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Behaviour Modification is a very important concept in the field of HR & Psychology

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  1. 1. Behavior can be defined as the way in which an individual behaves or acts to a stimuli . It can be either bad or good.
  2. 2. Behavior Modification is the use of empirically demonstrated behaviour change techniques to improve behavior, such as altering an individual's behaviour & reactions to stimuli through positive & negative reinforcement of adaptive behaviour &/ or the reduction of maladaptive behavior through its extinction, punishment &/ or therapy. This term is used first by E. L. Edward Thorndike in 1911. This technique of behaviour modification depends on principle of learning.
  3. 3. Modern day behaviour modification is a product of years of research. Behaviour modification can be traced to lab research as far back as the 1800‟s and 1900‟s. Most of this research was done through experimenting with animals. Many had impacting research, here are a
  4. 4. Ivan P. Pavlov (1849- 1936) 1.Concerned with stimuli that evoke responses like noise, food, lights, etc. 2.Pavlov‟s famous dogs: Gastric secretions were stimulated at the sight of food. Indicated that digestive processes could be stimulated without direct contact. 3.He then focused his research on how connections were made between environment stimuli and reflex reactions. 4.This type of learning became known as
  5. 5. Edward L. Thorndike(1874-1949) 1.Not concerned with reflex responses like Pavlov. 2.Focused on the learning of new behaviour. 3.Well known for his research involving cats and puzzle-box. 4.Placed hungry cats in a maze and timed how long it took for them to reach the food at the end of the puzzle. He found that the cats got faster and faster as they had learned the behaviour.
  6. 6. 5. From this research Thorndike formed laws of behaviour, one of the most famous being the Law of Effect. 6. The Law of Effect states that the consequences that follow behaviour help learning and that rewards, positive and negative, provide consequences that increase the learning behaviour. 7. He coined the phrase and the definition behind it in 1911. He wrote an article entitled, "Provisional Laws of Acquired Behavior or Learning," and refers to the term "modifying behavior" throughout it and it also appears that the term behaviour modification was given by him. 8. He said behavior modification has been used
  7. 7. B. F. Skinner(1904-1990) 1.An American psychologist was the originator of the operant conditioning concept whereby behavior can be molded by positive or negative reinforcement or the lack of it. 2. The basic behavior modification techniques that involve the fading and shaping concept were rooted in Skinner's operant conditioning concept and its overall focus on training the mind. 3.His book, The Behavior of Organisms, was published in 1938 and spells out his theories. 4.Skinner considered his concept applicable to a wide range of both human and animal behaviors.
  8. 8. John Watson(1921) 1.Extended Pavlov's ideas to humans. 2.He studied Albert, an 11-month-old child. He introduced Albert to a white rat and paired the rat with a loud noise. At first, the child had no fear of the rat, but after repeatedly hearing the loud noise he began to fear all white rats. He modified the child's behavior to fear white rats and created a phobia. 3.He said behavior modification is the style of altering behavior through proven successful techniques. It can be designed to modify a
  9. 9. Joseph Wolpe’s In early 1940‟s and 1950‟s the term modifying behaviour and behaviour modification was used by him and his group.
  10. 10. Behaviour Management 1. Informal manageme nt of behaviour. 2. Formal manageme nt of behaviour.
  11. 11. Steps in behavior assessment General analysis of the problem and its impact :1.Clarification of the problem. 2.Motivational and Reinforcement Analysis. 3.Developmental analysis of the problem. 4.Analysis of the child self control. 5.Analysis of the child‟s social relationship. 6.Analysis of interpersonal relationships at home. 7.Initial identification the problem behavior and potential target behavior to be modified.
  12. 12. 1. Where reinforcement is systematic, it can aid the direction and maintenance of behavior. 2. Reinforcement (negative and positive) is to be distinguished from mere punishment. 3. Where on task behavior is reinforced by the teacher reward, the on task behavior is likely to be repeated. 4. Where it is possible to ignore observer off task behavior and reinforce the student when on-task, the ignoring will often aid in minimizing off –task behavior. 5. Where behavioral consequences are applied instead of mere punishment and combined with regular, positive reinforcement, the on-task behavior is likely to increase.
  13. 13. Behaviour modification is used to treat a variety of problems in both adults and children. Behaviour modification has been successfully used to treat : 1.Obsessive- compulsive disorder (OCD) 2.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) 3.Phobias 4.Enuresis (bed-wetting) 5.Anxiety disorders
  14. 14. 1.Prevents illness and diseases. 2.Alter dieting and exercise habits. 3.Helps individual to cope and manage pain. 4.Enhances academic performance of students. 5.Improves parenting and parent child interaction.
  15. 15. 1. The therapist assumes responsibility for being trained in the currently available procedures in the field . 2. The parents assume the therapist is knowledgeable of the latest development in the field and is aware of the injuries and effects of the treatment. 3. The treatment of the patient requires constant monitoring of he behavior changes. 4. The therapist assumes some hypothesis and informally checks if his predictions were correct. 5. Parents don't know how successful the treatment procedure are. 6. The therapist does not use the patient as a subject but use ways to benefit the patient. 7. The college students are not qualified for the procedures. 8. The therapist decides which behavior to delete and to keep. 9. Change in the cultural values in the changing time. 10.I f the therapist is not involved in every aspect of the patients daily program he cannot clearly justify the effectiveness of the program. 11.Untrained people like parents compound the errors.
