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Analysis of Personal Learning Networks in Support of Teachers Presence Optimization


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Analysis of Personal Learning Networks in Support of Teachers Presence Optimization

  1. 1. Analysis ofPersonal Learning Networks in Support of Teachers’ Presence Optimization Malinka IVANOVA, Technical University of Sofia Carmen HOLOTESCU, Politehnica University Timisoara Gabriela GROSSECK, West University of Timisoara
  2. 2. Aim To study the organization of Personal Learning Networks (PLN) and to support the optimization of teachers’ efficacy and productivity
  3. 3. Outline • Networked world • Related work • Survey results and analysis • Discussion and the model for PLN optimization • Conclusion
  4. 4. Social networks progress of information and communication technologies need of reliable connection and successful dialog among people with similar interests Web 2.0 developed tools and social software with flexible user interface culture of sharing, promotion of new ideas and connection socialization through web-based communicative and collaborative activities enhanced instruments for personalization phenomenon of a networked world SNs have a strong impact on teachers’ behaviors - forself-elaboration, improvement of teaching and collaboration
  5. 5. Personal Learning Network Learning network - Social learning networks - describes the gained experience of can utilize social software and social students and teachers when they networking sites – learning through utilize computers for learning interactions among participants(, 2001) Personal learning networks - describe “the sum of all social capital and connections that result in the development and facilitation of a personal learning environment” , (Couros, 2010) The social interactions of every person could support his currently emergedor future planned needs for learning, shaping the individual features
  6. 6. Research QuestionsWhether What is the Howand how dependence a PLN could be a PLN could between optimized tofacilitate the network stimulate the teacher’s structure and teacher’s practice? the teacher’s productivity? efficacy?
  7. 7. Used Method • about the impact of social networking and social media literature on personal and professional developmentexploration • research reports and scientific papers with experimentations focused on teachers’ online presencecreation of a • to understand teachers’ engagement and motivation for participation in social networkstool for data • to comprehend the ways of PLN building collection • to catch up the purposes of use • to support the teachers practice in the directions of model personal learning network optimization and further elaborationdevelopment
  8. 8. Literature Exploration Social media potential • A report of organizations :, • A report about relationship IESD Inc., MMS Education, and MCH between professionalSocial networks use Inc. about personal and professional development of educators usage of SNs by school principals, and social media (McCulloch, librarians, teachers and students McIntosh, Barrett 2011) • Benefits of SNs for education are: • Social media potential for information and resources sharing, improvement of teachers’ professional learning communities’ quality and performance - creation, improvement of school-wide identified through case communications , (Final report School studies and through Principals and Social Networking in presenting the social media Education, 2010) benefits for business
  9. 9. • A paper for Ning use in Microblogging for personal developmentSocial Networks in distance learning Social media in Higher education • Exploration of social • A paper for the role support of topics media for personal of microblogging for discussion, community of practice forming and and professional use personal students’ social presence • Findings - educators development and building are active users of organization of social • advantages of social Facebook, YouTube, networking network range from LinkedIn, blogs, wikis, • several possible “increased levels of Twitter, 90% of them learning scenarios are communication and have a stake in social proposed, (Holotescu collaboration to deeper media, (Moran, and Grosseck, 2010) levels of reflection”, Seaman, Tinti-Kane, (Brady, Holcomb, Smith, 2011) 2010)
  10. 10. Scientific Events Exploration• the importance of scientific events related to the PLE/PLN concepts : – the conference from Barcelona, Spain (2010) – the conference from Southampton, UK (2011)
