Chapter 3


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Chapter 3

  1. 1. Private Fire Protection and Prevention Organizations Chapter 3
  2. 2. Objectives <ul><li>Upon completion of this chapter, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the role of private industry in local, state, and national fire prevention efforts </li></ul><ul><li>List five industries and professions involved in fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role of the insurance industry in fire prevention and risk management </li></ul>
  3. 3. Objectives (cont’d.) <ul><li>Describe the role of the design professional in fire prevention and protection </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the role played by industry trade associations in fire prevention and protection </li></ul>
  4. 4. Private Fire Prevention Organizations - Purely for Profit ? <ul><li>Public fire prevention programs exist due to private fire prevention organizations </li></ul><ul><li>Three categories of programs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Part of risk management system in a business </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Profit-making business service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not-for-profit operating in the public interest </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Fire Prevention Risk Management <ul><li>Early efforts were undertaken by businesspeople who understood fire risk </li></ul><ul><li>First practical automatic sprinkler head </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Piano manufacturer: Henry S. Parmalee </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tin-clad fire door </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cotton mill owner: Edward Atkinson </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Corporate Programs <ul><li>Fire safety/prevention programs: part of corporation’s risk management program </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Security often under same umbrella </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire safety and security must be complementary </li></ul>
  7. 7. Insurance Industry Fire Prevention Programs <ul><li>Insurance industry responsible for much of our regulatory system </li></ul><ul><li>Early efforts of the stock insurance companies and mutual companies </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Descendents of those organizations exist today </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Perform many of the same functions in the 1800s </li></ul></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Insurance Services Office, Incorporated <ul><li>Provides </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Statistical analysis and actuarial service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automated information systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consulting services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Maintains </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Public Protection Classification System (PPC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good PPC: lower insurance rates in community </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Insurance Services Office, Incorporated (cont’d.) <ul><li>If codes strictly enforced: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hurricane Andrew’s damage could have been reduced up to 55% </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In response: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building Code Effectiveness Grading Schedule (BCEGS), 1995 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>More effective construction regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fire codes: fire prevention </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Building codes: manage the impact of fire </li></ul></ul></ul>
  10. 10. FIGURE 3-4 New York Board of Fire Underwriters Fire Patrol Station #2. ( Courtesy of the New York Board of Fire Underwriters )
  11. 11. FM Global, The Factory Mutual System <ul><li>Manufacturers’ Mutual Fire Insurance Company, 1835 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Zachariah Allen, board of directors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>63¼ % savings on insurance costs, 1st year </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Only very best risks qualified for membership </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlike stock companies </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. FM Global, The Factory Mutual System (cont’d.) <ul><li>By 1987, 42 mutual insurance companies had merged </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Allendale Mutual, Arkwright Mutual, and the Protection Mutual Insurance Company </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>In 1998, merged to form FM Global (24th largest U.S. insurance organization) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Attempts to reduce risk of fire and minimize financial impact if fire occurs </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property Loss Prevention Data Sheets </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Commercial Fire Prevention and Protection Programs <ul><li>Provide a variety of services, such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Design and engineering </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing, installation, testing and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sales of all of the foregoing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide services for: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Businesses; local, state, and federal governments; U.S. government installations abroad </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Government Contractors <ul><li>Government contracts for fire prevention/protection at own installations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Within the United States </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Government employees </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Active duty military personnel </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Civilian civil service employees </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Abroad </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Private corporations </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Chief officers: U.S. citizens </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Other positions: citizens of the host nation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Installation Contractors <ul><li>Fire protection systems: mostly installed by private firms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Professional registration/certification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ensures minimum standards for job performance </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Permits for systems ensure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Contractors are technically and financially qualified </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Work meets code and is appropriate for the hazard </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Inspection/acceptance testing after the work is completed </li></ul></ul></ul>
  16. 16. Consulting, Maintenance, and Repair Firms <ul><li>Consultants and contractors commonly used in fire prevention/protection arena </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance and testing requirements : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 17, NFPA 17A, NFPA 25, NFPA 72 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Inspections by municipal officials </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not to be considered absolute protection against contractor fraud or poor work </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Third-Party Inspection and Certification <ul><li>Reports from qualified individuals/firms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable as evidence of (model building and fire) codes compliance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>In most jurisdictions, companies that install systems cannot inspect them </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Collusion prevented </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Fire official can accept 3 rd party reports </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Does not relieve him of approval responsibility </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Private Associations and Not-for-Profit Organizations <ul><li>Key role in fire prevention programs of governments and private industry </li></ul><ul><li>Produce most codes, standards, and recommended practices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Building regulation & fire protection/prevention </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Underwriters Laboratories <ul><li>Functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Test and evaluate products at UL test facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Develop standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>24 of the more than 800 UL standards: referenced in the 2000 International Building Code </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Closely affiliated with: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA, Factory Mutual Engineering, National Board of Fire Underwriters, and Bureau of Standards </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Codes and Standards Organizations <ul><li>American Society for Testing and Materials </li></ul><ul><li>American National Standards Institute </li></ul><ul><li>American Institute of Architects </li></ul><ul><li>Society of Fire Protection Engineers </li></ul><ul><li>National Association of State Fire Marshals </li></ul>
  21. 21. FIGURE 3-9 ASTM standards for fire protection
  22. 22. Trade Associations <ul><li>Develop standards </li></ul><ul><li>Design and test fire resistance-rated assemblies </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain materials testing laboratories </li></ul><ul><li>Provide technical information and training about their products </li></ul><ul><li>Represent their members in the codes and standards development process </li></ul>
  23. 23. Summary <ul><li>Public fire prevention programs exist due to private fire prevention organizations </li></ul><ul><li>There are three categories of private fire programs categories </li></ul><ul><li>Several key players take part in fire prevention </li></ul><ul><li>Codes, standard, and practices maintained by non-profits/associations </li></ul>