage students—to influence their level of attention, perceptions of importance, and sense of efficacy? • What will I do to enhance and expand students’ interactions with knowledge and with people? © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 75
  • 69. Notes
  • 70. Tapping the Undeniable WOW 77
  • 71. Tapping the Undeniable WOW Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas S d R fl iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate. 79
  • 72. Tapping the Undeniable WOW Key Ideas, Questions, Ahas S f iSummary and Reflections © Marzano Research Laboratory 2010 • Marzanoresearch.com Do not duplicate.80
  • 73. Notes
  • 74. Notes
  • 75. Book: The Art and Science of Teaching: A Comprehensive Framework for Effective Instruction Though classroom instructional strategies should clearly be based on sound science and research, knowing when to use them and with whom is more of an art. In TheArtandScienceofTeaching:AComprehensiveFrameworkforEffectiveInstruction, author Dr. Robert Marzano presents a model for ensuring quality teaching that balances the necessity of research-based data with the equally vital need to understand the strengths and weaknesses of individual students. He articulates his framework in the form of 10 questions that represent a logical planning sequence for successful instructional design. DR. ROBERT MARZANO’S PROGRAM TO SUPPORT EFFECTIVETEACHING Online Course: Establishing Learning Goals to Support Learning and Instructional Design This companion online course provides in-depth exploration and practical tools to help teachers apply strategies from this book when designing classroom goals and objectives to address high levels of learning for students.This course also provides the skills for teachers to facilitate the development of effective learning goals with student. Online Course: Monitoring and Measuring Student Progress This companion online course helps teachers apply the topic of this book on formative assessment and standards-based systems by providing job-embedded tools for them to develop a system of tracking and reporting student progress towards learning and achievement. Products Available: Book • TheArtandScienceofTeaching:AComprehensiveFrameworkforEffectiveInstruction Online Course • FoundationsoftheArtandScienceofTeaching Book and Course Bundle • BestValue! Graduate Option • Thiscoursemayalsobetakenforgraduateeducationcreditsearnedtowardsa Master’sDegreeintheArtandScienceofTeaching,theexclusivedegreebyDr.Marzano. Book • DesigningandTeachingClassroomGoalsandObjectives Online Course • EstablishingLearningGoalstoSupportLearningandInstructionalDesign Book and Course Bundle • BestValue! Graduate Option • Thiscoursemayalsobetakenforgraduateeducationcreditsearnedtowardsa Master’sDegreeintheArtandScienceofTeaching,theexclusivedegreebyDr.Marzano. Book • FormativeAssessment&Standards-BasedGrading Online Course • MonitoringandMeasuringStudentProgress Book and Course Bundle • BestValue! Graduate Option • Thiscoursemayalsobetakenforgraduateeducationcreditsearnedtowardsa Master’sDegreeintheArtandScienceofTeaching,theexclusivedegreebyDr.Marzano. Online Course: Foundations of the Art and Science of Teaching This companion online course offers deeper treatment of this book around Dr. Marzano’s Art and Science ofTeaching framework and provides practical tools to directly implement the framework in your classroom to improve student learning and achievement. It establishes the series foundation by presenting Dr. Marzano’s 10 instructional design questions with tools to help teachers immediately implement them in unit planning and design. Products Available: Products Available: Book: Formative Assessment & Standards-Based Grading Learn everything you need to know to implement an integrated system of assessment and grading that will enhance your teaching and your students’learning. Dr. Robert Marzano details the specific benefits of formative assessment—assessment that is used during instruction rather than at the end of a course or unit. He explains how to design and interpret three different types of formative assessments, how to track student progress, and how to assign meaningful grades, even if a school or district continues to use a traditional grading system. Detailed examples brings each concept to life, and exercises help reinforce the content. Book: Designing and Teaching Classroom Goals and Objectives Design and teach effective learning goals and objectives by following strategies based on the strongest research and theories available. This first book in the Classroom StrategiesThatWork library includes a short summary of the key research behind these classroom practices and shows how to implement them using step-by-step, hands-on strategies. Short quizzes help readers assess their understanding of the instructional best practices explained in each section *Groupenrollmentratesavailable *Groupenrollmentratesavailable *Groupenrollmentratesavailable www.marzanoresearch.com Special BundleValue! book +online course Special BundleValue! book +online course Special BundleValue! book +online course
  • 76. Marzano Research Laboratory Dr. Robert J. Marzano 2010 Register today! Fall Workshops The Highly Engaged Classroom October 11–12 Jacksonville, FL Hyatt Regency Jacksonville Riverfront Formative Assessment and Standards-Based Grading October 13–14 Jacksonville, FL Hyatt Regency Jacksonville Riverfront Fall Institutes Dr. Marzano’s 3 Critical Commitments for Dramatic School Improvement Develop a plan for school improvement with commitments in the areas of assessment, instruction, and vocabulary. September 27–28 Columbus, OH Greater Columbus Convention Center November 4–5 Las Vegas, NV Bally’s Las Vegas Presented by Marzano Research Laboratory MarzanoResearch.com 888.849.0851 Presented by Solution Tree solution-tree.com 800.733.6786

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