  16. 16. Reinforcement … It means strengthen to a
  17. 17. Positive reinforcement- requires a stimulus onset of a good effect positive reinforcement can be given in either natural or artificial way.
  18. 18. Negative reinforcement- removal of a stimulus termination of bad effect the 2 main classes of negative reinforcement are-escape and
  19. 19. A conditioned reinforce is one whose ability to reinforce behavior results from an association with other reinforce. Token reinforcement produce; however, are not bound by this limitation because the token may be exchanged for a large
  20. 20. 1.Continuous Reinforcement. 2.Intermittent or Partial Reinforcement.
  21. 21. Continuous Reinforcement schedule” is A “continuous reinforcement an arrangement in which reinforcement follows every appropriate behavior.
  22. 22. Intermittent or Partial Reinforcement When reinforcement follows only a portion of the desired behaviors’, the arrangement is called an “intermittent” or “partial reinforcement” schedule.
  23. 23. Types of Intermittent or Partial Reinforcement:When the two interval schedules are employed, a response is reinforced only after a certain amount of time has passed since the previous reinforced response. The two ratio schedules deliver reinforcement after an individual emits a certain number of responses.
  24. 24. Fixed interval Fixed interval schedules of reinforcement occur when desired behaviors are reinforced after set periods of time.
  25. 25. Variable interval Variable interval reinforcement schedules are employed when desired behaviors are reinforced after varying periods of time.
  26. 26. Fixed ratio It was first discovered by Skinner. It means if a response is reinforced after a fixed number of repetitions, the schedule is called as fixed ratio schedule of FR schedule.
  27. 27. Variable ratio It is the fourth type of schedule. A variable ratio schedule delivers reinforcement after an individual makes a certain number of responses, which varies from one reinforcement to the next that is the variable ratio reinforcement schedule applies the reinforcer after a number of desired behaviors have occurred,
  28. 28. It includes:1.Self Reinforcement/ Internal Reinforcement 2. Social Reinforcement/ External Reinforcement
  29. 29. Self Reinforcement/ Internal Reinforcement 1. Self-monitoring Daily logKeep a detailed record of everything you eat. Note amount eaten, type of food and caloric value, time of day and the circumstances of eating. This record will establish the calorie intake that is maintaining your present weight. It will also help to identify the stimuli that elicit and reinforce your eating behaviour. Weight chartDecide how much you want to lose and set a weekly goal for weight loss. Your weekly goal should be realistic- between 1 and 2 pounds. Record your weight each day on graph paper. In addition to showing how weight varies with food intake, this visual record will
  30. 30. 2. Controlling stimulus conditions Use these procedures to narrow the range of stimuli associated with eating: •Eat only at predetermined times, at a specific table, using a special place mat and so forth. Do not eat at other times or in other place. •Do not combine eating with other activities, such as reading or watching television. •Keep in the house only those foods that are permitted on your diet. •Shop for food only after having had a full a meal, and buy only those items that are on a previously prepared list. 3. Modifying actual eating behaviour Use these procedures to break the chain of responses that make eating automatic:
  31. 31. Social Reinforcement/ External Reinforcement 1. Physical contact, attention, praise, closeness (proximity) 2. This is the reinforcement noted in calling-out.
  32. 32. Reinforcers derive their ability to modify behaviour from two sources or two functions:1.They serve as motivators for student performance. 2.The second function of a reinforcer is to provide feedback to a student, that is, information that they have performed the right behaviour.
  33. 33. It is conditioned technique that lessons the chance behavior to occur in future through either removal of something undesirable or presentation of something desirable here chance behavior is desirable behavior.
  34. 34. Factors influencing effectiveness of punishment.[principles] 1. Maximizing the condition for desirable alternative response . This means that one should identify some desirable behaviour that will compete with undesirable behaviour to be eliminated 2 . Minimizing Causes of Response to be punished. To have desirable behaviour i.e. minimize the causes of undesirable behaviour and to identify reinforces of undesirable behaviour 3. Selecting punisher. It states that verbal scolding are not effective ,function as positive reinforcers, punishment should be effective one. e.g.:- spanking, problems of use weak punishers, punishment should not be paired with positive reinforcers. 4. Delivering punisher. Should be delivered immediately because undesirable behavior,
  35. 35. Drawbacks of Punishment... 1. It does not establish new behaviour. 2. Children often models or imitate behaviors. 3. It may become addictive user. 4. Strong punishment can produce undesirable emotional side effects.
  36. 36. It is condition were in one removes the child from environmental condition which is reinforcing the undesirable behaviour.
