Iodl & icem 2010


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Keynote at IODL, ICEM in Eskishir, Turkey - Three Generations of DE Pedagogy revisited

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  • I attended this session at IODL/ICEM and had lunch with the good professor. He had interesting comments about Connectivism. It was a pity George Siemens did not present...
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Iodl & icem 2010

  1. 1. IODL & ICEM 2010 Getting the Right Mix: Three generations of Distance Education Pedagogy: Terry Anderson, PhD and Professor
  2. 2. Overview • Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy • A Network and Connective future for Flexible Lifelong and Learning and Education • Your Comments and Questions!
  3. 3. Athabasca University, Alberta, Canada Fastest growing university in Canada 34,000 students, 700 courses 100% distance education Graduate and * Athabasca University Undergraduate programs Master & Doctorate – Distance *Athabasca Education University Only USA Regionally Accredited University in Canada
  4. 4. • “Canada is a great country, much too cold for common sense, inhabited by compassionate and intelligent people with bad haircuts”. – Yann Martel, Life of Pi, 2002.
  5. 5. Values • We can (and must) continuously improve the quality, effectiveness, appeal, cost and time efficiency of the teaching/learning experience. • Student control and freedom is integral to 21st Century life-long education, training and learning. • Current training models do not scale for lifelong learning for all residents of our planet.
  6. 6. Three Generations of Flexible Learning Pedagogies 1. Behaviourist/Cognitive – Self Paced, Individual Study 2. Constructivist – Groups 3. Connectivist – Networks and Collectives
  7. 7. 1. Behavioural/Cognitive Pedagogies • “tell ‘em what you’re gonna tell ‘em, • tell ‘em • then tell ‘em what you told ‘em” Direct Instruction
  8. 8. Gagne’s Events of Instruction (1965) 1. Gain learners' attention 2. Inform learner of objectives 3. Stimulate recall of previous information 4. Present stimulus material 5. Provide learner guidance 6. Elicit performance 7. Provide Feedback 8. Assess performance 9. Enhance transfer opportunities Basis of Instructional Systems Design (ISD)
  9. 9. Enhanced by the “cognitive revolution” • Chunking • Cognitive Load • Working Memory • Multiple Representations • Split-attention effect • Variability Effect • Multi-media effect – (Sorden, 2005) “learning as acquiring and using conceptual and cognitive structures” Greeno, Collins and Resnick, 1996
  10. 10. Behaviourist/Cognitive Knowledge Is: • Logically coherent, existing independent of perspective • Largely context free • Capable of being transmitted • Assumes closed systems with discoverable relationships between inputs and outputs
  11. 11. Behaviourist/Cognitive Focus is on the Content and the Individual Learner
  12. 12. LMS as current primary B/C tool • Secure – hackers, vandals • Robust • Custom designed for teaching • Simple, consistent and adopted • Supported and Integrated with other institutional systems • Tracking and recoding • Sophisticated (branching, printing, permissions)
  13. 13. Focus on Content • Massive global decrease in costs, complexity and collaboration, • Massive Increase in convenience and access
  14. 14. A Tale of 3 books E-Learning for the 21st Open Access - First Year Commercial publisher Century 41,245 + downloads & 934 copies sold at Commercial Pub. $52.00 1200 sold @ $135.00 Individual chapters Buy at Amazon!! 2,000 copies in Arabic 1202 hardcopies sold @ $40 Translation @ $8. Free at
  15. 15. New Content Providers - ITune U • “iTunes is not simply a repository of more than 8 million songs, audio books, videos and 70,000 or so iPhone applications. • It also has the world's largest, constantly available, free educational resource” — iTunesU.
  16. 16. New Developments in Behavioural/Cognitive Systems • Reflection Amplifiers • Social Indicators – Global feedback – Digital footprints – Archives – Competition and games • Multiple Representations • Student modeling and adaptation - analytics
  17. 17. Behavioural/cognitive learning is necessary but not sufficient for quality education.
  18. 18. 2nd Generation - Constructivist Training Pedagogy • New knowledge is built upon the foundation of previous learning • The importance of context • Errors and contradictions are useful • Learning as an active rather than passive process, • The importance of language and other social tools in constructing knowledge • Focus on negotiation, meta-cognition and evaluation as a means to develop learners’ capacity to assess their own learning • The importance of multiple perspectives - groups • Need for knowledge to be subject to social discussion, validation and application in real world contexts – (from Honebein, 1996; Jonassen, 1991; Kanuka& Anderson, 1999)
  19. 19. Constructivist Knowledge is: • Socially constructed • Arrived at through dialogic encounter – (Bakhtin, 1975) • “education as the discursive construction of shared knowledge” – (Wegerif, R., 2009) Kathy Sierra
  20. 20. Constructivist learning is Group Learning • Motivation • Feedback • Alternate and conflicting viewpoints
  21. 21. Taxonomy of the ‘Many’ – A Conceptual Model Dron and Anderson, 2007 Group Conscious membership Leadership and organization Cohorts and paced Rules and guidelines Metaphor : Access and privacy controls Virtual classroom Focused and often time limited May be blended F2F 22
