Culture Change Mechanisms (Schein Model) • Scandal & explosion of myths • Systematic promotion from selected subcultures • Mergers & Acquisitions • Technological seduction • Infusion of outsiders Midlife Turnaround Destruction & Rebirth Founding • Incremental change through general & specific evolution & Early • Insight Growth • Promotion of hybrids within the culture2
Conditions for TransformationalChange 1. Principle 1: Survival anxiety or guilt must be greater than learning anxiety 2. Principle 2: Learning anxiety must be reduced rather than increasing survival anxiety 3. Principle 3: The change goal must be defined concretely in terms of the specific problem you are trying to fix, not as “culture change.” 4. Principle 4: Old cultural elements can be destroyed by eliminating the people who “carry” those elements, but new cultural elements can only be learned if the new behavior leads to success and satisfaction 5. Principle 5: Culture change is always transformative change that requires a period of unlearning that is psychologically painful
Six Steps when designing and implementing organizational culture change 6 5 4 Determine 3 Reach what 2 Reach consensus on changes will 1 consensus on the desired and will not Determine the current future mean Reach what changes culture culture Reach consensus on will and will consensus on the desired not mean the current future culture culture
Why Organizations Resist ChangeOrganizations are coalitions of interest groups intension wherein balance (ultra-stability, equilibrium) of forces has beenhammered out over a period. Change upsets thisbalance.
Lewin’s Organisational change occurs when: • forces for change strengthenForce-Field • restraining forces lessen, or • both processes occur simultaneously Theory of Change
Steps in Force Field Analysis 1. Define problem (current state) and target situation (target state). 2. List forces working for and against the desired changes. 3. Rate the strength of each force. 4. Draw diagram (length of line denotes strength of the force). 5. Indicate how important each force is. 6. How to strengthen each important supporting force? 7. How to weaken each important resisting force? 8. Identify resources needed. 9. Make action plan: timings, milestones, responsibilities.
Assessing Resistance to Change - Strebel1. Look for closed attitudes.2. Look for an entrenched culture.3. Look for rigid structures and systems.4. Look for counterproductive change dynamics.5. Assess the overall resistance to change by: • Examining to what extent the various forces of resistance are correlated with one another. • Describing the resistance threshold in terms of power and resources needed to deal with the resistance.
Responding to Resistance to Change 1. Strebel’s contrasting change paths 2. Beer, Eisenstat and Spector’s six steps to effective change 3. Kotter & Schlesinger
Possible Change Paths - Strebel Resistance Proactive Reactive Rapid level Closed to Radical Org re- Downsizing & change leadership alignment restructuring Can be opened Top down Process re- Autonomous to change experim- engineering restructuring entation Open to Bottom-up Goal cascading Rapid adaptation change experim- entation Change force Weak Moderate Strong
Beer et al’s Six Steps to Effective Change 1. Mobilize commitment to change through joint diagnosis of business problems. 2. Develop a shared vision of how to organize and manage for competitiveness. 3. Foster consensus for the new vision, competence to enact it, and cohesion to move it along. 4. Spread revitalization to all departments without pushing it from the top. 5. Institutionalize revitalization through formal policies, systems and structures. 6. Monitor and adjust strategies in response to problems in the process. Source: Beer, M., Eisenstat, R.A. and Spector, B. (1993) Why change programs don’t produce change, IN Mabey, C. and Mayon-White, B. (eds) Managing Change, London, P.C.P.