Chapter 06

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Chapter 06

  1. 1. Chapter Six Installation of Fire Protection Systems
  2. 2. Learning Objectives <ul><li>List four classes of fire </li></ul><ul><li>Identify fire suppression system agents compatible with each class </li></ul><ul><li>Describe method of extinguishment </li></ul><ul><li>List and describe the four basic types of sprinkler systems </li></ul>
  3. 3. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe differences between NFPA 13, 13D, and 13R standards and applications </li></ul><ul><li>Describe function of standpipe pressure reducing valves and potential hazards </li></ul>
  4. 4. Learning Objectives <ul><li>Describe the purpose for UL-300 standard </li></ul>
  5. 5. Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Extinguishing systems for structural protection and life safety </li></ul><ul><li>Detection and alarm devices </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke control and removal systems </li></ul><ul><li>Extinguishing systems for industrial process </li></ul><ul><li>Portable first aid extinguishing devices </li></ul>
  6. 6. Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>Engineered systems </li></ul><ul><li>Designed for a specific hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Any change in hazard requires reevaluation of the system to determine its effectiveness </li></ul>
  7. 7. Fire Protection Systems <ul><li>A primary responsibility of the inspector is to verify system maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>No change to hazard classification </li></ul>
  8. 8. Fire Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Agents used in extinguishing systems must be appropriate for the hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Compatible with one another </li></ul><ul><li>Water extinguishers are not appropriate for fires in energized electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>ABC and BC types of dry chemical are not compatible </li></ul>
  9. 9. Fire Classes <ul><li>A - Common combustibles </li></ul><ul><li>B - Flammable liquids and gases </li></ul><ul><li>C - Energized electrical equipment </li></ul><ul><li>D - Combustible metals </li></ul>
  10. 10. Extinguishing Agent Classes <ul><li>A - Water, dry chemical, foam, some halon </li></ul><ul><li>B - CO ² , dry chemical, halon, foam </li></ul><ul><li>C - CO ² , dry chemical, halon </li></ul><ul><li>D - Dry powder </li></ul>
  11. 11. Fire Triangle
  12. 12. Fire Tetrahedron
  13. 13. NFPA 13 <ul><li>Property protection system </li></ul><ul><li>Provides a high level of safety </li></ul><ul><li>All areas of building are protected </li></ul><ul><li>Including combustible void spaces </li></ul>
  14. 14. Occupancy Classifications <ul><li>Light Hazard </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary Hazard Group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Ordinary Hazard Group 2 </li></ul><ul><li>Extra Hazard Group 1 </li></ul><ul><li>Extra Hazard Group 2 </li></ul>
  15. 15. Light Hazard Occupancies <ul><li>Occupancies where quantity and combustibility is low </li></ul><ul><li>Fires develop a low rate of heat release </li></ul><ul><li>Stock piles do not exceed 8 feet </li></ul>
  16. 16. Light Hazard Occupancies <ul><li>Churches </li></ul><ul><li>Schools </li></ul><ul><li>Libraries </li></ul><ul><li>Offices </li></ul><ul><li>Theaters </li></ul>
  17. 17. Light Hazard Occupancies <ul><li>Clubs </li></ul><ul><li>Hospitals </li></ul><ul><li>Museums </li></ul><ul><li>Residential </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurants </li></ul>
  18. 18. Ordinary Hazard Group 1 <ul><li>Occupancies where quantity and combustibility is low </li></ul><ul><li>Fires develop a moderate rate of heat release </li></ul><ul><li>Stock piles do not exceed 8 feet </li></ul>
  19. 19. Ordinary Hazard Group 1 <ul><li>Automobile parking </li></ul><ul><li>Bakeries </li></ul><ul><li>Canneries </li></ul><ul><li>Dairies </li></ul><ul><li>Restaurant service areas </li></ul>
  20. 20. Ordinary Hazard Group 2 <ul><li>Occupancies where quantity and combustibility is moderate </li></ul><ul><li>Fires develop a moderate rate of heat release </li></ul><ul><li>Stock piles do not exceed 12 feet </li></ul>
  21. 21. Ordinary Hazard Group 2 <ul><li>Cereal mills </li></ul><ul><li>Chemical plants </li></ul><ul><li>Distilleries </li></ul><ul><li>Dry cleaners </li></ul><ul><li>Machine shops </li></ul><ul><li>Repair garages </li></ul>
  22. 22. Extra Hazard Group 1 <ul><li>Occupancies where quantity and combustibility is very high </li></ul><ul><li>Fires develop a high rate of heat release </li></ul><ul><li>May contain a small amount of flammable liquids </li></ul>