  22. 22. Why Groups? • “Students who learn in small groups generally demonstrate greater academic achievement, express more favorable attitudes toward learning, and persist … • small-group learning may have particularly large effects on the academic achievement of members of underrepresented groups and the learning-related attitudes of women…” • Springer; Stanne, & Donovan, (1999) P.42
  23. 23. Why Groups? • Athabasca University’s learner- paced undergraduate courses averaged 63.6% completion rates for the 2002-2003 academic year. • Completion rates for the same courses offered in seminar format (either through synchronous technologies or face-to-face) averaged 86.9% over the same period (Athabasca University, 2003, p.12)
  24. 24. Constructivist Learning in Groups • Long history of research and study • Established sets of tools – Classrooms – Learning Management Systems – Synchronous (video & net conferencing) – Email • Need to develop face to face, mediated and blended group learning skills Garrison, R., Anderson, T., & Archer, W. (2000). Critical thinking in text-based environment: Computer conferencing in higher education. The Internet and Higher Education, 2(2), 87-105.
  25. 25. Advances in Constructivist Learning Tools • Easier tools for group formation and collaborative production. – LMS advances, – Group editing – wiki, Google docs – Free synchronous tools- Skype – Beyond email – texting, VocieThread,Twitter, location awareness
  26. 26. Problems with Groups • Restrictions in time, space, pace, & relationship - NOT OPEN • Often overly confined by leader expectation and institutional curriculum control • Usually Isolated from the authentic world of practice • “low tolerance of internal difference, sexist and ethicized regulation, high demand for obedience to its norms and exclusionary practices.” Cousin & Deepwell 2005 • “Pathological politeness” and fear of debate • Group think (Baron, 2005) • Poor preparation for Lifelong Learning beyond the course
  27. 27. • Constructivist learning in Groups is necessary, but not sufficient for advanced forms of learning.
  28. 28. 3rd Generation - Networked Learning using Connectivist Pedagogy • Learning is building networks of information, contacts and resources that are applied to real problems.
  29. 29. Connectivist Learning Principles George Siemens, 2004 • Learning and knowledge rests in diversity of opinions. • Learning is a process of connecting specialized nodes or information sources. • Learning may reside in non-human appliances. • Capacity to know is more critical than what is currently known. • Ability to see connections between fields, ideas, and concepts is a core skill. • Currency (accurate, up-to-date knowledge) is the intent of all connectivist learning activities.
  30. 30. Connectivist Knowledge is • Emergent • Distributed • Chaotic • Fragmented • Non sequential • Contextualized
  31. 31. Connectivist Learning designs Connection forming Selection Filtering Awareness and Contribution and Receptivity Involvement Reflection and Metacognition Pettenati, M. (2007).
  32. 32. Special Issue of IRRODL on Connectivism coming Nov. 2010 Free Subscriptions at
  33. 33. Connectivist focuses on Networks - - not Groups Network Shared interest/practice Fluid membership Friends of friends Group Reputation and altruism driven Emergent norms, structures Activity ebbs and flows Rarely F2F Metaphor: Virtual Community of Practice 34 Dron and Anderson, 2007
  34. 34. Networks add diversity to learning “People who live in the intersection of social worlds are at higher risk of having good ideas” Burt, 2005, p. 90
  35. 35. Connectivist Designs build Social Capital • “The sum of actual and potential resources embedded within, available through, and derived from the network of relationships possessed by an individual or social unit.” Nahapiet and Ghoshal (1998, p.243) Photo
  36. 36. How do we Build Networks of Practice ? • Motivation – learning plans, self and net efficacy, net-presence • Structural support – Exposure and training – Transparent systems – Wireless access, mobile computing • Cognitive skills – content + procedural, disclosure control • Social connections, reciprocity – Creating and sustaining a spiral of social capital building • Nahapiet & Ghoshal (1998)
  37. 37. Connectivist Tools - Web 2.0 & Personal Learning Networks
  38. 38. Network Tool Set (example) Text Text 39 Stepanyan, Mather & Payne, 2007
  39. 39. Access Controls in Elgg
  40. 40. OERs, YouTUBE Open Net Research/Community Networks MY AU Login Discovery Passwords Read & Comment Passwords AlFresco CMS Course Athabasca Landing Development Sample CC Course units and Athabasca Branded OERs E-Portfolios Moodle AUspace Profiles ELGG University Single Sign on Media lab Networks Registry Bookmarks Blogs Library C I Secondlife campus D E R
  41. 41. Challenges of Connectivist Learning Models • Privacy • Control • Dealing with disruptive change • Institutional Support • Sustaining motivation and commitment
  42. 42. 3 Generations of DE Pedagogy Summary Anderson, T. & Dron, J. (in press) Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy. IRRODL
  43. 43. Conclusion • Behavioural/Cognitive models are useful for memory and conceptual knowledge acquisition. • Constructivist models develop group skills and negotiated knowledge. • Connectivist models and tools introduce networked learning and are foundational for lifelong learning. • 21st Century Literacy's and skills demand effective use of all three pedagogies Anderson & Dron (in press) 3 generations of DE Pedagogy. International Review of Research in Distance and Open Learning (IRRODL)
  44. 44. "He who asks a question is a fool for five minutes; he who does not ask a question remains a fool forever.” Chinese Proverb Your comments and questions most welcomed! Terry Anderson Blog: