American Fire Service: The Past, Present, and Future   Chapter 1
Objectives <ul><li>Examine how the history of our society has shaped the American attitude toward fire prevention and fire...
Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Describe the fire service of today, its successes, its problems, and its efforts toward impro...
Introduction <ul><li>U.S. culture and its rich and complex history has shaped the American fire service into what it is to...
Figure 1-1  The fire service of the past, present, and future has a tradition of many service challenges.
Fire Service of the Past <ul><li>Early colonial settlements experienced several major conflagrations and a number of large...
The Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Focus on growth and expansion in cities  </li></ul><ul><li>Increased growth in building ...
Two Great Fires <ul><li>October 9, 1871: two major fires raged out of control  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisconsin forest fire...
Insurance Companies Respond <ul><li>The National Board of Fire Underwriters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized in 1874 </li><...
The Decade of Conflagrations <ul><li>The years 1900 to 1909 called “the decade of conflagrations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fi...
Fire Service of Today <ul><li>We are still plagued with conflagrations that devastate our towns and cities </li></ul><ul><...
Discovering the U.S. Fire Problem <ul><li>Studies by international associations pointed to causes and trends </li></ul><ul...
Comparing the U.S. Fire Problem <ul><li>Differences from other highly industrialized countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low ...
Emergency Medical Services <ul><li>Began in 1930s with first aid to firefighters </li></ul><ul><li>Radio communications im...
Building and Fire Code Enforcement and Improvements <ul><li>2003 World Trade Center study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found a nu...
Training and Education <ul><li>Firefighters are better trained today due to improved procedures, requirements, and techniq...
Administration and Coordination <ul><li>Resources need to be consolidated to deal with emergency incidents such as wildlan...
Equipment and Personnel Protection <ul><li>Fire equipment has improved significantly and will continue to advance technolo...
Protective Systems <ul><li>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available to greater numbers of citiz...
Fire Service of the Future <ul><li>U.S. must begin to use SI measuring system to effectively communicate globally </li></u...
Fire Service and Technology <ul><li>ERT advisory group established by a FEMA grant to identify needs of emergency responde...
Improvements in Building Safety <ul><li>Research is being conducted in the following areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasi...
Summary <ul><li>Long history of conflagrations and large fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of social pressure; abundance of...
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Chapter 01-American Fire Service: Past, Present, and Future

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• Examine how the history of our society has shaped the American attitude toward fire prevention and fire control efforts
• Describe and explain how other countries approach the control of fires and compare and contrast their approach with U.S. efforts
• Describe new technologies and systems the fire service has implemented in recent years
• Describe the fire service of today, its successes, its problems, and its efforts toward improvement
• Examine and envision the challenges and opportunities open to the fire service in the twenty-first century

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Chapter 01-American Fire Service: Past, Present, and Future

