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# Planes & axes

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### Planes & axes

1. 1. KKU_Biomech_M1_L4 Musculoskeletal system Lesson (4)Dr / Shimaa EssaLecturer of physical therapy , faculty of community,King Khalid university
2. 2. Upon successful completion of this lesson you would be able to: 1- Identify dimensions of movement. 2- Comprehend Directional Terms Used in Describing Anatomy. 3- Identify cardinal and parallel planes and axes where body movements take place. 4- Distinguish between Planes and axes.
3. 3. IntroductionThe plane : is the surface on which themovement occurs or takes place.The axis : is the line around which themovement takes place.Axis is the singular and axes are the plural noun.Any movement occurs in a plane around an axis.Axis of the same plane makes an angleperpendicular to that plane.
4. 4. Dimensions of Movement• 0 Dimension - point.• 1 Dimension - line.• 2 Dimensions - plane.• 3 Dimensions - cube, sphere.• 4 Dimensions - 3 Dimensions + time.Movement occurs in all 4 dimensions (time and space).
5. 5. Directional Terms Used inDescribing Anatomy• SUPERIOR – Directed upwards or towards the head• INFERIOR – Directed downwards or towards the feet• ANTERIOR – Directed towards the front of the body• POSTERIOR – Directed towards the back of the body
6. 6. Directional Terms Used inDescribing Anatomy• MEDIAL – Nearer the midline of the body• LATERAL – Farther from the midline of the body• PROXIMAL – Nearer to the attachment of a limb to the trunk• DISTAL – Farther from the attachment of the limb to the trunk• SUPERFICIAL – Located on or near the surface of the body• DEEP – Away from the surface of the body
7. 7. The Anatomical Position Theposition of reference for all movements.Alsocalled the standing supine position
8. 8. 1- Cardinal plane 3 imaginary perpendicular reference planes that divide the body in half by massAnd represent where the axial skeleton movements take place2- Parallel Plane.Is an imaginary surface where the movement of appendicular skeleton take place3- Diagonal plane.Is a plane other than cardinal or parallel planes, Where movement occurs in a diagonal pattern
9. 9. 1. Sagittal – Divides the body into left and right halves.2. Frontal – Divides the body into front and back halves.3. Transverse – Divides the body into top and bottom halves.
10. 10. Sagittal Plane Movements(Forward & Backward Movements) • Whole Body – Forward and backward movement such as front or back flips • Segmental – Flexion – Extension – Hyperextension – Dorsiflexion Ankle – Plantar flexion
11. 11. Back flips andfront flips arewhole bodysagittal planemovements.
12. 12. For a cyclist,the legmovementsoccur in thesagittalplane.
13. 13. Forward andbackwardmovements atspecific joints such asthe shoulder andankle are sagittalplane movements.
14. 14. Frontal Plane Movements(Sideward & Vertical Movements)• Whole Body – Sideward movement as seen in sideward cartwheels
15. 15. Frontal Plane Movements(Sideward & Vertical Movements)• Segmental – Abduction – Adduction – Lateral flexion – Elevation and depression of the shoulder girdle (or scapula) – Upward and downward rotation of the shoulder girdle (or scapula) – Radial deviation – Ulnar deviation Wrist
16. 16. Frontal Plane Movements Hip abduction and adduction. Ulnar and radial Deviation.
17. 17. Frontal Plane MovementsElevation and depression of the shoulder girdle.
18. 18. Frontal Plane MovementsLateral flexion of the trunk.
19. 19. Transverse Plane Movements(Horizontal Movement) • Whole Body Horizontal movement or rotation as in a skater’s or dancers pirouette.
20. 20. Transverse Plane MovementsTransverse Plane Movements(Rotation Around a Vertical Axis)• Segmental – Medial (inward) rotation – Lateral (outward) rotation – Left / right rotation of the trunk, neck, or head – Supination - forearm – Pronation – forearm – Horizontal abduction (transverse flexion) – Horizontal adduction (transverse extension)
21. 21. Transverse Plane Movements Horizontal adduction and abduction are segmental transverse plane movements.
22. 22. Diagonal plane movementsDiagonal plane movements– Pronation of subtalar joint – abduction + eversion– Supination of subtalar joint – adduction + inversion
23. 23. Anatomical Reference Axes(Axes is plural for axis)• An imaginary axis of rotation that passes through a joint to which it is attached – Frontal or (mediolateral) axis- X-Axis – Sagittal or (anterioposterior) axis- Z-Axis – Longitudinal axis- Y-Axis Movement, both whole body and segmental, takes place in the cardinal planes and around the cardinal axes.
24. 24. o The ellipse represents the transverse plane and the black line represents the Y- axis. Transverse Planeo The Y-axis is perpendicular to the transverse plane. Therefore a point which rotates around the Y-axis will move in the transverse plane.o Essentially, movement in a given plane takes place Y-axis around the axis that is perpendicular to that plane.
25. 25. X-Axis• Passes from side to side.• Rotation in the sagittal plane takes place around the x-axis.
26. 26. Y-Axis• Passes from top to bottom.• Rotation in the transverse plane takes place around the y-axis.
27. 27. Z-Axis• Passes from front to back.• Rotation in the frontal plane takes place around the z-axis.
28. 28. Summary ofPlanes & Axes
29. 29. The cardinal axes lie at the Y Axisintersection of the cardinalplanes. Center of Gravity X Axis Z AxisThe cardinal planes andaxes all intersect at thecenter of gravity (COG).