  37. 37. Straight Time-Out…  It can be administered in several ways- placing child in bedroom      devoid of furniture, placing the child in bedroom for timeout interval ,by placing child in remote area i.e. in same room but separate placing. Administration depends upon the ability of child to get back . Time for time out interval varies from 5 to 15 mins Administered in child natural environment i.e. even if its closed room it should be nearby. Its effective in natural environment provided the reinforcers are far . 2 things that lead to failing of time out very short or long intervals and second is if placed in natural environment peers act as positive reinforcers so chaining technique used. Time out is different from seluction orders are not recommended . Time out is different form punishment .
  38. 38. Stop the World… 1. This method is specifically designed to deprive child of any reinforcement for any behaviour until compliance with original request can be obtained. 2. It is applied when the child is simply avoiding specific task.
  39. 39. Shaping is a process in which teacher first determined how close a student is being able to perform a desired behavior, known as „terminal behavior‟. Once the initial level of behavior is determined the teacher progressively required the student to perform a series of behaviors which approximate the terminal behavior. Each time the student performs the required approximation, the teacher reinforces the student until he or she
  40. 40. An important point to note in a shaping procedure are: 1. The increase in difficulty of task should be made in small steps. 2. The procedure of shaping is teaching the subject a response(s) which is prerequisite to acquiring another response(s),which is prerequisite for acquisition of another etc 3. It is always more difficult to shape/train behaviors in human being than in animal, simply because human beings intellectual being . 4. In shaping one must try to stimulate, or wait for the occurrence of, a desired response which is reinforce as soon as it occurs 5. Trial-and –error responses should not be punished but they may be ignored. If they are punished the effect may be decelerate the approximation 6. Patience is a virtue of greatest necessity in shaping 7. One should not be reluctant to “back up” in training program
  41. 41. Treatment for phobias. Flooding procedure starts immediately with a highly feared stimulus, and forces the patient to remain in the presence of this stimulus until the patient‟s
  42. 42. Things to be kept in mind while using Flooding:1. It is the therapist‟s duty to describe the detail of the flooding procedure to the patient in advance. 2. To point out that the fear the patient will experience may be quiet unpleasant. 3. To obtain the patient‟s consent before proceeding. 4. To safeguards and protecting the rights of the patient.
  43. 43. Distinguish Between:SHAPING  Shaping is used to develop new behavior.  Shaping always works in forward direction.  In shaping , the goal is to develop a terminal response. The behaviors along the way toward the goal usually are not evident when shaping is complete. CHAINING  Chaining usually is used to develop a sequence of behaviour using responses that are already present in the individual.  Chaining can proceeds in a backward direction i.e. beginning with last response.  In chaining , behaviors developed early in training are still evident when training is completed.
  44. 44. Prodding is used along with punishment and positive reinforcement. It is reminding a response to a child which if not made will result into punishment or if commenced will result into positive reinforcement. It acts like a reminder to a child to avoid undesirable behavior or to show desirable behavior. So it is used to
  45. 45. Points to remember:1. If the program is one in which the child is continuously requested to perform some response in avoidance of punishment, the effect is likely to be deleterious to the child total treatment program. 2. One danger of prodding is that prodding will serve as an independent rein forcer maintaining
  46. 46. 1. A sequence of several responses is referred to as a chain of behavior . It is also called stimulusresponse chain . 2. A chain of behavior thus is a combination or series of the individual responses performed in a particular order. 3. There are two types of chaining forward and backward chaining.
  47. 47. Forward Chaining  Forward chaining is a chaining procedure that begins with the first element in the chain 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Taking the shirt from the drawer. Spreading it out on the bed Picking up the shirt. Putting one arm through the sleeve. Then the other through the sleeve. Then putting ones head through. Finally pulling it down to ones waist
  48. 48. Backward Chaining  Backward chaining consist of starting with the last behavior in the sequence. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Taking the shirt from the drawer. Spreading it out on the bed Picking up the shirt. Putting one arm through the sleeve. Then the other through the sleeve. Then putting ones head through. Finally pulling it down to ones waist
  49. 49. Points to be kept in mind for chaining 1. Define the target behavior. 2. Units must be taught in the proper sequence otherwise it may leads to undesirable chain. 3. Monitor Results.
  50. 50. 1. Behavior which is learned or modified by observing model . 2. Also called observational learning or imitation. 3. The technique has been used to eliminate unwanted behaviors, reduce excessive fears, facilitate learning of social behaviors, and many more.
  51. 51. Types of Modeling 1. Live modeling 2. Symbolic modeling 3. Participant modeling 4. Covert modeling
  52. 52. Modeling Effect 1. Acquisition or learning of new behavior. 2. Inhibitory or disinhibitory effect . 3. Removal of unwanted behavior.
  53. 53. Factors that affect the likelihood of imitation… 1. Model‟s behavior receive reinforcers. 2. Characteristics of the model. 3. The pleasurable emotional responses or cues of the model . 4. Similarity of the behavior. 5. Visibility of the modeled behavior . 6. The easiness of the behavior .
  54. 54. Presented by:- 1.Bavna Hiranandani. 2.Shruti Poddar. 3.Nidhi Shah. 4.Nida 5.Megha Jain. 6.Veerata Sathe. 7.Payal Kamat.
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