  1. 1. American Fire Service: The Past, Present, and Future Chapter 1
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Examine how the history of our society has shaped the American attitude toward fire prevention and fire control efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Describe and explain how other countries approach the control of fires and compare and contrast their approach with U.S. efforts </li></ul><ul><li>Describe new technologies and systems the fire service has implemented in recent years </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Describe the fire service of today, its successes, its problems, and its efforts toward improvement </li></ul><ul><li>Examine and envision the challenges and opportunities open to the fire service in the twenty-first century </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>U.S. culture and its rich and complex history has shaped the American fire service into what it is today </li></ul><ul><li>Reflection on the history of fire service is necessary to understand how it has evolved </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 1-1 The fire service of the past, present, and future has a tradition of many service challenges.
  6. 6. Fire Service of the Past <ul><li>Early colonial settlements experienced several major conflagrations and a number of large fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conflagration: A fire with major building-to-building flame spread over a great distance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pattern of occasional conflagrations and large fires has continued through history to present day </li></ul>
  7. 7. The Industrial Revolution <ul><li>Focus on growth and expansion in cities </li></ul><ul><li>Increased growth in building construction </li></ul><ul><li>Corruption in building departments resulted in poor construction practices and little or no fire code enforcement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Resulted in large fires that destroyed entire cities </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Growth and expansion took precedence over fire and life safety concerns </li></ul>
  8. 8. Two Great Fires <ul><li>October 9, 1871: two major fires raged out of control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisconsin forest fire </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death of 1,152 persons; burned 2,400 square miles of forested land </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Great Chicago Fire” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Death of 300 persons; destroyed buildings in a 2.5 square mile area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings used quick, poor-quality construction with little or no fire-resistant materials </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Insurance Companies Respond <ul><li>The National Board of Fire Underwriters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organized in 1874 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Led to enforcement of ordinances by city council </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Insurance Services Office (ISO) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Independently applies grading schedule to city fire departments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sets the rate for fire insurance premiums for individual structures </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. The Decade of Conflagrations <ul><li>The years 1900 to 1909 called “the decade of conflagrations” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Five of the most significant fires in U.S. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Earthquake and fire in conjunction in California </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Triggered formation of National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) and ISO grading schedule </li></ul><ul><li>Cylindrical occurrence of conflagrations and rebuilding continues to exist </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fire Service of Today <ul><li>We are still plagued with conflagrations that devastate our towns and cities </li></ul><ul><li>Today’s fire students need a better understanding of: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire combustion processes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of improved fire-resistant building materials and methods </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of improvements in fire technologies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Discovering the U.S. Fire Problem <ul><li>Studies by international associations pointed to causes and trends </li></ul><ul><li>Fire service realized need for public support </li></ul><ul><li>Recommendations from fire service conferences: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>America Burning (1973); America Burning Revisited (1987); America Burning Recommissioned, America at Risk (2000) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>National Professional Development Model: education and training requirements </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Comparing the U.S. Fire Problem <ul><li>Differences from other highly industrialized countries: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low percentage of budget spent on fire prevention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low or inadequate funding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of wood </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of plastics: increase of BTUs; greater chance of flashover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social acceptance of uncontrolled fires </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Emergency Medical Services <ul><li>Began in 1930s with first aid to firefighters </li></ul><ul><li>Radio communications improved </li></ul><ul><li>70% of today’s requests for fire department assistance are for medical emergencies </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and scientific advancements will continue to increase opportunities for enhanced services </li></ul>
  15. 15. Building and Fire Code Enforcement and Improvements <ul><li>2003 World Trade Center study </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Found a number of needed improvements in modern high-rise buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Discussed relationships between building construction methods, fire-resistant materials, fire combustion processes, fire behavior, and impact on firefighter safety </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Improvements in one area of building construction can lead to unanticipated problems for firefighters </li></ul>
  16. 16. Training and Education <ul><li>Firefighters are better trained today due to improved procedures, requirements, and techniques </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: dealing with hazardous materials </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Training requirements are strictly enforced </li></ul><ul><li>Higher education will soon be required for promotion into fire service decision making positions </li></ul>
  17. 17. Administration and Coordination <ul><li>Resources need to be consolidated to deal with emergency incidents such as wildland/urban interface fires </li></ul><ul><li>Incident Command System (ICS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Management system utilized on emergency scene </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to keep order and follow a sequence of set guidelines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>National Incident Management System (NIMS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Comprehensive; integrates resources from public and private agencies </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Equipment and Personnel Protection <ul><li>Fire equipment has improved significantly and will continue to advance technologically </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Powerful diesel engines </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better braking systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Larger capacity pumps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New larger-sized hose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better designed nozzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Safer protective equipment and clothing </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Protective Systems <ul><li>Smoke and carbon monoxide detectors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Available to greater numbers of citizens due to lower cost </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quick-acting fire sprinkler head </li></ul><ul><li>New and improved residential sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><li>Increased use of protective systems in residential, commercial, and multifamily dwellings </li></ul>
  20. 20. Fire Service of the Future <ul><li>U.S. must begin to use SI measuring system to effectively communicate globally </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Meter: basic unit of length </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Surface and volume relationships both divided and multiplied by factors of 10 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Joule: unit of energy (work) </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Fire Service and Technology <ul><li>ERT advisory group established by a FEMA grant to identify needs of emergency responders: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Alternative fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Infrared imaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Global positioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ultrafine water mist </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Compressed air foam systems </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. Improvements in Building Safety <ul><li>Research is being conducted in the following areas: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing structural integrity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhancing fire resistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improving emergency egress and access </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cybernetic building systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Preparation for higher levels of technology necessary for future challenges </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Long history of conflagrations and large fires </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of social pressure; abundance of timber for construction; rapid growth of poorly planned cities; insufficient building and fire code </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Continued improvement is vital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must adopt SI measuring system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue enhancing fire resistance of materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Require increased training and education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Embrace technological advances </li></ul></ul>

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