  11. 11. Social Network Analysis (SNA)SNS - a method for understanding the formal and informal relationships in a socialnetwork (its structure) and how connections could facilitate or cumber knowledgegathering and learning occurring, (Serrat, 2009) Web crawling method - for analysis of online social networks like Flickr, YouTube, LiveJournal and Orkut - suitable in the situation when the users’ data is not directly accessible, (Mislove et al., 2007) Content-based SNA - for the reaching data from mailing lists - a network is divided in subgraphs organizing participants according to the discussed topic, (Bohn et al., 2011) Personal network analysis - to explore the structure of relations among young people and to find the connections in personal networks and discourses, (Aguilar, 2003)
  12. 12. participate in different SNA social networks • A survey with questions grouped into three categories: – current PLN structure – its dynamic viewevery PLN use a wide – regular usage for personalconsists of variety of development and for several Teachers social educational purposes social learning • This survey is distributed to networks platforms teachers from Primary schools, High schools and universities over the world have specific (Thanks to @pdonaghy) individual interests
  13. 13. Survey Results Teachers’ gender: Teachers’ ages:70% 59%60%50% 10% 41% 24% 32% 25-3540% male 36-4530% female 46-5520% 34% 56-6510% Average ages of surveyed teachers: 430%
  14. 14. 45% Teaching subject/s: Language as a foreign language40% 39% Computer science, Information35% Systems, Mathematics Educational30% technology, eLearning Natural science25%20% Humanities 17% 15%15% 12% 12% Primary education10% Social science 5% 5% 5%5% 2% Entrepreneurship and0% Business
  15. 15. Nationality: Romanian Bulgarian Spanish 2% 2% 2% New Zealand 2% 2% 2% 2% 10% Irish 7% Greek 5% American 5% Brazilian 17% 5% Indian Canadian 12% 7% British 10% German 2% French Egyptian 2% Argentinian Italian Portuguese Turkish
  16. 16. What kind of social software do you use in your personal learning network? 120% social networks 100% 98% 85% authoring tools 80% 78% 78% 66% analytical tools 60% search engines 40% 32% software for 20% 15% communication software for collaboration 0% Other: Managed learning environment (Google Apps for Education including Teacher Dashboard (Hapara)), LMS Moodle, software for curation / storage (Scoopit, Diigo, Mendeley), mobile applications
  17. 17. What social networks do you use? What social educational platform do you use for educational purposes (teaching/learning)?100% 78% 76% 90% 80%80% 68% Facebook 80%60% 70% Google Docs Twitter 59% 60% 54%40% 32% Linkedin Wiki 24% 50% Classroom 2.0 40% Ning20% other 30% 24% Moodle 0% 20% 17% 17% Edu 2.0 10% other 0% Other:Tuenti (Spanish social network), Edublog, Google+, YouVersion (Bible), School Management System, PB Other: Wordpress, Etwinning Blogger, FROG Works, SoundCloud, Ning, ConnectYard, VLE Kidblog, NING, Haiku (google aPLANET, EFL Ning ap), Blackboard, Edmodo,, tried Classroom, Flickr, Pinterest, Blogger, Logn in the past, Google et, Xing Sites, Netvibes, cirip (microblogging platforms), Twitter, Moodle. Edu 2.0
  18. 18. Do you have an account in Twitter? 10% yes 90% no Do you have an account in social network Facebook? 100% 93% 90% 80% 70% 60% 50% yes 40% no 30% 20% 10% 7% 0%
  19. 19. How long do you use Twitter? 5% 16% 8% < 1 year 1 year 16% 22% 2 years 3 years 32% 4 years > 4 years How long do you use Facebook? 0.45 39% 0.4 0.35 < 1 year 0.3 24% 24% 1 year 0.25 2 years 0.2 0.15 3 years 10% 0.1 4 years 0.05 3% > 4 years 0
  20. 20. How often do you use Twitter?30% 27% continuously25% several times in a day20% 19%19% daily15% 14% How often do you use Facebook? several times in a 11% week10% weekly 30% 5% 5% continuously 26%5% several times in a 25% 24% month several times in a0% rarely day 20% daily 16% 15% 13% several times in a week 10% 10% 8% weekly 5% 3% several times in a month 0% rarely
  21. 21. How many friends do you have –following/followers in Twitter?20% 18%18% 18%18% > 1300/150016% > 900/130014% > 1900/800 12%12% > 800/80010% 9% > 200/300 8% 6% > 100/100 6% 4% 3% 3% < 50/50 How many friends do you have in Facebook? 2% < 11/11 0% 25% 20% < 50 20% 51-100 15% 15% 15% 15% 15% 101-200 10% 201-300 10% 301-400 7% 600-700 5% 3% 800-900 > 1000 0%
  22. 22. What is the structure of your friends in Twitter?90% real friends80% 78% 73%70% family members60% 57%50% 46% colleagues40% 30%30% other interesting for you 22% people that you do not20% know in real life – in personal aspect10% other interesting for you people that you do not0% know in real life – in professional aspect
