Knowledge Management in Theory and Practice KIMIZ DALKIR BUTTERWORTH-HEINEMANN (2005) PRESENTED BY: ANDREA EDWARDES-EVANS & TANYA HEWITT
Introduction• Dr Kimiz Dalkir, McGill University School of Information Studies• Knowledge • Commodity • In employee‟s brains• Knowledge Management • Goals, Definition • Multidisciplinary nature • Interesting history
Chapter 2: The Knowledge Management Cycle Cycle Description Stages 1)Acquisition 2) Refinement Zack KM Cycle Consists primarily of creating a higher value added „knowledge product‟ at 3) Storage/retrieval each stage of knowledge processing 4) Distribution Fig. 2-2 5) Presentation or Use 1)Get 2) UseBukowitz & Williams KM 3) Learn 4) Contribute Cycle Outlines how organizations generate, maintain & deploy strategically 5) Assess 6) Build & sustain correct stock of knowledge to create value 7) Divest Fig. 2-4 Consists of the process of knowledge production and knowledge McElroy KM Cycle integration, with a series of feedback loops to organizational memory, 1) Knowledge production Fig. 2-5 beliefs, and claims and the business-processing environment. It provides 2) Organizational Knowledge a description of how knowledge is evaluated and shows conscious decision 3) Knowledge Integration as to whether knowledge will be integrated into organizational memory Focuses on 3 conditions that need to be present for an organization to 1) Building knowledge Wiig KM Cycle conduct business successfully: it must have a business (products/services) 2) Holding knowledge Fig.2-10 and customers; it must have resources (people, capital & facilities) and it 3) Pooling knowledge must have the ability to act 4) Applying knowledge 1) Knowledge capture &/or creationAn Integrated KM Cycle The integrated cycle subsumes most of the steps involved in the previous 2)Knowledge sharing & dissemination Fig. 4-1 4 KM cycles. (Breaks all of the other cycle‟s steps into 3 general steps.) 3)Knowledge acquisition & application
Chapter 3: Knowledge Management Models Name Year Key Concepts Characteristics Knowledge Individual Group Enablers InhibitorsVon Krough and 1995 Connectionist approach – Information from Knowledge Familiarity, mind set ofRoos there can be no knowledge environment & emergent practice, mutual individuals, without a knower generated phenomenon from trust and respect, communication, internally social interaction org structure, relationshipsNonaka and 1995 Converting tacit to explicit Knowledge Externalization “Brainstorming Poor models, notTakeuchi knowledge and vice versa creation; and Combination camps”; using metaphorsKnowledge Spiral Socialization & “Knowledge and analogiesFig 3-2 Internalization Journalists”Choo Sense- 1998 Sensemaking, decision Selection and Enactment Loosely coupled Tightly coupledmaking making retentionFig 3-3Wiig Building and 1993 Semantic networks; Personal Public and Shared Well mapped Poor knowledgeUsing Knowledge Degrees of Internalization, knowledge knowledge semantic sharing attitudesTable 3-2 Hierarchy of knowledge networksFig 3-3Boisot I Space 1998 Information Good; Social Abstraction Codification Prior knowledge Different codingFig 3-10 Learning Cycle Diffusion schemesIntelligent 1981, Biologically based - Decision maker, Cooperation Sense of Unity ManagerialComplex Adaptive 2004 symbiosis action taker Collaboration and Purpose DecreeSystemFig 3-11
Chapter 4: Knowledge Capture & CodificationTacit knowledge Capture Tacit Knowledge Capture at Individual & Group Levels Tacit Knowledge Capture at the Organizational LevelExplicit Knowledge Codification Concept Maps
Chapter 5 – Knowledge Sharing and Communities of Practice Not finding information costly Communities of practice Company‟s technological resources for workers with common interest –(Fig. 5-6) Tools Social Network Analysis – mapping out how workers get information (Fig. 5-3) Community Yellow Pages - expertise location system Undernets
Chapter 6: Knowledge Application at theKnowledge Individual LevelApplication • Characteristics of Individual Knowledge Workers • Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Objectives • Task Analysis – EPSS Knowledge Application at the Group & Organizational Level • Knowledge Reuse • Knowledge Repositories
Chapter 7: Definition of organizational culture The Role ofOrganizational Not consciously created Culture Cultural diagnosis KM success depends on: TRUST SHARING LEADERS
Chapter 9: KM Strategy & Metrics KM Strategy Knowledge Audit Gap Analysis Strategy Road Map Corporate Amnesia Balancing innovation and structure KM Metrics Benchmarking Balanced Scorecard House of Quality
Chapter 10: The KM Team KM Skills Major Categories of KM Roles - Senior Management Roles KM Roles and Responsibilities within Organizations The KM Profession
Chapter 11: Future Challenges of KM No all inclusive vendor solutions Information Politics Incentives Knowledge Based Assets The social nature of KM
Additional Websites and Sourceshttp://kimizdalkir.com , http://www.mcgill.ca/sis/people/faculty/dalkir/– the author & her workhttp://www.teamware.com - Groupware and collaboration toolshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wiki - example of a wikihttp://www.tfpl.com – is a specialist recruitment, advisory, training and research services companyhttp://www.tfpl.com/resources/skills_map.cfmhttp://www.tfpl.com/skills_development/skills_toolkit.cfmwww.kmci.org – certificate in knowledge and information managementhttp://www.iep.edu/e/ethics.htm - internet encyclopedia of philosophy (on ethics)http://www.dkms.com/papers/Doing_KM.pdf - Doing Knowledge Management by Firestone & McElroyhttp://www.orgnet.com – Social Networking Analysis company (though none are very good Dr Dalkirstates)http://www.kmworld.com/ - “Covering the latest in Content, Document and Knowledge Management” VERY comprehensive – publishers of KMWorld magazine – completely digital and accessible!http://www.sopheon.com/HOME.aspx - KM company with white papers, newsletter, KM products (specifically yellow pages)http://www.knowledgeshop.com.au/Home/ - the advisors advisorhttp://www.iasplus.com/standard/ias38.htm - intangible assets standardhttp://www.apqc.org/ - American Productivity and Quality Center – pioneer of benchmarkinghttp://www.qpr.com/solutions/balanced-scorecard-solution.htm - balanced scorecard producthttp://www.qfdi.org/ - Quality Function Deployment Institute “the only comprehensive quality system aimed specifically satisfying the customer”http://www.best-in-class.com/Database - measurement success stories
Points for Discussion Tacit knowledge transfer vs. real work Physical layout of the workspace – planning for socialization Knowledge hoarding – what to do? Crafting ideal incentives
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