  23. 23. Extra Hazard Group 1 <ul><li>Aircraft hangars </li></ul><ul><li>Plywood manufacturing </li></ul><ul><li>Saw mills </li></ul><ul><li>Textile picking </li></ul><ul><li>Upholstering with plastic foam </li></ul>
  24. 24. Extra Hazard Group 2 <ul><li>Occupancies where quantity and combustibility is very high </li></ul><ul><li>Fires develop a high rate of heat release </li></ul><ul><li>May contain a large amount of flammable liquids </li></ul>
  25. 25. Extra Hazard Group 2 <ul><li>Flammable liquid spraying </li></ul><ul><li>Manufactured home assembly </li></ul><ul><li>Plastics processing </li></ul>
  26. 26. Sprinkler Standards <ul><li>NFPA 13R Standard </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Installation of sprinkler systems in residential occupancies up to four stories </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. NFPA 13R <ul><li>Residential occupancies  4 stories </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers may be omitted from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathrooms  55 ft² </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closets  24 ft² </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garages, carports, porches, attics, crawl spaces, and combustible voids </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. NFPA 13R <ul><li>Provide a high level of life safety </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to prevent or delay flashover and permit escape </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide property protection </li></ul><ul><li>Building may sustain fire damage </li></ul>
  29. 29. NFPA 13D <ul><li>One- and two-family dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinklers may be omitted from: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bathrooms  55 ft² </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Closets  24 ft² </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Garages, carports, porches, attics, crawl spaces, and combustible voids </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. NFPA 13D <ul><li>One- and two-family dwellings </li></ul><ul><li>Designed to prevent or delay flashover and permit escape </li></ul><ul><li>Does not provide property protection </li></ul><ul><li>Building may sustain considerable damage </li></ul>
  31. 31. Sprinkler System Types <ul><li>Wet Pipe Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Dry Pipe Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Preaction Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Deluge Systems </li></ul>
  32. 32. Wet Pipe Systems <ul><li>Most common </li></ul><ul><li>Most reliable </li></ul><ul><li>Water > 7 psi </li></ul><ul><li>Most economical </li></ul><ul><li>For areas not subject to freezing </li></ul>
  33. 33. Dry Pipe Systems <ul><li> 750 gallons per dry pipe valve </li></ul><ul><li>Quick opening device > 500 gallons </li></ul><ul><li>Dry pipe valve in room that is heated, lighted room </li></ul>
  34. 34. Differential <ul><li>Ratio of air pressure to water pressure necessary to balance the dry pipe valve </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining it in the closed position </li></ul>
  35. 35. Dry Pipe Systems <ul><li> 750 gallons per dry pipe valve </li></ul><ul><li>Quick opening device > 500 gallons </li></ul><ul><li>Dry pipe valve in room that is heated and lighted </li></ul>
  36. 36. Preaction Systems <ul><li>Closed heads </li></ul><ul><li>Detection devices control valve </li></ul><ul><li>Activation charges system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wet </li></ul></ul><ul><li>> 20 heads require 7 psi air for supervision </li></ul>
  37. 37. Deluge Systems <ul><li>Used where fire may outrun sprinkler system </li></ul><ul><li>High hazard areas </li></ul><ul><li>Hangars </li></ul><ul><li>Loading racks </li></ul><ul><li>Explosives </li></ul>
  38. 38. ESFR Sprinklers <ul><li>Early Suppression Fast Response </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow rates up to 125 pm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designed to extinguish not control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protect rack storage up to 35 feet with sprinklers at ceiling only </li></ul></ul>
  39. 39. Standpipe Classes <ul><li>Class I </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fire department </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>500 gpm for 30 minutes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 gpm for additional standpipes </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class II </li></ul><ul><ul><li>For use by building occupants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>100 gpm for 30 minutes </li></ul></ul>