  23. 23. 60% 54% search tool 50% 43% 41% 40% recommendation toolHow do you expandyour Twitter network? 30% 24% web sites 20% functionality (Twitter 10% add button) other 0% Other : “I receive an email from twitter that someone new is following me. So, I click on their profile. I read their recent tweets. If I am interested, I follow them”. “Now I only add people if they follow me and if they look interesting I follow them back. Or I add a person now if I actually meet them F2F. Or if I read an article or email and their twitter handle is there I may add them”. “Nearly always following people of my people, Im following re-tweet”. “I really dont plan to expand my Twitter network”. “People find me when I present at conferences”. In case of “personal recommendation.” “I mostly watch the timeline for interesting info, and then add those users. Sometimes I also add people that start following me, but not always”. “I just follow the serendipity”. “I especially expand my twitter through people - if I follow someone who I think he or she is interesting I follow as well the people they follow”.
  24. 24. What is the structure of your friends in Facebook?90% real friends 82%80% 74% family members70% 68% 66%60% colleagues50%40% other interesting for you 34% people that you do not30% know in real life – in personal aspect other interesting for you20% people that you do not 11% know in real life – in10% professional aspect strangers0%
  25. 25. How do you expand your Facebook network? 38% search tool Other : 37% 37% “I do not try to expand it” “ I add friends in real life” 36% “I accept request” 35% recommendation “I do not wish to expand, only use it an 34% 34% tool alternate mode to broadcast my activities 34% and ideas”, 33% web sites “I add family members” 32% 32% functionality “from joining other peoples (Twitter add conversations”, 31% button) “I do not actively expand my Facebook 30% other network”, 29% “I normally ask actual friends”, “ I add the same of twitter”, “I rarely use it” “I add people that I have met in real life, and lately researchers that (I guess) find me through their own networks. I also have lots of students and ex-students, something that is not included in the options for previous question”.
  26. 26. How often do you add a friend to yourTwitter network? often 3% 3% 17% sometimes 19% rarely 58% How often do you add a friend to your never Facebook network? wait somebody to add me often 5% 8% sometimes 45% 42% rarely never wait somebody to add me
  27. 27. When do you do that? (Twitter)70% when I need info 62% or advice60% 49% When do you do that?50% when I meet an (Facebook)40% interesting person30% 80% when I feel need 71%20% 14% to learn 70% 11%10% something new 60% when I need info 50% or advice other0% 40% Other – “I do not add people”, for “professional 26% when I meet an 30% development” interesting 20% 13% person 10% other 0% Other – “if and only if I know the person”, “Friends from my village and friends from my job”, “I do not use it for friend but a s a delivery mechanism”, “when I hear a family member or long lost real friend has an account”, “when I find a person I know”, “It’s random - if I like the look of them”, “ I add less and less people lately, I guess I have been using it for a long time so I more or less have covered my "old" acquaintances. Now I add new people when I actually meet them, if there is interest from both sides. I also accept requests.”, “Like to meet the person in real life before add him/her”, “When I find someone I know in real life and want to connect to”, “onl if I know in real life that person”, “When friends ask for friendship”
  28. 28. How often do you remove a friend from yourTwitter network? 14% often 27% sometimes rarely 59% never How often do you remove a friend from your Facebook network? 6% 26% often sometimes 68% rarely never
