Chapter 08


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Chapter 08

  1. 1. Types of Fire Alarm and Detection Systems Chapter 8
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List and discuss the different conditions, situations, and circumstances used to determine manual fire alarm and detection system installation requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics of conventional fire alarm system technology </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics of addressable fire alarm system technology </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives (continued) <ul><li>Discuss the characteristics of Emergency Voice Alarm Communications systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics of high-rise buildings fire alarm systems </li></ul><ul><li>Discuss the characteristics of residential smoke alarm systems </li></ul><ul><li>List and discuss the different fire alarm system classifications </li></ul>
  4. 4. Introduction <ul><li>Most basic fire alarm system: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initiating devices </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notification appliances </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Integrated detection system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls to operate building systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two-way communication, voice evacuation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic communication for on- and off-site monitoring </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Required Installations <ul><li>Two categories of requirements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual fire alarm systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic fire detection systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Many people believe a fire alarm or detection system is necessary in every property </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some situations where conditions are not suitable for these systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Create unwanted false alarms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Hazard does not warrant alarm or detection </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Installation offers little or no protection </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Use-Group and Occupancy <ul><li>Factors to determine installation requirement </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Number of occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total load of 300 or more: system required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Total of 50 or more above or below level of exit discharge: system required </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Building height </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Number of levels above and below exit discharge </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Level of exit discharge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Automatic smoke detection based on general exiting conditions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No requirement if occupant can exit unit to outside directly </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Special Use and Occupancy Conditions <ul><li>Requirements exist due to special condition where normal protection is inadequate or fire department access is difficult </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Underground buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High-rise buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special amusement buildings </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Manufacturing and Use of Products <ul><li>Manufacturing processes establish manual fire alarm system requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Semiconductor manufacturing facilities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing of organic coatings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings where the level of highly toxic gases, organic peroxides, oxidizers exceeds a maximum permitted amount </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Installation of Other Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Installation of automatic sprinkler system may permit exclusion of manual pull stations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Notification appliances must sound an alarm when water flow alarm activates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Automatic sprinkler system installations permit omission of smoke detectors </li></ul>
  10. 10. Design and Installation Standards <ul><li>All widely used building and fire codes reference NFPA 72 as standard </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 72 provides extensive information concerning fire alarm and detection systems </li></ul><ul><li>Other standards are referenced by NFPA 72 </li></ul><ul><li>FM Global publications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss Prevention Data Sheet 5-40 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss Prevention Data Sheet 5-48 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>NFPA 72 is a minimum standard </li></ul>
  11. 11. Types of Fire Alarm Systems <ul><li>Fire alarm technology has evolved from simple, single zone, relay units to logic circuit type units </li></ul><ul><li>Modern systems have sophisticated microprocessor-based software </li></ul>
  12. 12. Conventional Technology Systems <ul><li>Conventional technology in older systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Control panel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manual pull stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells with coded or non-coded signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Earliest systems used 120 VAC to power system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Break in the wire could render system inoperable </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Next generation featured modular equipment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>12 or 24 VDC used to power system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two- and four-wire circuits </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Addressable, Intelligent, and Multiplex Technology Systems <ul><li>Today systems use state-of-the-art electronics and intelligent software </li></ul><ul><li>Addressable technology: systems able to communicate with fire alarm control panel </li></ul><ul><li>Support all sizes of fire alarm systems </li></ul><ul><li>Sound general or selective alarm </li></ul><ul><li>Extremely valuable to first responders, inspectors, service technicians </li></ul>
  14. 14. Emergency Voice/Alarm Communication Systems <ul><li>Primarily installed in: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-rise buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Buildings with large occupant loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Special amusement buildings </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Provide first responders with notification tool to manage evacuation </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast instructional messages to occupants </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Stand-alone or integrated </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Figure 8-6 Emergency voice/alarm communications system
