Terry Anderson Alt C Final
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Terry Anderson Alt C Final



Slides from my Keynote at ALT-C in Manchester, UK Sept. 2009. Two major topics - Jon Dron and my Taxonomy of the Many (review) and a new slides on Open Scholarship. CC but attribution requested

Slides from my Keynote at ALT-C in Manchester, UK Sept. 2009. Two major topics - Jon Dron and my Taxonomy of the Many (review) and a new slides on Open Scholarship. CC but attribution requested



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  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
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  • I like the idea of compelling not compulsory education and thank you for introducing me to a number of tools I was unfamiliar with through this presentation. #h817open
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  • May be more fruitful to think in terms of both-and rather than either-or? There is value in control and leading as there is value in inspiring and motivating. The challenge is to maintain the best of both over time knowing that systems will move towards one extreme when the other is overdone. I am thinking of polarity management as a conceptual model for a new pedagogy.
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  • So this new epistemology produces a rather odd kind of student — one who appears polite and dutiful but who cares little about the course work, the larger questions it raises, or the value of living an examined life. And it produces such students in overwhelming abundance. Tim ClydesdaleWe need to teach as if our students were colleagues from another department.

Terry Anderson Alt C Final Terry Anderson Alt C Final Presentation Transcript

  • Association for Learning Technology
    Manchester, UK,
    8-10 September 2009
    Terry Anderson, Ph.D.
    Canada Research Chair in Distance Education
  • Introduction
    Terry Anderson’s CV in Wordle Tag Cloud
  • Anderson & Anderson,( submitted for publication)
  • Presentation Overview
    Brief scan of the environment
    Taxonomy of the Many
    The Open Scholar
  • Values
    We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience.
    Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education and learning.
    Education for elites is not sufficient for planetary survival.
  • Harmonizing Disruptive Technologies
    “Managing and aligning pedagogical, technical and administrative issues is a necessary condition of success when using emerging technologies for learning”
    But it takes leadership and disruption
    Gregor Kennedy et al. , Melbourne Educating the Net Generation: A Handbook of Findings for Practice and Policy , 2009
  • Recent history of Higher education Innovation
    Last systemic innovation was the emergence of the community colleges and open and alternative colleges of the 1960’s
    Last 40 years of reform:
    Examples: Problem based learning, faculty development, community, collaborative, technology enhanced learning
    Peripheral and outside of main stream rewards and strategic planning
    “ We can no longer pursue an add-on approach to the changing faculty role”
    Rice, Eugene. (2006). From Athens and Berlin to LA: Faculty Work and the New Academy
  • Promising Signs
    Ubiquity and multi-functionality of web 2.0
    Growth of openness and online resources, OERs
    Increasingly effective pedagogical models and learning activities
    Real educational alternatives – including private sector
    Death and retirement
  • Aligning with 21 Century students
    Students are NOT deeply digitally engaged, empowered, nor skilled and certainly not homogeneous
    But they “arrive at college with well-established methods of sorting, doubting, and ignoring”
    “odd kind of student — one who appears polite and dutiful but who cares little about the course work, the larger questions it raises, or the value of living an examined life” Tom Clysdale, 2009 Wake Up and Smell the New Epistemology
    Or is the life that we examine in formal education?
    We can no longer maintain interest and enthusiasm based on respect and superior knowledge
  • Net presence means Creating and Sustaining Social Capital
    “Relationships, more than information, determine how problems are solvedor opportunities exploited.” p. 17 Looi2001)
  • Choosing the righttool(s)?
    http://www.go2web20.net over 3000 apps
  • Taxonomy of the ‘Many’ – A Conceptual ModelDron and Anderson, 2007
    Conscious membership
    Leadership and organization
    Cohorts and paced
    Rules and guidelines
    Access and privacy controls
    Focused and often time limited
    May be blended F2F
    Metaphor :
    Virtual classroom
  • Formal Learning and Groups
    Long history of research and study
    Established sets of tools
    Synchronous (F2F, video & net conferencing)
    Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills
    Garrison and Anderson, 2001
  • Critical Tools for Group Learning Environments
    Collaborative tools
    Document creation, management, versioning
    Time lines, calendars,
    Strong notifications
    Security, trust
    hosting on institutional space?
    Behind firewalls, away from search engines
    Decision making and project management tools
    Synchronous and asynchronous conversations/meetings
  • Groups as Communities of Practice
    Wengler’s ideas of Community of Practice
    mutual engagement – synchronous and notification tools
    joint enterprise – collaborative projects, “pass the course”
    a shared repertoire – common tools, VLEs, IM and doc sharing
  • Online communities are a means to help preserve and continue the interests, knowledge and culture of a group bound by common interests. Looi, C. K. (2001)
    Looi, C. K. (2001). Enhancing learning ecology on the Internet Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 17(1), 13-20
  • Distributed web 2.0 Group Tools
  • Problems with Groups
    Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN
    Often overly confined by teacher expectation and institutional curriculum control
    Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice
    “low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005
    Group think (Baron, 2005)
    Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
    Paulsen (1993)
    Law of Cooperative Freedom
  • From Groups to Flocks ?? Michael Wesch
    Do groups still only make sense in education?
  • Frontiers of Group Learning
    From systems designed to tack, control and lead learners, to systems designed to motivate and inspire learning.
    What motivates learners?
    • Personal and social relevance
    • Opportunity to do well and be recognized
    • Chance to meet cool people and engage in cool activities
    • Disequilibrium (Dewey)
    • Rewards - formal education’s last strategic advantage
    Frontier College Archives
  • Groups Summary
    Groups are necessary, but not sufficient for quality learning
  • Group
    Shared interest/practice
    Fluid membership
    Friends of friends
    Reputation and altruism driven
    Emergent norms, structures
    Activity ebbs and flows
    Rarely F2F
    Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice
  • Networks add diversity to learning
    “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
  • Collaborative Learning In Groups
    Cooperative Learning in Networks (Paulsen, 2008)
    Compelling, not compulsory activities
  • Google Wave ??
  • Communities of Practice
    Share common interest
    Self organizing
    looser aggregation defined by a range of loose and tight links
    No expectation of meeting or even knowing all members of the Network
    Little expectation of reciprocity
    Contribute for social capital, altruism and a sense of improving the world/practice through contribution
    (Brown and Duguid, 2001)
  • Transparency
    The ability to view and share thoughts, actions, resources, ideas and interests of others.
    “radically increase learner awareness of others’ learning activities in the PLE”
    Marc van Harmelen Manchester PLE
    Dalsgaard, C., & Paulsen, M. (2009) Transparency in Cooperative Online Education
  • Major Challenges in Creating Incentives to Sustain Contribution to Networks
    The New Yorker September 12, 2005
  • "the network contains within it antagonistic clusterings, divergent sub-topologies, rogue nodes" Galloway and Thacker, 2007 p. 34
    “There is crack in everything, that's how the light gets in” Leonard Cohen
    Image from http://www.flickr.com/photos/eeblet/423397690/
  • Connectivist Learning
    emergent practice, rather than prescribed education.
    Helping and scaffolding students to construct, connect, explore and mash resources and people to create contexts, that induce learning.
    George Siemens
  • Network Pedagogies
    Participatory Pedagogy- Students as content-co-creators, peer teaching
    Learning in environments in which activities and outcomes emerge in response to authentic need creates powerful learning opportunities
    Learning at the edge of chaos
    Complicity: An International Journal of Complexity and Education
    See the Networked Student by Wendy Drexler
  • Student Organized Networks
  • Network Tool Set (example)
    Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007
  • Access Controls in Elgg
  • Voicethread.com
  • Network Learning EnvironmentSummary
    Cooperative versus collaborative
    Compelling but optional interaction
    Finding, building and enriching connections inside and outside of the “course”
  • Group
    ‘Aggregated other’
    Unconscious ‘wisdom of crowds’
    Stigmergic aggregation
    Algorithmic rules
    Augmentation and annotation
    More used, more useful
    Data Mining
    Never F2F
    Wisdom of Crowds