  29. 29. Why do you do that? (Twitter)50% 46% The friend Why do you do that? (Facebook)45% annoys me40% 38% 40% The friend35% 30% 30% I do not still 34% annoys me 35%30% interested in this 29%25% friend 30% 25% I do not still20% I do not learn 18% interested in this15% 20% anything from friend10% 15% this friend 11% 5% I do not learn other 10% 0% anything from 5% this friend Other – “Never”, “Not a relevant person”, “When 0% other the contact unfollow me”, “Person tweets too much and fills my stream”, “useful tweets”, “Spam”, “I Other – “if the person is responding badly”, “if I want to follow people more interesting and cant think he will be harmful for my profile”, I don’t remve follow more people because Twitter has its limits”, “If friends”, “I have only de-friended one person and that the person is a sales-based entity”, “I don’t know the was for continually offensive postings”, “I prefer not language – Asian for e.g.”, “Too much accept them than remove”, “Most of the time is people posting, spam, don’t know the language”, “I have I havent met in real life and which whom I havent only stopped following someone once or twice ever interacted on Facebook. Also students/ex-students because they made me feel uncomfortable with their when the academic relationship ends and it does not opinions” extend into friendship”, “Networking with friends that are not on Twitter”
  30. 30. Do you think that the friends’ number influences on your efficacy as a teacher? (in a learning aspect) Twitter Facebook 80% 70% 100% 92% 60% 80% 60% 40% 30% yes yes 40% 20% no no 20% 8% 0% 0%Do you think that the friends’ number influences on your efficacy as a person? (in a learning aspect) Twitter Facebook 100% 80% 73% 78% 80% 60% 60% 40% 27% yes yes 40% 22% no 20% no 20% 0% 0%
  31. 31. What are the purposes of Twitter usage? 90% 81% 81% 80% sharing 70% 68% communicating with colleagues from your university 60% communicating with 51% colleagues outside your 50% university 43% professional community forming 40% 35% collaboration 30% learning new things 20% 14% 10% other 0%Other – “promoting mself”, “friendship”, “personal brand creation”, “following events”
  32. 32. What are the purposes of Facebook usage? 70% 63% sharing 60% communicating with 50% colleagues from 50% your university 42% communicating with colleagues outside 40% 39% 37% your university 34% professional community forming 30% collaboration 21% 20% learning new things 10% other 0%Other – “connecting with people who are far away”, “Family contact”, “I read news from UGT, FETEUGT, STPV”, “Facebook is an importanttool to keep up with my friends from when I lived in Egypt”, “Connecting to remote places”, “connecting with family and oldfriends”, “Communicating, mostly personal”, “Communication with friends”, “generally I use my personal profile for keep in touch with familyand closed friends and the professional profile for all the above points (having two accounts)”, “generally I use my personal profile for keep intouch with family and closed friends and the professional profile for all the above points (having two accounts)”, “Networking with friends thatare not on Twitter”
  33. 33. Do you think that Twitter support your personal or/and professional development?70% 62%60% personal50% development40% 35% professional Do you think that Facebook support your personal development30% or/and professional development? both20% 14% 16%10% I do not think 50% 0% so 45% 43% 40% personal 35% 32% development 30% professional 25% development 19% 20% both 15% 10% 6% I do not think so 5% 0%
  34. 34. Do you use Twitter Do you use Facebook for educational purposes for educational purposes to support teaching or students to support teaching or students learning? learning? 52%80% 70% 51%70% 51%60% 51%50% 50%40% yes yes 30% 50%30% no no 49%20% 49%10% 49%0% 48%
  35. 35. How do you use Twitter in your teaching practice? How do you use Facebook in your90% share resources 78% teaching practice?80% and links70% announce class 60% share resources60% events 50% and links 50%50% give opinion announce class40% 35%32% 40% events 30% announce class give opinion30% results 30% 26%26%20% 16% 24% stimulate class 21% announce class10% 3% 20% discussion results 0% 11% other 10% stimulate class discussionOther – “gather the informative resources”, “everyting 0% otherI have in mind”, “do not use” Other – “My learners don’t need Facebook tool to learn”, “I don’t use it at all for education”, “spotight people, thank people, make up-to-the-minute changes/adjustment”, “I do not use”, “I use it but with a different account - as a teacher”, “chat, polls”, “I never use Facebook for my lessons”
  36. 36. What do you prefer to read and RT the others posts or to contribute? 4% observe 14% What do you prefer to read and like the 14% contribute others posts or to contribute? 68% both do not observe answer 10% 32% contribute 53% both 5% do not answer
