Project Complexity and Consulting Competence Systemic Loop Systemic (Königswieser & Consulting Hillebrand)Process Know-how Process Consulting Process (Lippitt & Lippitt) / Moderation Flawless Consulting (Block) Problem Solving Problem Solving Model (Schein) Simple Projects More Complex Projects Large-scale OD Projects Complexity
A Model of the stages of Problem Solving (Schein) Two cycles of activity 4 The fist cycle consists of: Action Planning 1. Problem formulation 2. Producing proposals for solution 1 3. Forecasting the consequences of Problem solutions proposed or testing Formulation solutions and evaluating them conceptually before taking action The second cycle involves: Felt 2 4. Action planning Need Producing 5. Action steps; and 3 Proposals for Solution 6. Evaluation of outcomes; often 6 Forecasting 5 leading back into the fist cycle of Evaluating consequences, tes Taking ting proposals problem identification Outcomes Action StepsSchein, E. H. (1988). Process Consultation. Vol. 1 (Rev. Ed.). Reading, Ma.: Addison-Wesley.
The Consulting Process (Lippitt & Lippitt) Work Focus 1 Work Focus 5 Work Focus 8 Work Focus 9 Work Focus 11 Work Focus 14 Making First Contact Identifying desired Using force-field Projecting Goals Taking successful Designing continuity1. The potential client outcomes diagnosis: To set meaningful action: supports:2. The potential To achieve a wider Identify the forces that goals, both the Helping people develop Develop a plan for a consultant perspective on possible impede movement to the consultant and the client the skills necessary to continuing review of3. A third party goals and desirable current goals and forces must have a clear increase their chances of events, including a wide outcomes that facilitate such picture of a preferred achieving success in the circle of personnel from movement and feasible future actions they take the client system Work Focus 2 Support celebrations ofHelping Identify & Clarify small successesthe need for change (process Work Focus 6 Work Focus 10of exploration) Determining who Planning for action Work Focus 15 should do what and involvement Establishing termination Determine who the Work Focus 12 plans: Devise a sequence of client system is Evaluating and guiding Training an insider to Work Focus 3 steps towards each Determine if there is a feedback: take over the functionsExploring the readiness for goal (identifying difference between the Elicit feedback about initiatedchange effort: specifically what client system and the progress and involve Termination celebrationConsultant explores time, should be done) office who pays the necessary people in the for the final product of aenergy, commitment of client bills assessment of this collaborative effortsystem feedback Periodic maintenanceClient explores capability,sensitivity, credibility of the planpotential consultant Work Focus 7 Work Focus 13 Clarifying time Work Focus 4 Revising action and perspective andExploring the potential for mobilizing additional accountabilityworking together: resources: Agreement aboutConsultant may propose a Use feedback to re- milestones at whichperiod of testing for examine goals, revise progress of thecompatibility before making action strategies, etc. working relationshipmutual commitments for will be reviewedlong-term workingrelationship Lippitt, G., & Lippitt, R. (1986). The consulting process in action (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Company
Flawless Consulting (Block) Phase 1. Entry and Contracting Matching Wants and Offers Phase 2. Discovery and Dialogue Symptom or underlying problem Phase 3. Feedback and Decision to Act the report and presentation Phase 4. Engagement and Implementation the main events Phase 5. Extension, Recycle, or TerminationBlock, P. H. 2000. Flawless consulting (2nd ed.) San Francisco: Jossey-Bass/Pfeiffer.
The Systemic Process Consulting Loop(Königswieser & Hillebrand)Königswieser, R., Hillebrand, M. (2005): Systemic Consultancy in Organizations. Concepts – Tools – Innovations. Heidelberg: Carl-Auer.
Eight Roles of a Consultant (Lippitt & Lippitt) 1. Objective Observer. In this role the consultant does not express personal beliefs or ideas and does not assume responsibility for the work or the result of that work. Instead, the consultant observes the client’s behavior and provides feedback; the client alone is responsible for the direction that is ultimately chosen. 2. Process Counselor. This role consists of observing the client’s problem-solving processes and offering suggestions for improvement. The consultant and the client jointly diagnose the client’s process, and the consultant assists the client in acquiring whatever skills are necessary to continue diagnosing the process. 3. Fact Finder. In this role the consultant serves as a researcher, collecting and interpreting information in areas of importance to the client. Fact finding enables the consultant to develop an understanding of the client’s processes and performance; as a result of the insights gained, the consultant and the client can evaluate the effectiveness of a change process in terms of solving the client’s problem. 4. Identifier of Alternatives and Linker to Resources. The consultant identifies alternative solutions to a problem; establishes criteria for evaluating each alternative; determines the likely consequences of each alternative; and then links the client with resources that may be able to help in solving the problem. However, the consultant does not assist in selecting the final solution. 5. Joint Problem Solver. The consultant works actively with the client to identify and solve the problem at hand, often taking a major role in defining the results. The consultant also may act as a third-party mediator when conflict arises during the problem-solving process. 6. Trainer/Educator. The consultant provides instruction, information, or other kinds of directed learning opportunities for the client. As a trainer/educator, the consultant must be able to assess training needs, write learning objectives, design learning experiences and educational events, employ a range of educational techniques and media, and function as a group facilitator. 7. Information Specialist. The consultant serves as content expert for the client, often defining “right” and “wrong” approaches to a problem. The client is primarily responsible for defining the problem and the objectives of the consultation, and the consultant plays a directive role until the client is comfortable with the approach that has been recommended. 8. Advocate. The consultant consciously strives to have the client move in a direction desired by the consultant. In the most directive of the eight roles, the consultant uses power and influence to impose his or her ideas and values about either content or process issues. As a content advocate, the consultant tries to influence the client’s choice of goals and means; as a process advocate, the consultant tries to influence the methodology underlying the client’s problem-solving behavior. Lippitt, G., & Lippitt, R. (1986). The consulting process in action (2nd ed.). San Diego, CA: Pfeiffer & Company
Three Roles of a Consultant (Schein)1. Expert Role. The manager elects to play an inactive role Decisions on how to proceed are made by the consultant, on the basis of his or her expert judgment Information needed for problem analysis is gathered by the consultant Technical control rests with the consultant Collaboration is not required Two-way communication is limited The consultant plans and implements the main events The manager’s role is to judge and evaluate after the fact The consultant’s goal is to solve the immediate problem2. Pair-of-Hands Role. The consultant takes a passive role Decisions on how to proceed are made by the manager The manager selects methods for data collection and analysis Control rests with the manager Collaboration is not really necessary Two-way communication is limited The manager specifies change procedures for the consultant to implement The manager’s role is to judge and evaluate from a close distance The consultant’s goal is to make the system more effective by the application of specialized knowledge3. Collaborative Role. The consultant and the manager work to become interdependent Decision making is bilateral Data collection and analysis are joint efforts Control issues become matters for discussion and negotiation Control issues become matters for discussion and negotiation Communication is two-way Implementation responsibilities are determined by discussion and agreement The consultant’s goal is to solve problems so they stay solved