Educational Social Software Edmedia 2007


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Keynote talk at EdMedia

Published in: Education, Technology
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  • Excellent. Brilliant ideas.

    Darren Mack
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  • Very interesting ppt. The research indicated PPT only contains 30% of information; therefore the 70% valuable information comes from the presenter himself/herself. provides you a chance to record your voice with your PowerPoint presentation and upload to the website. It can share with more readers and also promote your presentation more effectively on
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  • Seen from this perspective Bb looks rather small and insignificant in comparison with the so called web 2.0 endless possibilities! And so it should…I guess!?
    The question then is: how long do we still have to wait for this perspective to be adopted by a wider (academic/ Staff) audience?
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  • I second Scott's words. I really like the hand-on approach. I think it is the way to go. Negotiating with the IT dept. is a big deal, but something that has to be done. An open dialog among the interested parties (Technician and academic staff and the learners of course) is what we lack most of the times. How to you get people to talk to each other – that’s the question…
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  • Educational Social Software Edmedia 2007

    1. 1. Social Learning 2.0 Ed-Media 2007 Terry Anderson with lots of help from Jon Dron Slides available at
    2. 2. Presentation Overview <ul><li>Traditional Opening Joke </li></ul><ul><li>Setting the Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Affordances of the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emerging Pedagogies </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Granularity of Social Learning 2.0 </li></ul><ul><li>Social Learning 2.0 across: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Personal Learning Environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Formal education delivery </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Institutional learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Design principles for educational social software </li></ul><ul><li>Adoption context and ways forward </li></ul>
    3. 3. Why is E-Learning Better Than Sex? <ul><ul><li>If you get tired, you can stop, save your place and pick up where you left off. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can finish early or take the time your need without feeling guilty. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You can get rid of any viruses you catch with a $50 program from McAfee </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With a little coffee you can do it all night. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You don’t usually get divorced if your spouse interrupts you in the middle of it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>And If you're not sure what you are doing, you can always ask your tutor. </li></ul></ul>
    4. 4. Values <ul><li>We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the learning experience. </li></ul><ul><li>Student control and freedom is integral to 21 st Century life-long education and learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Education for elites is not sufficient for planetary survival </li></ul>
    5. 5. The Net Changes Everything! <ul><li>Affordances of the Net, Net 2.0, e-learning 2.0, Semantic web and related other acronyms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Content </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication & </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Agents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Anderson and Whitelaw, 2004) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New pedagogies </li></ul>
    6. 6. Affordance 1. - Massive Amounts of Content <ul><li>Any information, any format, anytime, anywhere </li></ul><ul><li>Customizable content </li></ul><ul><li>Interactive content </li></ul><ul><li>User created content </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wiki-everything </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Open access content </li></ul>
    7. 7. A Tale of 3 books Open Access 84,000 downloads plus indiv. chapters 350 hardcopies sold @ $50.00 Free at Commercial publisher 934 copies sold at $52.00 Buy at Amazon $$$ E-Learning for the 21 st Century Commercial Pub. 1200 sold @ $135.00 2,000 copies in Arabic Translation @ $8.