  37. 37. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Twitter for you as a person and as a teacher? Advantages Disadvantages“Growing as a learner / a better communicator / improving “Time consuming / missing important information / toomy teaching styles” large the PLN”“Brings down barriers between student/teacher, which can “Can be addictive”, “Overflow of information”be both beneficial or not, depending on the respect and therelationship”“It is very easy to learn so many new things and “It can be very time consuming!”communicate with inspiring teachers”.“instant communication” “spams, at times”“Immediate feedback to followers and friends” “Cannot keep up with twits”“As teacher, I can learn from people and share my “It has not disadvantages for me”experience. As person, I don’t use”“continuous real time learning/collaboration” “can get lost in learning (spend more time then intended)”“The bigger advantage is the opportunity of growth” “the disadvantage is the impossibility of see everything that is in the timeline”“I get to know new things, resources in education” “no impact on my teaching”“It is at the very heart of my PLN. It allows me to learn new “real time information to many tweets that I cannot read orinformation and spread and add to new info” even see”“It is a way of sharing experiences in few words. It is a way “lack of a good archive; poor conversational potential; 140of communicating with others.” character limit; URLs in message and not in metadata”“Connections and learning on a Global basis” “I do not carry a phone around, so it is not easy to follow twitter”“Discover new things, Connect to interesting people” “Addictive, consumes much time”“Remembering to read & follow up leads” “I dont like Twitter. I think that it doesnt advantages or disadvantages. In future I will use twitter for my students”
  38. 38. What are the advantages and disadvantages of Facebook for you as a person and as a teacher? Advantages Disadvantages “I can connect with people far away and whom I cannot “Lack of integrity and ethics in the ownership of the approach through phone calls”. company” “It helps me to share my proud/emotional moments “The disadvantage I see on my "teacher site" which is (personal and professional)with my loved ones. It also different and not connected to my personal site, is that helps me to exchange ideas with each other”. young people feel free to say rude things”. “It is a tremendous advantage to me to be able to write a “I don’t like Facebook’s lack of privacy” quick note to my real friends, who are on several different continents”. “create a group, share information and find resources” “There’s too much information and not all of it is appealing; sometimes I just waste time browsing and I feel gossipy and I don’t like it”. “I have two accounts. One is personal (to get in contact “I have no control; I can’t use it as a way of getting students with colleagues and real friends). The other account is for to focus”. students and their parents. I usually post important information. I also get to know them (and they get to know me) in a whole different light”. “a way to stay connected and available informally” “For me it’s only for personal use”. “I find people that I know and they are far away “Due to less choice in privacy settings, information cannot communicate Facebook creates a fake world” be selectively published” good for swapping ideas, and mutual support though “privacy issues; questionable corporate culture and practices; breaks the web; silo; navigation issues; bad archiving” “It is a creative way of sharing, communicating, and collaborating”
  39. 39. How do you optimize your Twitter network to support the best your personal and/or professional interests and to stimulate your personal/teacher’s productivity?“Creating lists, using hashtags to follow, imposing a time-discipline in following the informationalstream”“ I follow only interesting for me people”“I try to add only users that add something valuable”“No real strategies”,“Use Twitter lists and email notifications, instant communication”“Use hashtags, post everyday”“New interesting subjects, collaborative features”“I always use a column system like TweetDeck, I create columns to follow certain hashtags andcertain people”“I dont know”“By using it regularly and contributing in discussions”“I connect with people that have same interests”“Feed it to Flipboard in iPad where I can flip through and read the tweets magazine style”“Finding people that tweets about my interests”“I follow educators and look to see who they follow. I post updates to my blog, and links to qualityresources. I follow links from others that have promising tweets”“I try to find new, interesting people to follow; I try to learn from people whose use of Twitter I findvery good; I try to interact with interesting people; I use Hootsuite to manage the Twitter stream”