  16. 16. High-Rise Fire Alarm Systems <ul><li>High-rise buildings present rescue challenges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Upper floors beyond reach of ladder trucks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evacuation time greatly increased </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased travel distance in the building </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke can be difficult to manage </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Alarm and voice message sounds on the floor of alarm origin </li></ul><ul><li>High-rise alarm system typically has a fire command center </li></ul>
  17. 17. Fire Alarm Systems in Residential Occupancies <ul><li>Four categories: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Single station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple station </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Household </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Single and multiple station most common </li></ul><ul><li>Number of detectors and type of system depend on size and layout of building </li></ul>
  18. 18. Figure 8-13 This control panel provides the homeowner with the ability to manage security, fire, and medical emergencies
  19. 19. Interface with Other Systems <ul><li>Fire alarm systems interface with other building systems for command and monitoring: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Unlock exit doors and close doors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Recall and shut down elevators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Turn on or shut down air handling equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Start up smoke control and management equipment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Close fire dampers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monitoring and activation of fire suppression systems </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Classification of Fire Alarm Systems (Per NFPA 72) <ul><li>Systems classified by different operational events </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How signal monitoring and reporting takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Some systems rely on a person to initiate the alarm </li></ul><ul><li>Some systems automatically activate and report </li></ul><ul><li>Sophisticated systems automatically activate and report exact information to personnel </li></ul>
  21. 21. Protected Premises (Local) Fire Alarm Systems <ul><li>Provides audible and visual notification within the property </li></ul><ul><li>Protected premises system notifies the occupants or staff </li></ul><ul><li>No automatic communications link to the outside </li></ul><ul><li>A person must contact the fire department </li></ul>
  22. 22. Figure 8-17 Protected premises fire alarm system
  23. 23. Remote Supervising Station Fire Alarm Systems <ul><li>Reports alarm, trouble, supervisory signals to distant location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property protection purposes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transmission through dedicated channel to public safety communications center </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring personnel must contact the fire department </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Signal the owner if the signal is trouble or supervisory </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Proprietary Supervising Fire Alarm Systems <ul><li>Establishes property owners as the responsible party to monitor fire alarm system signals </li></ul><ul><li>Proprietary systems usually where owner controls multiple alarm systems in one building </li></ul><ul><li>All signals go to central monitoring location </li></ul><ul><li>Staffing provided 24 hours a day </li></ul><ul><li>Monitoring personnel notify response personnel </li></ul>
  25. 25. Auxiliary Fire Alarms Systems <ul><li>Public fire alarms transmit through circuits connected to municipal communications center </li></ul><ul><li>Municipal fire alarm boxes located on the street </li></ul><ul><li>Auxiliary system connect to and uses same transmission equipment as the public fire alarm </li></ul><ul><li>Two types of auxiliary systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Local energy type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shunt type </li></ul></ul>
  26. 26. Central Station Service Fire Alarm Systems <ul><li>Listed central station or local service company must meet additional requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Digital Alarm Communicator Transmitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At protected premises </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Digital Alarm Communicator Receiver </li></ul><ul><ul><li>At central station facility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Redundant transmission required </li></ul><ul><li>Communication links require supervision </li></ul>
  27. 27. Figure 8-21 Central station fire alarm system
  28. 28. Fire Alarm System Inspection and Testing <ul><li>Operational integrity hinges on acceptance test and lifetime inspections and tests </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests establishes that the system is ready to operate </li></ul><ul><li>Periodic inspections and tests ensure continued reliability and performance </li></ul><ul><li>Failure to perform either could contribute to death and injury </li></ul>
  29. 29. Acceptance Test <ul><li>Importance of fire alarm acceptance testing cannot be overstated </li></ul><ul><li>Prior to testing, the responsible person provides a “Record of Completion” </li></ul><ul><li>Test is scheduled, appropriate people notified </li></ul><ul><li>If system is unique or complicated, surrounding fire companies should witness </li></ul><ul><li>Functional testing: devices go through actual operation, not a simulated test </li></ul>
  30. 30. Periodic Inspection, Testing, Service, and Maintenance <ul><li>U.S. fire departments responded to 1,956,000 false alarms in 1998 </li></ul><ul><ul><li>851,000 due to alarm system malfunctions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False alarms cause two significant problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Removes resources from service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change human behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><li>False alarms often due to lack of inspection or improper maintenance </li></ul>
  31. 31. Summary <ul><li>Installation requirements depend on use and occupancy conditions </li></ul><ul><li>System technology has evolved over last 40 years </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 72 classifies alarm systems by: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operational events </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How signal monitoring and reporting takes place </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Acceptance test establishes minimum system installation and operation characteristic </li></ul>