Leadership and change

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Leadership and change

  1. 1. LEADERSHIP AND CHANGE Reported by:Khalil DarvishaliSUBMITET TO : Dr. Melodina C. Esteban khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 1
  2. 2. Definition :Leader :is person who influence the people or the grouptowards achievement of goal. Management :Accomplishment of work trough efforts of otherpeople.  Work done from people. Process ofplanning, organizing, controlling, to determineand accomplish the objective. Minimum inputand max output khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 2
  3. 3.  Management This is the process of setting objectives and making the most efficient use of financial, human and physical resources to achieve these objectives. Key tasks include planning, control and co-ordination. Leadership Influencing others to achieve certain aims or objectives. Effective leadership skills can help a manager to carry out their duties khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 3
  4. 4.  Managing a process of change in an organization can be a highly complex task and is often essential for effective organizational development khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 4
  5. 5.  change may focus on 1 of 4 subsystems in an organization: Structure - levels of hierarchy, spans of authority, centralisation. Technology - complexity, degree of employee usage, operator control & responsibility. People - values, beliefs, attitudes, motives, drives, competencies. Task - job design, repetitiveness, physical & cognitive demands, autonomy & discretion. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 5
  6. 6. C=DxMxP>RC -Change D -Dissatisfaction M -Change Model (Vision) P -Process R -Resistance khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 6
  7. 7.  Dissatisfaction –Followers who are relatively content are not apt to change; malcontents are much more likely to do something to change the situation – this can be positive or negative.‡ Follower’s emotions are fuel for change and change often requires a considerable amount of fuel. The key for leadership practitioners is to increase dissatisfaction to the point where followers are inclined to take action, but not so much that they decide to leave the organization khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 7
  8. 8.  Model -four components Environmental scanning Vision Identification of needed changes New goals khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 8
  9. 9.  Process -Development and execution of the change plan. Outline of sequence of events,deliverables, responsibilities,timelines, metrics, and feedback mechanisms. Inability to execute major reason for executive failure khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 9
  10. 10.  Frustrations caused by expectingtoo much Fear of loss -power, relationships,rewards, competence, identity. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 10
  11. 11. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 11
  12. 12.  Enthusiasm and passion Greek word meaning “divinely inspired gift”. Charisma is a positive and compelling quality of a person that makes many others want to be led by that person. Charisma is based on perceptions khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 12
  13. 13.  it is leadership based on the leaders ability to communicate and behave in ways that reach followers on a basic, emotional way, to inspire and motivate. Its difficult to identify the characteristics that make a leader "charismatic", but they certainly include the ability to communicate on a very powerful emotional level, and probably include some personality traits. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 13
  14. 14.  Charismatic leaders are able to use their personal charm to get things done. This can be an extremely powerful way to lead others. In fact, such strong charismatic influence can be achieved over followers that these leaders can make certain individuals accomplish some pretty fantastically tasks. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 14
  15. 15. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 15
  16. 16. 1-Vision – future oriented, perceivefundamental discrepancies, vision to overcomepresent shortcomings. Vision is often collaborative. Values serve as moral compass. Leader’s vision helps followers interpret events and actions in terms of a common perceptual framework. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 16
  17. 17. 2-Rhetorical skills – gifted ability to sharevision. heighten follower’s emotions Inspire followers Metaphors, analogies, stories Not logical argument. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 17
  18. 18. 3-Image and Trust – unshakable self-confidence moral conviction, personal example, self-sacrifice, unconventional tactics or behavior. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 18
  19. 19. 4-Personalized Leadership – Strong personal bonds with followers Sensitive to emotional states of followers Emotionally expressive (non-verbal behavior) Empower followers by building self-efficacy khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 19
  20. 20. 1-Identification with Leader & Vision – Strong affection for leader Sharing of beliefs See implementation of vision as a solution to their problems. Need for approval way beyond contract relationship Charismatic leaders capitalize on dissatisfaction khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 20
  21. 21. 2-Heightened Emotions - Increased levels of effort and performance Polarizing effect3-Willing Subordination - Deference to leader’s authority Leader can do no wrong Unquestioned authority4-Feelings of Empowerment – khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 21
  22. 22. 1-Crises – Followers who are content see little need for charismatic leader. Allows leaders to break the rules2-Task Interdependence – khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 22
  23. 23.  Transactional leadership occurred when leaders and followers were in some type of exchange relationship in order to get needs met.(rewards and punishments) The second form of leadership is transformational leadership, which serves to change the status quo by appealing to followers’ values and their sense of higher purpose. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 23
  24. 24.  See themselves as change agents Visionaries who trust intuition Risk takers, but not reckless Have established core values Exceptional cognitive skills Believe in people and sensitive to their needs Flexible, open, life-long learners khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 24
  25. 25.  Accepts Organizational Goals Uses External Motivators Works Within Existing System Takes Action Directive Dominating Action-Oriented khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 25
  26. 26. All transformational leaders are charismatic, But not all charismatic leaders are transformational. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 26
  27. 27.  Much of what we know about the leader, follower, and situational characteristics associated with charismatic or transformational leaders comes from research on Basss Theory of Transformational and Transactional Leadership. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 27
  28. 28.  Bernard M. Bass (1985), extended the work of Burns (1978) by explaining the psychological mechanisms that underlie transforming and transactional leadership. Bass introduced the term "transformational" in place of "transforming." Bass added to the initial concepts of Burns (1978) to help explain how transformational leadership could be measured, as well as how it impacts follower motivation and performance khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 28
  29. 29.  Transformational leadership can be observed in all countries, institutions, and organizational levels, but was more prevalent in public institutions and at lower organizational levels. Transformational leadership is a significantly better predictor of organizational effectiveness than transactional or laissez-faire leadership. Laissez-faire leadership was negatively correlated with effectiveness. Possible for leaders to systematically develop their transformational and transactional leadership skills. The fact remains that charisma ultimately exists in the eyes of the beholder. khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 29
  30. 30.  http://www.scribd.com http://www.unfortu.net http://leadershipchamps.wordpress.com http://www.money-zine.com/Career-Development http://leadertoday.org/faq/charisma.htm http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_leadership http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_leadership http://www.strategosinc.com/leadership_transactional.htm http://www.scribd.com http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transformational_leadership http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Transactional_leadership khalil darvishali 10/19/2012 30

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