  40. 40. Standpipe Classes <ul><li>Class III </li></ul><ul><ul><li>FD and building occupants </li></ul></ul>
  41. 41. Types of Standpipe Systems <ul><li>Wet with constant water supply </li></ul><ul><li>Dry with automatic actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Dry with manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Dry without fixed water supply </li></ul>
  42. 42. Standpipe Pressure Reducing Devices <ul><li>Prevent overpressure on lower floors </li></ul><ul><li>Fire pumps must overcome head pressure of .434 psi per foot or 5 lbs per floor </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Achieves correct pressure at topmost outlet </li></ul></ul>
  43. 43. Standpipe Pressure Reducing Devices <ul><li>Pressure on lower floors is higher by about 5 lbs per floor </li></ul>
  44. 44. Dry Chemical Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per NFPA 17 </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs and alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge tests </li></ul>
  45. 45. Wet Chemical Fire Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per NFPA 17A </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs and alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul><ul><li>Discharge tests </li></ul>
  46. 46. Halogenated Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per NFPA 12A </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs and alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul>
  47. 47. Halogenated Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Agent names based on chemical formula </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorine 1 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Flourine 3 2 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Bromine 0 1 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Iodine 1 1 </li></ul></ul>
  48. 48. Clean Agent Fire Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per code and manufacturers instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs and alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul>
  49. 49. Carbon Dioxide Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per NFPA 12 </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs and alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul>
  50. 50. Foam Extinguishing Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per NFPA 11, 11A, 16 </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic and manual actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Warning signs and alarms </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul>
  51. 51. Water Spray Fixed Systems <ul><li>Designed and installed per NFPA 15 </li></ul><ul><li>Automatic actuation </li></ul><ul><li>Acceptance tests </li></ul>
  52. 52. Fire Department Connections <ul><li>Required by </li></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 13 – Standard for the Installation of Sprinklers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>NFPA 13R – Residential Occupancies up to 4 Stories </li></ul></ul>
  53. 53. Fire Department Connections <ul><li>Required for all sprinklers systems except: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Limited area systems off domestic water supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems < 20 heads </li></ul></ul>
  54. 54. Fire Department Connection Requirements <ul><li>Connection will supply all sprinklers or all standpipes </li></ul><ul><li>Street front or location approved by the FD </li></ul><ul><li>18-42” above ground, w/sign </li></ul><ul><li>No obstructions </li></ul>
  55. 55. Fire Alarm and Detection Systems <ul><li>Notification of occupants </li></ul><ul><li>Activation of fire protection systems </li></ul><ul><li>NFPA 72 National Fire Alarm Code </li></ul>
  56. 56. Fire Alarm System Components <ul><li>Detection devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Smoke, heat, water flow, UV flame </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Signaling or notification devices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bells, horns, AV devices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Control panel </li></ul><ul><ul><li>System “brain” </li></ul></ul>
  57. 57. Summary <ul><li>Fire protection systems are hazard-specific </li></ul><ul><li>Sprinkler system standards 13, 13D, and 13R provide different levels of protection </li></ul>
  58. 58. Summary <ul><li>Passive fire protection features, rated and (or) noncombustible construction </li></ul><ul><li>Active features, sprinklers, alarms, etc, are complimentary </li></ul>

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