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Chapter 14 Chapter 14 Presentation Transcript

  • Emerging Technologies Chapter 14
  • Learning Objectives
    • Define the terms interoperability and building information modeling
    • Discuss the applications for computer fire modeling and performance-based design
    • Explain the concept behind the use of video cameras as fire detectors
    • Discuss the purpose of mass notification systems
  • Learning Objectives (continued)
    • Describe the characteristics of a multipurpose piping system
    • Describe the characteristics of compressed-air foam fixed fire suppression systems
    • Describe the characteristics of aerosol fire suppression systems
  • Introduction
    • Many fire protection systems described in this book have not changed significantly
      • Performed extremely well when properly designed, installed, and maintained
    • New challenges in the built environment
      • Require implementation of innovative designs and technologies to protect life and property
    • Emerging techniques will detect, manage, control and suppress fires in the near future
  • Building and System Design
    • Interoperability requires that collaborating organizations use software platform
      • Share information across applications and disciplines
    • Building information modeling : characteristics of a structure composed of intelligent objects
    • Computer fire modeling : helps professionals to understand the fire in the building
    • Performance-based design : determines the viability of the design goal
  • Fire Alarm and Detection System Technology
    • Alarm and detection systems
      • Incorporate digital and microprocessor technology
      • Develop new equipment, systems, and methods to detect and communicate information
  • Fire Detection
    • High-definition video cameras detect smoke and flame
      • Analyze digital images that sense changes in pixels many times faster than ordinary smoke detectors
      • Video camera sees the smoke before the smoke detector senses it
    • Analyze and compare chemical makeup of gases and particulate matter
      • Sensing components that react differently to airborne chemicals by digitizing and processing the readings
  • System Interface and Communications
    • Internet protocol-related capabilities have merged with fire alarm system technology
    • Fire alarm systems accessible via the Internet
    • Fire alarm systems can interface with communications equipment
      • Retransmit alarm signals and system information
    • Responders determine conditions with sensors, video camera detectors, and other devices
  • System Interface and Communications (continued)
    • Public fire alarm boxes : digital electronics, computers, radio transmitters
      • Communicate with central stations
    • Mass notification systems : may be separate or integrated into the fire alarm system
    • Fire alarm notification appliances
      • Exit-marking audible notification appliances
      • Addressable notification appliances
  • Water-Based Fire Suppression Systems
    • Past ten years, new technologies such as dry pipe valves have entered market
      • Do not require opening to reset the clapper valve
      • Greater air to water deferential ratios
    • Emerging technologies related to water-based suppression systems
      • Development of new fire sprinkler heads and nozzles
    • New technologies for some mature applications
  • Sprinkler Heads and Nozzles
    • Two examples of emerging technologies:
      • Low-flowing sprinkler heads
      • Heads or nozzles with distinct and specialized discharge patterns
    • Ongoing research to deliver specific head pressure for an installation condition
    • On/off sprinkler head that uses alternative sensor/actuator technology
      • Reduces water damage caused by conventional “one-shot” fire sprinklers
  • Residential Sprinkler Systems
    • More emphasis on integration of all water systems into one combined system
    • Multipurpose piping systems combine domestic water and fire sprinkler systems into one network
    • Piping interconnected; water flows from multiple supply lines
    • Becoming more important for green buildings
  • Figure 14-2 This sprinkler head is fed by many water lines and is part of a multipurpose piping system
  • Fire Pumps and Controllers
    • Variable speed controllers: adjust the pump driver speed
      • Fire pump maintains constant output pressure in fire sprinkler and standpipe system
      • Based on the suction pressure and water supply
    • Loss of pressure sensed by a switch starts the controller
      • Once running, pressure switch regulates the driver speed at preset pressure
    • Microprocessor monitors the suction pressure and adjusts the speed accordingly
  • Compressed-Air Foam Suppression Systems
    • New research has solved the foam generation and agent transportation problems
    • Protect flammable and combustible liquids and electrical transformer hazards
    • Activation by automatic detection or manual operation
    • Ability to penetrate a fire plume
    • Better thermal radiation protection
  • Aerosol Fire Suppression Systems
    • Alternative to clean agents and specialized water-based fire protection systems
    • Main component: aerosol generator
      • Condensed generator: no pipes, nozzles, or pressure vessels
      • Dispersed generator: particle chemical agent suspended in an inert gas
    • Aerosol product is non-toxic, non-corrosive
      • Remains suspended in the environment
      • Eliminates the possibility of re-ignition
  • Summary
    • Research and development leads to new technologies
    • Interoperability and building information modeling platforms
    • Improved annunciation capabilities
      • Mass notification systems
    • Sprinkler head technology continues to dominate the industry
    • Aerosol fire suppression systems recognized and are viable technologies