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Human development the contextualistic world view (part iv)


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Human development the contextualistic world view (part iv)

  1. 1. Theories of Human Development Integrative PerspectivesTHE CONTEXTUALISTIC WORLDVIEW – Part IV Dale Goldhaer
  2. 2. Contextualism…1. Purpose of the study of such events is to discover what the events themselves say about the web of interactions that create and maintain the events and about the role of the individual within the matrix of relationships2. The search for objective reality is an illusion3. No universal patterns of development4. No intention to generalize, abstract, or to propose universal arguments5. No directional concept of development6. Different behaviors in different settings
  3. 3. Three Perspectives 1. Life span cohort models of development 2. Vygotsky and the Social-Cultural Perspective 3. Post-modern perspectivespp. 2
  4. 4. Life span cohort models of development Glen Elder
  5. 5. Life Span Cohort Models1. Emergence of models traced to 3 related developments: (a) the changing demographics of old age, (b) the aging of the participants in the longitudinal studies begun in 1920s and 1930s, and ( c)the growing interest in multidisciplinary research2. Three interrelated basic assumptions that underlie life span cohort models:  Development as an open process  Development as a situated process  Development as a successive sequence
  6. 6. Elder’s Life Course Paradigm – Four Themes 1 4 3 2
  7. 7. Vygotsky and the Sociocultural perspective
  8. 8. Lev Vygotsky (1896 – 1934) Theoretical Argument 1.Ontogenetic Evolution: Child to Adult • To understand the developmental status of an individual first requires an understanding of the developmental history of that individual • 4 step developmental sequence: Natural or primitive stage, naïve psychology, external signs, and ingrowth stage 2.Cultural Evolution: Primitive to Cultured • To understand the developmental history of that individual first requires an understanding of the historical evolution of that individual’s culture 3.Phylogenetic Evolution: Ape to Human • To understand the historical evolution of that individual’s culture first requires the phylogenetic evolution of that individual’s species
  9. 9. Major Theme in Vgotsky’s Theory
  10. 10. Barbara Rogoff’s Theoretical Perspectove• Development is the progress children make as they attempt to acquire culturally defined ideals of mature thought and action• The culture structures the individual even as the individual’s actions redefine the culture• Three levels of the sociocultural context: 1. Apprenticeship – Level of the community 2. Guided Participation – Level of individual interactions 3. Process of Appropriation – Level of the cultural system
  11. 11. Urie Bronfenbrenner (1917-2005) developed the ecological systems theory toexplain how everything in a child and the childs environment affects how achild grows and develops. He labeled different aspects or levels of theenvironment that influence childrens development, including the microsystem,the mesosystem, the exosystem, and the macrosystem. The microsystem isthe small, immediate environment the child lives in.
  12. 12. PostmodernPerspectives
  13. 13. Gilligans Stages of the Ethic of CareApproximate Stage GoalAge Range Goal is individualnot listed Preconventional survivalTransition is from selfishness -- to -- responsibility to others Self sacrifice isnot listed Conventional goodnessTransition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is aperson too Principle of nonviolence: domaybe never Postconventional not hurt others or self