Specialized Water-Based Fire Protection Systems Chapter 6
Learning Objectives <ul><li>State three reasons to install other types of water-based fire protection systems instead of s...
Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Discuss the characteristics and applications for foam-water sprinkler and foam-wat...
Introduction <ul><li>Water-based systems that protect special hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-, medium-, and high-expan...
Required Installations <ul><li>Models codes establish requirements based on occupancy conditions and use  </li></ul><ul><l...
Design and Installation Standards <ul><li>Water-based protection systems similar in many ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differ...
NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam <ul><li>Class B foam best for flammable and combustible liqui...
NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection <ul><li>Water spray fixed systems provide specialized ...
NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems <ul><li>Deals with the use of ...
NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Relatively new standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First appea...
Types of Specialized Water-Based Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Fixed automatic foam  systems protect flammable and combu...
Figure 6-1 These flammable liquid storage tanks are protected by a foam system that applies the foam onto the surface of t...
Foam Products <ul><li>Low-expansion  foam increases at a 2:1 to 20:1 ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect outdoor storage t...
Fixed Foam System Components <ul><li>Proportioning methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venturi proportioner method </li></ul></...
Figure 6-3 Water enters the tank to put pressure on the rubber membrane bladder that in turn pushes the foam concentrate o...
Water Spray Fixed Systems <ul><li>Fixed piping network with specialized spray nozzles  </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to: </li...
Water Spray Fixed Systems (continued) <ul><li>Require at least one adequate automatic water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Autom...
Figure 6-5 Water spray nozzles connected to a deluge valve surround this electrical transformer that is protected by fixed...
Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems <ul><li>Protect Class B flammable and combustible liquids </li></ul><ul>...
Figure 6-9 Summary of relationship for systems, discharge devices, and foams.
Water Mist Systems <ul><li>Discharges fine spray mist of water droplets out of specialized nozzles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>9...
Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements <ul><li>Similar approval, inspection, and test processes as standard fir...
Figure 6-9 Summary of required inspections and tests for specialized water-based fire protection systems.
Periodic Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance <ul><li>Inspection, testing and maintenance provide a level of confidence in...
Summary <ul><li>Specialized water-based systems provide protection when sprinkler systems inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Dif...
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Chapter 06