  40. 40. How do you optimize your network to support the best your personal and/or professional interests and to stimulate your personal/teacher’s productivity?“Looking for interesting groups to follow, professionals that accept to have students in their network,etc.”“Constant monitoring or accepting members by invitation”“I try to be specific when I want to communicate directly with my colleagues and alumni”“Regular checks on posts by others, block a few sometimes”“I ask a lot of questions and learn from the answers I am given”“I use it to build a bridge between me and other colleagues with their students. We share our cultures,problems and collaborate to find solutions”.“I don’t use it that purposefully. It’s a combination of social network and learning tool, so I take what ithas to offer, I don’t try to shape it all that much”.“I add interesting people”“I keep my settings very much locked down so only viewable by my friends”“I usually add interesting people and organizations”“I add friend, colleagues and sites that support specific educational areas, such as dyslexia”.“I just connect and share with my friends and colleagues”.“I try to find new, interesting people to befriend; I try to learn from people whose use of Facebook Ifind very good; I try to interact with interesting people”“I don’t optimize it”
  41. 41. If you do not use Twitter, please explain why?“I think it is a platform to gossip, but dint know it can be used for educationalpurpose also”.“I’m high school teacher, and many students aren’t twitter. But the last monthsI have been thinking how I use Twitter in my classes”.“Because I don’t use in real life, I will not use with learners. My learners ageis from 3 to 12, they dont need Twitter, they need Etwinning, Blogs, Wiki...”“I don’t use it so much, because I prefer Facebook. I interact with more peoplethere. Twitter is not so popular in Argentina”.“There are many other options that appeal more to me, maybe because Ihaven’t tried but I am not at all interested”.“I have all the resources I need from other sources”“I’m a little afraid I should be using it all the time. My day has less than 24hours a day because I have children and a husband and other interests such asreading, walking...”“I rarely use it because I am able to communicate well and I am comfortablewith the social networks like Facebook”.
  42. 42. If you do not use Facebook, please explain why?“They are children, not teenagers”“I don´t want people to know me that much”“too personal”“It makes me feel uncomfortable that non-educational friends see howactive I am on education”“I think it cannot fulfill educational purposes with social network”
  43. 43. Is there any policy / strategy for social networks usage in your school / university? 37% yes 63% no
  44. 44. Discussion(s) … well could facilitate educators in their connections making, promotion and defined suitable friends’ recognitions public profilein information and could be saved identificationfriends and definition time and energysearching, selecting, automation in doing aimless of currentfiltering, tracking, of several requirements, activities inand management activities PLN goals and interests networks optimi- zation what kind of learning best suits his/her appropriate nature, mood, style, back rendering the model of characteristics of (social) ground and how this is networks’ dynamics individual and group learning related to social and specificities behavior possibilities of networks
  45. 45. Needs for connection, communication and learning Automation of activities in social networks Suitable individual and group behavior in a social environment Recognition the characteristics of learning Needs for development (Pre) Definition of requirements, goals and interests Setting up of a public profileModel for PLN optimization in a teachers’ presence
  46. 46. Instead of Conclusion• Most of the teachers like the networked world and wish to develop a sustainable social presence• It will work for them only if their personal preferences and social behaviors in networks are well studied and understood• They will benefit if understand other PLN factors like static view, structural dynamics and taking time• The first variant of a model is created in order to indicate the opportunity for PLN advancement and to support the quality of the teachers’ participation• Need future explorations concerning the analysis and optimization of PLN in support of efficacy use and productivity
  47. 47. Thank you for your attention! @malinkaiva @ggrosseck @cami13