  • Formal Education and Collectives
    “a kind of cyber-organism, formed from people linked algorithmically…it grows through the aggregation of Individual, Group and Networked activities” Dron & Anderson, 2007
    Collectives used to aggregate, then filter, compare, contrast and recommend.
    Personal and collaborative search and filter for learning
    Allows discovery and validation of norms, values, opinion and “ways of understanding”
    Educational semantic web
    “They follow not the logic of the network but of the set. They are aggregations that appear in some ways as a single entity” Dron & Anderson, 2009.On the Design of Collective Applications
  • Aggregation
    Data Mining
    Filter &
  • Collective Tools
    Crowd Sourcing
  • Collective Examples
  • Groups
    Taxonomy of the Many
    Dron and Anderson, 2007
  • Personal Learning Environments
    Easy to use
    Personally configurable
    Gadgets, widgets
    Push and pull data
    Multiple machines, portable
    Reflective spaces,
    Creating net presence and social capital
  • Dron & Anderson,
  • Social Learning 2.0 Applications in Educational Contexts
  • Open Scholar
    “the Open Scholar is someone who makes their intellectual projects and processes digitally visible and who invites and encourages ongoing criticism of their work and secondary uses of any or all parts of it--at any stage of its development”.
    Gideon Burton Academic Evolution Blog
  • Open Scholars Create:
    A new type of education work maximizing:
    Social learning
    Media richness
    Participatory and connectivist pedagogies
    Ubiquity and persistence
    Open data collection and research process
    Creating connections
  • Open Scholars Use and Contribute Open Educational Resources
    Because it saves time!!!
  • Open Scholars Self Archive
    Quality scholarship is peer and public reviewed, accessible, persistent syndicated, commented and transparent.
  • Open Scholars Apply their research
  • Open Scholars do Open Research
    Open Notebook: a laboratory notebook that is freely available and indexed on common search engines. …it is essential that all of the information available to the researchers to make their conclusions is equally available to the rest of the world.
    —Jean-Claude Bradley
  • Open Scholars Filter and Share With Others
  • Open Scholars support emerging Open Learning alternatives
  • Open Scholars Publish in Open Access Journals
    Open Access Journals have increased citation ratings:
    Work in progress with Olaf Zawacki-Richter, Ferne University, Germany
    Analysis of Google citations for 12 Distance Education Journals (using Harzing’s Publish or Perish tool)
    6 open access, 6 commercially published
    Early results show roughly equal citations/paper, but recent gains in citations by open access journals
  • Open Scholars Create Open Access Books
    Upcoming Emerging Technologies in DE edited
    by George Veletsiano
  • Open Scholars comment openly on the works of others
    Bookmarking and Annotation add value
    Cite-u-like, Brainify, Diigo, Delicious etc
    VLE additions like Margenalia.
  • Open Scholars Build Networks
  • Open Scholars Lobby for Copyright Reform
    Source: swiss-copyright.ch
  • Open Scholars Assign Open Textbooks
  • Open Scholars Induce Open Students
    Students as co-creators
    Students gaining experience as writers, authors and teachers
    Getting over the use, but don’t contribute barrier
    Students engaged in meaningful work
    Extensive literature on value of peer instruction - especially for gifted students
    Empowering learners as future teachers
  • Open Scholars support Open Students OpenStudents.Org
  • Open Scholars Teach Open Courses
    George Siemens & Stephen Downes
    Introduction au technologieémergentes
    Dave Cormier
    Alec CuorosOpen Access Course: Social Media &
    Open Education (Fall 2009)
  • Open Scholars Research Openness
  • Open Scholars are Change Agents
    Open scholars develop tools and techniques to help cross-pollination, sustain and grow effective learning networks.
    From (Looi 2001).
  • Open Scholars Battle with Time
    Save Time by using the efforts of others
    I haven’t got the time to save!
  • Open Scholars are Involved in the Future
    Through personal experience we forge an ecology of lifelong learning.
  • Conclusion
    “Open Access is more than a new model for scholarly publishing, it is the only ethical move available to scholars who take their own work seriously enough to believe its value lies in how well it engages many publics and not just a few peers.”
    Gideon Burton, Academic Evolution Blog
  • Slides available on CrowdVinehttp://altc2009.alt.ac.uk/attachments/0000/4595/ALT-C_Final.pptx
    Your comments and questions most welcomed!
    Terry Anderson terrya@athabascau.ca
    Homepage: http://cde.athabascau.ca/faculty/terrya.php
    Blog: terrya.edublogs.org