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Chapter 06

  1. 1. Specialized Water-Based Fire Protection Systems Chapter 6
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>State three reasons to install other types of water-based fire protection systems instead of standard automatic fire sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics and applications for fixed foam systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics and applications for water spray fixed systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Discuss the characteristics and applications for foam-water sprinkler and foam-water spray systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics and applications for water mist systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the inspection and test requirements for acceptance of special water-based fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Recognize the possible impairments to special water-based fire protection systems </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Water-based systems that protect special hazards: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low-, medium-, and high-expansion foam systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water spray fixed systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foam-water sprinkler and spray systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water mist systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide protection where other systems would be inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Few major differences between these four types </li></ul>
  5. 5. Required Installations <ul><li>Models codes establish requirements based on occupancy conditions and use </li></ul><ul><li>Model codes permit alternative suppression systems when approved </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard evaluation determines the best system to provide appropriate protection </li></ul><ul><li>Hazard determines the use of a particular type of system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Certain systems more appropriate for some hazards </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Design and Installation Standards <ul><li>Water-based protection systems similar in many ways </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Different enough to publish separate standards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards do not state where to install these systems </li></ul><ul><li>Design professional determines the type of system that is most appropriate </li></ul><ul><li>Design professional implements the design and installation </li></ul>
  7. 7. NFPA 11, Standard for Low-, Medium-, and High-Expansion Foam <ul><li>Class B foam best for flammable and combustible liquid fires </li></ul><ul><li>Standards for foam combine in NFPA 11 </li></ul><ul><li>Other NFPA standards establish when foam systems are needed to protect a hazard </li></ul>
  8. 8. NFPA 15, Standard for Water Spray Fixed Systems for Fire Protection <ul><li>Water spray fixed systems provide specialized protection to different hazards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Transformers, motors, flammable liquids </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NFPA covers design, installation, inspection, testing, and maintenance of these systems </li></ul><ul><li>Does not apply to systems in NFPA 13, NFPA 750, monitor nozzles, and explosion suppression </li></ul>
  9. 9. NFPA 16, Standard for the Installation of Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems <ul><li>Deals with the use of foam </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 16 covers foam-water sprinkler and spray systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First published in 1954 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Limited to using low-expansion type foam </li></ul>
  10. 10. NFPA 750, Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Relatively new standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First appeared in mid-1990s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provides minimum requirements for water mist systems </li></ul><ul><li>Does not establish operational measure or specific guidance on how to extinguish a fire </li></ul><ul><li>Standard states that it is not a design handbook </li></ul><ul><li>Design requires verification of its viability </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Specialized Water-Based Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Fixed automatic foam systems protect flammable and combustible liquid hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Foam is an effective agent to meet all objectives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Foam is less dense than fuel or water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Freely flow over liquid surface </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foam concentrate mixes with water to form a foam solution </li></ul><ul><li>If proportioning incorrectly or used with incompatible equipment, foam will not work </li></ul>
  12. 12. Figure 6-1 These flammable liquid storage tanks are protected by a foam system that applies the foam onto the surface of the fuel inside the tank.
  13. 13. Foam Products <ul><li>Low-expansion foam increases at a 2:1 to 20:1 ratio </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect outdoor storage tanks, interior flammable liquids, loading racks, diked areas, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Medium-expansion foam increases 20:1 to 200:1 </li></ul><ul><li>High-expansion foam increases 200:1 to 1000:1 </li></ul><ul><li>Medium- and high-expansion protect ordinary combustibles, flammable liquids etc. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Fixed Foam System Components <ul><li>Proportioning methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Venturi proportioner method </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressure proportioners </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balanced pressure proportioner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foam concentrate tank </li></ul><ul><li>Foam generating/distribution equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsurface injection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Oscillating monitor nozzles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foam maker chambers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Foam generators and pumps </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 6-3 Water enters the tank to put pressure on the rubber membrane bladder that in turn pushes the foam concentrate out of the tank.
  16. 16. Water Spray Fixed Systems <ul><li>Fixed piping network with specialized spray nozzles </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect specific equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect structural members surrounding equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Function as part of an overall fire protection installation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>System delivers concentrated, directed water spray pattern onto surface of the hazard </li></ul>
  17. 17. Water Spray Fixed Systems (continued) <ul><li>Require at least one adequate automatic water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic activation is by a device such as heat, flame, gas detectors, etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic nozzles use the same technology as sprinkler heads </li></ul><ul><li>Ultra-high-speed water spray system applies water to the hazard within 100 milliseconds </li></ul>
  18. 18. Figure 6-5 Water spray nozzles connected to a deluge valve surround this electrical transformer that is protected by fixed water spray system.
  19. 19. Foam-Water Sprinkler and Foam-Water Spray Systems <ul><li>Protect Class B flammable and combustible liquids </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acceptable for use with certain Class A hazards </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primary design goal is extinguishment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appropriate for prevention, control, exposure protection </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Foam and water are companion agents </li></ul><ul><li>Pre-primed systems have foam and water in the piping </li></ul>
  20. 20. Figure 6-9 Summary of relationship for systems, discharge devices, and foams.
  21. 21. Water Mist Systems <ul><li>Discharges fine spray mist of water droplets out of specialized nozzles </li></ul><ul><ul><li>99% of water mist must be 1000 microns or less </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>25,400 microns equal one inch </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Droplets extinguish by cooling, displacing oxygen, blocking radiant heat </li></ul><ul><li>Protect land facilities, marine and offshore facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Not appropriate for use with materials that react with water </li></ul>
  22. 22. Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance Requirements <ul><li>Similar approval, inspection, and test processes as standard fire sprinkler systems </li></ul><ul><li>All systems subject to the same acceptance inspections and tests </li></ul><ul><li>All specialized water-based fire protection systems require flushing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Additional requirement to flush or clean the system piping </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. Figure 6-9 Summary of required inspections and tests for specialized water-based fire protection systems.
  24. 24. Periodic Inspection, Testing, and Maintenance <ul><li>Inspection, testing and maintenance provide a level of confidence in the system </li></ul><ul><li>Maintenance should be in accordance with established intervals in NFPA 25 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Depending on conditions, daily to every five years </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Subject to impairments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lack of proper inspection, maintenance, component failure, environmental conditions, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Piping obstructions occur for many reasons </li></ul>
  25. 25. Summary <ul><li>Specialized water-based systems provide protection when sprinkler systems inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Differences from sprinkler systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specialized spray nozzles and discharge devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Integration of foam agents with water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Use of specialized components for application </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Different types of foam for different hazards </li></ul><ul><li>Water mist systems protect land facilities </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic system verification necessary </li></ul>

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