Distance Learning: the 4th Generation

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Keynote slides from Segundo Coloquio Nacional de Educación Media Superior a Distancia, in Mexico, 2011, discussing the dance and coevolution of technologies (including pedagogies) that has led to the emerging connectivist model of distance learning. The presentation looks beyond this to a holist model of distance learning that embodies collective and set entities as well as networks and groups.

Published in: Education, Technology
  • This is an interesting summary and very relevant to a couple of MOOCs that I am following or semi participating in at the moment. I have never used Slide Share before and still not sure of how it is used or the benefit of using it, and therefore, I can say that the presentation did give me an idea of distance learning past and present and perhaps future, I think I have an idea of what you think of it and it gave me some things to think about. The challenge for me was that few slides needed more explanation for me to understand what you wanted to say there whether it be information or opinion.
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  • your presentation is tedious and mundane.
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Distance Learning: the 4th Generation

  1. 1. Distance Learning: the fourth generation Jon Dron Athabasca University• http://jondron.athabascau.ca• jond@athabascau.ca
  2. 2. Athabasca UniversityWe are about here-40℃ is the same as -40℉
  3. 3. a learning technology?
  4. 4. technology“the orchestration of phenomena for someuse”(W. Brian Arthur)
  5. 5. What is a pedagogy? A way of doing thingsA learning design Methods and procedures
  6. 6. What is a pedagogy? A way of doing thingsA learning design Methods and procedures A technology
  7. 7. Technology-enhanced learning...http://expositions.bnf.fr/utopie/grand/3_95b1.htm http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/ File:Gloeden,_Wilhelm_von,_n._0027,_Socrate_alla_fonte.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/1e/ http://4.bp.blogspot.com/_sGYULzoQCgA/ Torvisen_kansakoulu_1924-26.jpg SA6HEWNCB5I/AAAAAAAABeA/FTkqbqDd9do/ s1600-h/1964-worlds-fair-schoolmarm.jpg
  8. 8. The dance of technology
  9. 9. Mismatchedtechnologies http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationaalarchief/2948560477/sizes/o/
  10. 10. Three generations ofdistance education pedagogy• cognitivist/behaviourist• social constructivist• connectivist
  11. 11. Generation 1Individuals • the sage on the stage • cognivist/behaviourist/cognitive-constructivist pedagogies • scripted learning • teacher control http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:AHW_Prof_Moritz_Vogel_Matthaeikirche_Leipzig_um_1920.jpg
  12. 12. Dominant technologies • Gagne’s 9 events etcIndividuals • postal service • TV/radio • books • telephone • presentation technologies (web pages, PowerPoint, etc) • interactive technologies (learning objects, animations, interactive quizzes, adaptive hypermedia etc)
  13. 13. PresenceIndividuals Social presence Teaching presence Cognitive presence
  14. 14. strengthsIndividuals • cheap • self-direction = freedom • high scalability
  15. 15. weaknessesIndividuals • poorly situated • limited personalisation • learning is far better when social • rigidity and hardness
  16. 16. Generation 2Groups • the guide on the side • negotiated control http://www.flickr.com/photos/library_of_congress/2163782226/sizes/o/in/photostream/
  17. 17. Dominant technologies • social-constructivist pedagogiesGroups • electronic forums • conferencing • email
  18. 18. Presence Social presenceGroups Teaching presence Cognitive presence
  19. 19. strengthsGroups • personalised • social • situated
  20. 20. weaknesses • very poor scalabilityGroups • reliance on skilled facilitation • very expensive • still need cognitivist/behaviourist resources sometimes • not everyone is equally sociable
  21. 21. Generation 3Nets • the co-traveller/ the role model • learner control
  22. 22. Dominant technologies • connectivist pedagogies • blogs •Nets wikis • social bookmarking • file sharing • social networking systems • mashups and aggregators
  23. 23. Connectivism■ Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.■ Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.■ Learning may reside in non-human appliances.■ Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known■ Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.■ Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.■ Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.■ Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision.
  24. 24. Connectivism■ Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.■ Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.■ Learning may reside in non-human appliances.■ Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known■ Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.■ Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.■ Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.■ Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations in the information climate affecting the decision.
  25. 25. Connectivism Knowledge that is:■ Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions.■ Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources.■ Current Learning may reside in non-human appliances. Complex and■ Capacity to know more is more critical than what is currently known■ Meaningful and diverse Nurturing and maintaining connections is needed to facilitate continual learning.■ and situated timely Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill.■ Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities. Connected Social and cooperative and■ Decision-making is itself a learning process. Choosing what to learn and the meaning of incoming information is seen through the lens of a shifting reality. networked While there is a right answer now, it may be wrong tomorrow due to alterations Read/write in the information climate affecting the decision. A moving target It is more important to know where than to know what (Thomas & Seely Brown, 2011)
  26. 26. PresenceNets
  27. 27. Presence Social presenceNets Teaching presence Cognitive presence
  28. 28. strengths • ownership • active: read/write •Nets many minds, shared purpose • cheap: self-generating • self-direction + crowd-direction • informal and highly situated • good use of available resources
  29. 29. weaknesses • lost in social space • inequalities •Nets confusion • quality • only benefits a minority • inefficient • too soft http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationaalarchief/2948560477/sizes/o/
  30. 30. A sense of scale cognitivist/behaviourist social constructivist connectivist
  31. 31. Soft HardConnectivist Constructivist Instructivist
  32. 32. Soft HardConnectivist Constructivist Instructivist holist
  33. 33. Hard is easy
  34. 34. Soft is hard
  35. 35. Connectivist learning in the institution• sharing: cooperation, not collaboration• building from small pieces: students to find and build and connect them• teacher as curator and goal-setter• effective aggregation - a mix of automation (e.g. RSS) and curation (teacher or student led)• providing defaults and templates: resources, technologies, methods
  36. 36. What next?• holist• collective control• adaptable and adaptive control• the right amount of control at the right time
  37. 37. Transactional control Learner Negotiated Teacher control control control autonomy dialogue structure Transactional distance(Dron, 2007)
  38. 38. Transactional control Collective control Learner Negotiated Teacher control control control autonomy dialogue structure Transactional distance(Dron, 2007)
  39. 39. There is a neworganising principle...
  40. 40. There is a neworganising principle...
  41. 41. There is a neworganising principle...
  42. 42. There is a neworganising principle...
  43. 43. Modes language, writing, telephone• One to one• one to many printing, radio, cinema• many to many bulletin boards, social networks• many to one collaborative filters, social navigation, reputation systems, analytics, data mining, network analysis
  44. 44. Social forms• The group Hierarchies, membership, intentionality, collaboration, boundaries• The set Publication, aggregation, anonymity, cooperation• The net Personal connections, fuzzy boundaries, emergence• The collective Computational agents, algorithms, analytics, visualization, crowd wisdom/mob stupidity
  45. 45. Sets, nets, groups and collectives collective net set group the negative set of individuals
  46. 46. Wise crowds... http://www.flickr.com/photos/nationallibrarynz_commons/3326203787/sizes/o/
  47. 47. Or stupid mobs?
  48. 48. The two most successful andimportant learning technologies today
  49. 49. For principles to avoid stupid mobs, see Dron, 2007: Designing the undesignable: social software and controlwww.ifets.info/journals/10_3/5.pdfor.... http://www.igi-pub.com/books/details.asp?ID=6732
  50. 50. gracias por venir• http://jondron.athabascau.ca• jond@athabascau.ca

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