    8. 8. Open Access Press <ul><li>New Distance Education and Educ. Technology series </li></ul>
    9. 9. Content - conclusion <ul><li>Cheap or free </li></ul><ul><li>Need to learn to develop business models, technologies and culture allowing us to share and re-use content and learning designs </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t build your value on your content </li></ul><ul><li>Content is necessary, but not sufficient, to create a quality educational experience </li></ul>
    10. 10. Affordance #2 High Quality, Low Cost Communication <ul><li>Multi mode </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous, asynch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Text, audio, video multi-media </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A2A (avatar to avatar) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stored, indexed and retrievable </li></ul><ul><li>Reflective, emotive and cognitive </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile </li></ul><ul><li>Embedded & Pervasive </li></ul><ul><li>Learner, teacher, community and commercially created </li></ul>
    11. 11. Chaz Maloney
    12. 12. Challenge: Creating Incentives to Sustain Meaningful Contribution The New Yorker September 12, 2005
    13. 13. What’s so great about Face-to-Face? <ul><ul><li>“ I learned more about Clive by reading his introduction tonight online than I did in our entire course together last summer ” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Kerlin, R-A, 1997) </li></ul></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Affordance 3 Agents <ul><li>Google Alerts </li></ul><ul><li>MeetingWizard </li></ul><ul><li>RSS </li></ul><ul><li>Athabasca </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Freudbot AIML </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>E-Advisor </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Are you ready for AU ? Agents </li></ul></ul>
    15. 15. Affordances of the Educational Semantic Web (Anderson & Whitelaw, 2004) Content Communication Agents WIKI Blogs FaceBook Flicker Filtering SecondLife Calendaring Geotracking Learning Email, Skype, IM Learning Objects Open Access Press Google Alert RSS
    16. 16. Emerging Pedagogies <ul><li>Connectivism – “Knowledge exists in the network” (Siemens, 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Community of Inquiry – Garrison and Anderson, 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Integrating online learning – pedagogy of nearness Mejias, 2005 </li></ul><ul><li>Participatory Culture – Jenkins 2006 </li></ul><ul><li>New Learning Environments John Seely Brown, 2006 </li></ul>Our educational discourse is largely stuck in a time warp, framed by issues and standards set decades before the widespread use of the personal computer, the Internet, and free trade agreements.” Stewart and Kagan (2005)
    17. 17. Interaction Models of Learning <ul><li>Effective interaction between and among learners, content and teachers makes authentic learning happen. </li></ul>
    18. 18. Learner Teacher Content Educational Interactions Learner / teacher Teacher / content. Teacher / teacher Content / content Learner / learner Learner / content <ul><li>Anderson (2002) Equivalency Theorem </li></ul>
    19. 19. Learner Teacher Content Educational Interactions Learner / teacher Teacher / content. Teacher / teacher Content / content Learner / learner Learner / content <ul><li>Anderson (2002) Equivalency Theorem </li></ul>Group as educational actor Jon Dron, 2007
    20. 20. Learner Teacher Content Learner / teacher Teacher / content. Teacher / teacher Content / content Learner / learner Learner / content <ul><li>Anderson (2002) Equivalency Theorem </li></ul>Group as educational actor Stephen Downes, 2006 network Stephen Downes, 2006
    21. 21. Learner Teacher Content Learner / teacher Teacher / content. Teacher / teacher Content / content Learner / learner Learner / content <ul><li>Anderson (2002) Equivalency Theorem </li></ul>Group as educational actor Anderson & Dron, 2007 collective Dron & Anderson
    22. 22. Models of the Many “ Collective representations exist outside of individual consciences, it is because they derive not from individuals taken one by one, but from their interaction, which is very different” Émile Durkheim Sociologie et Philosophie (1924 -1963, translation Masse
    23. 23. Collective Conscious <ul><li>“ Being placed outside of and above individual and local contingencies, it sees things only in their permanent and essential aspects, which it crystallizes into communicable ideas.  … it alone can furnish the minds with the moulds which are applicable to the totality of things and which make it possible to think of them &quot; ( Durkheim 1954 (1912), p.444 ” ). </li></ul><ul><li>...The state of anomie is impossible whenever interdependent organs are sufficiently in contact and sufficiently extensive. (Durkheim 1972, p. 184 The Division of Labor in Society) </li></ul>
    24. 24. Evolutionary Model Of Collective Conscious Creation (from Durkheim) Mechanistic Organic Emergent Primitive, similarity, dependence Family, tribe and religion orientated Modern Specialization Division of Labour Mass media, State institutions Post modern, Net Based, networked, ubiquitous, weak and strong links, Syndication & Aggregation , Individuated media, Collective Consciousness
    25. 25. Taxonomy of the ‘Many’ Dron and Anderson, 2007 Group Conscious membership Leadership and organization Cohorts and paced Rules and guidelines Access and privacy controls Focused and often time limited May be blended F2F Metaphor : Virtual classroom
    26. 26. Group Network Shared interest/practice Fluid membership Friends of friends Reputation and altruism driven Emergent norms, structures Activity ebbs and flows Rarely F2F Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice
    27. 27. Metaphor: Wisdom of Crowds Group Network Collective ‘ Aggregated other’ Unconscious ‘wisdom of crowds’ Stigmatic aggregation No membership or rules Augmentation and annotation through use Data Mining Never F2F
    28. 28. Social Learning 2.0 Dron and Anderson, 2007 Collective Group Network
