Organizational ChangeThree Typologies of Change Strategies
Higgs & Rowland (2005) (Perception of the complexity of change and the extent to which it is believed that change can be effected on a uniform basis or widely distributed activity) Change as a predictable phenomenon Change as a complex phenomenon Directive (Simple) Master (Sophisticated) Uniform Approach Change being driven, controlled, Change being managed, initiated from the top or small driven, controlled, managed, initiated group from the top or small group Simple theory of change or a few rules of Complex theory of change – lots of thumb elements, drawing on more than two theorists, use of change model Self Assembly (DIY) Emergence Differentiated Approach Strategic direction but local adaptation Change initiated anywhere in the Disseminated / Accountability for change lies with local organization but usually where there is managers high contact with client/customer Sharing best practiceMalcolm Higgs & Deborah Rowland (2005): All changes great and small: Exploring approaches to change and its leadership,Journal of Change Management, 5:2, 121-151
Van de Ven & Poole (1995) (Unit of Change & Mode of Change) Prescribed Mode of Change Constructive Mode of Change Evolution (Competitive Change) Dialectic (Conflictive Change) Process Cycle: Variation, selection, and retention Process Cycle: Confrontation, conflict, andMultiple Entities among competing units synthesis between opposing Interests Situation when model Applies: Competition for Situation when model Applies: Conflict scarce resources between opposing forces LifeCycle (Regulated Change) Teleology (Planned Change) Process Cycle: Prescribed sequence of steps or Process Cycle: Dissatisfaction, search, goal stages of development setting, and ImplementationEntitySingle Situation when model Applies: Prefigured Situation when model Applies: Social program regulated by nature, logic or rules construction of desired end state; goal consensusVan de Ven A H, Poole M S. (1995). Explaining development and change in organizations. Academy of Management Review.20(3):510.40
Dunphy & Stace (1988) (Scope of Change and Support) Incremental Change Strategies Transformative Change Strategies Type 1 Type 2 Collaborative Modes Participative Evolution Charismatic Transformation Use when organization is in “fit” but Use when organization is out of “fit” needs minor adjustment, or is out of fit but there is little time for extensive but time is available and key interest participation but there is support for groups favor change radical change within the organization Type 3 Type 4 Forced Evolution Dictatorial Transformation Use when organization is in “fit” but Use when organization is out of “fit” Coercive needs minor adjustment, or is out of fit but there is no time for extensive Modes but time is available and key interest participation and no support within groups oppose change the organization for radical change, but radical change is vital to organizational survival and fulfillment of basic missionDunphy, D. C. and Stace, D. A. (1988) „Transformational and Coercive Strategies for Planned Organizational Change: Beyondthe OD Model‟, Organization Studies 9(3): 317–34.