Chapter 12


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Chapter 12

  1. 1. Smoke Control and Management Systems Chapter 12
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Define smoke control and smoke management </li></ul><ul><li>State the design goals for smoke control and smoke management systems </li></ul><ul><li>Name the three general methods used to control smoke movement </li></ul><ul><li>Describe the four pressure differential methods used to control smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Describe five design requirements or operational characteristics of smoke control systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>List the different life safety and fire protection systems that interface with smoke control systems and describe how they interact </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the importance of the acceptance testing and annual retesting processes for smoke control systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Smoke and toxic gases can migrate outside of the fire area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke travels along stairways, ducts, corridors, elevator hoistways, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Spread of smoke and toxic gases can cause much damage, injuries, and death </li></ul><ul><li>Passive design approach uses walls, etc., to create barriers </li></ul><ul><li>Active design approach uses mechanical systems to exhaust the air </li></ul>
  5. 5. Figure 12-1 Manually operated smoke and heat vent in stairway
  6. 6. Code Required Smoke Control and Smoke Management <ul><li>Code-mandated installation of smoke control limited to certain structures </li></ul><ul><li>Many structures facilitate quick evacuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significantly compartmentalized to inhibit smoke travel </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Installation of these systems in every structure is unnecessary </li></ul><ul><li>Requirements exist for occupancies with significant evacuation challenge </li></ul>
  7. 7. Smoke Containment, Removal, and Opposed Airflow <ul><li>Basic goal of smoke control is to mitigate the spread of smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke control techniques can be standalone or integrated into a building-wide approach </li></ul><ul><li>Systems use 100% outdoor air for positive pressurization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>100% exhaust to the outdoors for smoke relief </li></ul></ul><ul><li>General approaches: containment, removal, opposed airflow </li></ul>
  8. 8. Containment by Pressure Differentials <ul><li>Stairway pressurization : prevents or reduces smoke intrusion into egress stairways </li></ul><ul><li>Floating zone/floor-by-floor pressurization : uses the HVAC system </li></ul><ul><li>Elevator hoistway pressurization : similar to stairway pressurization </li></ul><ul><li>Refuge area pressurization : prevents smoke intrusion into refuge areas </li></ul>
  9. 9. Figure 12-2 This mechanical fan and duct line supply air to pressurize a stairway
  10. 10. Figure 12-3 Air supply grill for stairway pressurization
  11. 11. Figure 12-4 Mechanical fan unit for “sandwich effect” pressurization
  12. 12. Figure 12-5 Exhaust vent in corridor for “sandwich effect” pressurization
  13. 13. Smoke Removal <ul><li>Best suited for large volume spaces, such as atriums, indoor stadiums, and airport terminals </li></ul><ul><li>Provides vertical cross-flow ventilation from floor to roof </li></ul><ul><li>Large volume spaces have no barriers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke and toxic gases will rise and spread throughout the area </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Unpolluted air fed at a slower rate than the exhaust system rate </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fed from a level lower than the fire </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Figure 12-6 Atrium
  15. 15. Figure 12-7 Atrium exhaust vent
  16. 16. Containment by Airflow Direction <ul><li>Airflow velocity across openings controls smoke when pressure differential strategy is not practical </li></ul><ul><li>Uses large volumes of air that flow in a particular direction; smoke cannot migrate </li></ul><ul><li>Used to manage fires in railway tunnels </li></ul><ul><li>Rarely used by engineers: complex control and large air volumes required </li></ul><ul><li>Supplying large amounts of air may fuel the fire </li></ul>
  17. 17. Design Requirements and Operational Characteristics <ul><li>Operational characteristics found in model codes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate and automatic operations on activation of waterflow devices and smoke detectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual operation and override </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Primary/backup power source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Minimum operation for 20 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Ability to maintain the smoke level six feet above highest level of walking in the means of egress </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Fire Protection Systems and Smoke Control <ul><li>Containing smoke and gases in the area of fire origin contingent upon many factors </li></ul><ul><li>Best opportunity to control smoke: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Properly operating fire detection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic fire sprinkler systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rapid firefighter response </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Interface with Fire Protection Systems and Other Life Safety Systems <ul><li>Smoke control systems interconnect with fire protection, HVAC, elevator and backup power </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of an automatic initiating device starts smoke control system operation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Activation by manual pull station not recommended </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Failure to shut down HVAC systems could be worst contributor to smoke movement </li></ul><ul><li>Functional components of the system should be monitored </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 12-8 Beam detector
  21. 21. Figure 12-9 Smoke Control Panel
  22. 22. Figure 12-10 Smoke control panel in fire control room
  23. 23. Testing and Performance Verification <ul><li>Generally the engineer who designed the smoke control system develops a detailed test plan </li></ul><ul><li>Testing usually follows the testing of all other life safety and fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Process usually starts with operational testing at the component level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Continues with functional testing of individual systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>All tests should be witnessed and documented </li></ul>
  24. 24. Annual Testing <ul><li>Systems should undergo functional and performance testing on an annual basis </li></ul><ul><li>Annual tests should address: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Functional performance of individual components and systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated performance verification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual system and integrated performance testing should be done by trained personnel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same qualifications as person who did the initial acceptance testing </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Smoke control and management systems can contain smoke to the area of origin </li></ul><ul><li>Three general methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Containment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exhaust </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Opposed airflow </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Important to connect smoke control with fire protection, HVAC, and other building systems </li></ul><ul><li>All smoke control systems should undergo functional and performance testing annually </li></ul>