    29. 29. Social Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Each of us participates in Groups, Networks and the Collective. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning is enhanced by exploiting the affordances of all three sources of social learning. </li></ul><ul><li>Issues, memes, opportunities and learning activities arise at all three levels of granularity. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain network tools are optimized for each level of granularity - Can they be appropriated for effective use? </li></ul>
    30. 30. Choosing the right tool? 1313 logos as of June 22, 2007
    31. 31. Social Learning 2.0 Applications in Educational Contexts Organizational Learning Formal Education Personal Learning Environments Collectives Networks Groups
    32. 32. Formal Education and Groups: <ul><ul><li>Comfortable, classes and cohorts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increases: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>completion rates, </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>achievement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>satisfaction ( Jung, Choi, Lim, and Leem (2002) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Same logistic challenges as for institutional, campus -based learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can operate ‘behind the garden wall” to allow freedom for expression and development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Refuge for scholarship </li></ul></ul>
    33. 33. Formal Learning and Groups <ul><li>Longest history of research and study </li></ul><ul><li>Need to optimize: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive presence </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching presence ( </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Established sets of tools – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LMS </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous (video & net conferencing) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul>
    34. 34. Problems with Groups <ul><li>Confining in time, space pace, & relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Often overly confined by teacher expectation and institutional curriculum control </li></ul><ul><li>Foster learner dependencies </li></ul><ul><li>Isolated from the world of practice </li></ul>Paulsen 1993 Relationships
    35. 35. Challenges of using informal social software tools for formal group tasks <ul><li>Control </li></ul><ul><li>Support </li></ul><ul><li>Privacy </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment </li></ul><ul><li>Ownership and perseverance </li></ul>
    36. 36. Example: How are Blogs used in Groups? <ul><li>“ You are required to post at least two messages to your blog and respond to the postings of at least two other enrolled students. </li></ul><ul><li>Please use your postings to address the issue discussed on pages 34-38 of your text. </li></ul><ul><li>Your post and responses will be assessed for 10% of your final grade </li></ul><ul><li>To protect your privacy, your blog is not accessible outside of the LMS and postings will be destroyed at the end of the course.” </li></ul>Paraphrased from major UK university graduate school requirements
    37. 37. Assessing Reflective writing <ul><li>If we don’t assess the blog, will students use them?? </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is important to distinguish from the start journals that are essentially available for public or semi-public inspection and those which are designed to prompt reflection. It is misleading to treat all forms of journal writing as equivalent to each other.” Boud , 2001 </li></ul><ul><li>Only learners should be able to decide on the audience - no-one; everyone (including Google); teacher; class; parents; etc.) Elgg has this capacity. </li></ul>
    38. 38. 2. Formal Learning with Networks <ul><li>Each of us may belong to many networks </li></ul><ul><li>Networks use and create artifacts, that are searchable </li></ul><ul><li>Networks connect self-paced and independent learners </li></ul><ul><li>Network leadership arises in multiple formats </li></ul><ul><li>Supported by multiple, mostly free communications </li></ul><ul><li>Allows connectivism to flourish (Siemens 2006) “It is not what you know, but who you know to ask.” </li></ul>
    39. 39. Formal Education and Networks (cont.) <ul><ul><li>Provides resource from which students’ extract information </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>In school one should learn to build, contribute to and manage one’s networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Through exposure, provides application and validation of information and skills developed in formal learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basis for ongoing support and advise from alumni and professional communities </li></ul></ul>
    40. 40. Network Tools <ul><li>Most web 2.0 apps including: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Profiles: Finding significant others </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blogging - outside the garden wall </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation systems (Slashdot, Diigo, Diig, Cite-u-like) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Scheduling meet-ups for study, debate, collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connecting people and resources - syndicating </li></ul></ul>
    41. 41. Network Learning Applications <ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Extract and comment on a themes from last month’s IT Forum – blog results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create an analysis of affordances of Second Life for educational purposes – blog results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Search and summarize from Technorati the roll-out of OLPC $100 laptop program? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Using quotes from Hansard and Members Blogs, define the Conservatives’ position on global warming, and blog preliminary results for group and network feedback </li></ul></ul>
    42. 42. 3. Formal Education and Collectives <ul><li>Personal and collaborative search and filter for learning tasks </li></ul><ul><li>Smart retrieval from the universal library of resources – human and learning objects </li></ul><ul><li>Requires high skill and literacy skills to effectively extract </li></ul><ul><li>Requores contribution to the collective (tagging, sharing whenever possible, leaving traces) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(only 16% of users are taggers (Pew, 2005) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Allows discovery and validation of academic norms, values and paradigms </li></ul>
    43. 43. Collective Application - Amazon
    44. 44. Example 2 Wisdom of Crowds <ul><li>“ The concept is simple but brilliant; Ask enough people simple yes or no questions with knowledge of the demographic data of those you ask and you create an extremely useful resource. </li></ul><ul><li>Offer those same people access to the data they've helped build </li></ul><ul><li>Let those same people define the questions they're asked and you've created a self-propelling phenomenon that taps the wisdom of diverse communities.” </li></ul>
    45. 45. Unplanned, unanticipated encounters are central to democracy itself. Such encounters often involve topics and points of view that people have not sought out and perhaps find quite irritating. They are important partly to ensure against fragmentation and extremism, which are predictable outcomes of any situation in which like-minded people speak only with themselves (Sunstein, 2001, P.8)
    46. 46. <ul><li>How do you design effective activities for Groups, Networks and the Collective ?? </li></ul>
    47. 47. Design principles for Social Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Emergence, Evolution and Complexity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Adaptability ; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Evolvability; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Stigmergy </li></ul></ul>(from FLYTREE ) (Dron, 2007)
    48. 48. Design principles for Social Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Architecture and Design; </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Constraint, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Parcellation; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Scale . </li></ul></ul>(Dron, 2007)
    49. 49. Design principles for Social Learning 2.0 <ul><li>Social Psychology & community, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Sociability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Embedded opportunity for building relationships ; </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Trust – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>personal control </li></ul></ul></ul>Photo by Eye Press. (Dron, 2007)
    50. 50. Design principles for Social Learning 2.0 (Dron, 2007) <ul><li>Networking Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Principle of Connectivity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>all components linked (syndicated) to each other </li></ul></ul></ul>OpenID Windley (Dron, 2007)
    51. 51. Steven Warburton, 2007
    52. 52. Are Social Networking and Collective activities Disruptive Technologies? <ul><li>Start out as not being good enough for the established market </li></ul><ul><li>Have scalability, mass production advantages </li></ul><ul><li>Appeal to non traditional consumers </li></ul><ul><li>Not understood by mainstream organizations </li></ul>Clayton M. Christensen Disruptive Technologies: Catching the Wave , his 1997 book The Innovator's Dilemma .
    53. 53. Should you establish a formal institution presence in FaceBook? <ul><li>Is it ‘their space’ or ‘our space’ or ‘everyone’s space’?? </li></ul><ul><li>Where will Facebook be in 12 months? </li></ul>
    54. 54. Don’t Expect help from your IT department <ul><li>“ in the bowling alley (pre tornado, rapid adoption phase) you are asking a company to adopt a new paradigm in advance of the rest of the market. This is not in the interest of the IT department. It means extra work for them, and it exposes their mission-critical systems to additional risk. </li></ul><ul><li>Far better for them is to stay with their current paradigm a while longer, experimenting with the new one off line, but not embracing it. Instead you must turn to the end-user community.&quot; p. 46-47 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Moore’s 1995 Inside the Tornado </li></ul></ul>
    55. 55. Strategies for Early Adopter Leaders <ul><li>Use the tools you want others to explore </li></ul><ul><li>Develop learning activities in new Network and Collective spaces </li></ul><ul><li>Develop an action or design-based research program to validate and learn from your interventions </li></ul><ul><li>Communicate the results through your networks </li></ul>
    56. 56. Importance of this issue <ul><li>Educational challenges are not met through evangelism, threats or technologies alone. </li></ul><ul><li>Change happens when teachers, administrators and learners make it happen </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Perceived benefits – Personal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Readiness - Organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure – Inter-organizational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chwelos; Benbasat; Dexter, 2001) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Each of us is an agent of change </li></ul>
    57. 57. Conclusion: Benefits of Using Social Learning 2.0 tools and concepts <ul><li>Lifelong learning skill </li></ul><ul><li>Enhances involvement with and awareness of learning processes –unfreezes old patterns </li></ul><ul><li>Creates legacy and real world artifacts </li></ul><ul><li>Supports collaborative and reflective learning </li></ul><ul><li>Increases integration with institution, teacher, other students across the taxonomy of the Many </li></ul>
    58. 58. “ &quot;He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.&quot; -  Chinese Proverb Terry Anderson [email_address] Blog: Your comments and questions most welcomed!