Behaviour modification

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Management of Learning Disability in children is to be made a priority in all our educational endeavours. Children achieving academical performance matching to their intellectual capacities are sometimes thwarted by LD. Find out the cause for every undesired behaviour of our children and we have to help them overcome it. It's our duty. It's required to build up a satisfied society.

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Behaviour modification

  1. 1. Techniques of Behaviour Modification babuappat@gmail.com
  2. 2. Behaviour ModificationGive a Man a fish and feed him for a day; Teach a man to fish and feed him for the life.
  3. 3. What’s Behaviour? ɪbehavior [bɪˈhevjə] n 1. manner of behaving or conducting oneselfon ones best behaviour behaving with careful good manners3. (Psychology) Psychol a. the aggregate of all the responses made by an organism in any situationb. a specific response of a certain organism to a specific stimulus or group of stimuli4. the action, reaction, or functioning of a system, under normal or specified circumstances [from BEHAVE; influenced in form by Middle English havior, from Old French havoir, from Latin habēre to have]
  4. 4. What’s Behaviour Problem?When the Behaviour deviates from the normally expected Pattern
  5. 5. What’s Behaviour Modification?Interfere positively in the child’s activities to influence its thoughts in order to bring in desirable changes in the pattern of behaviour
  6. 6. General Definition Systematic application of learningprinciples and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviours in order to help them function more fully in society.
  7. 7. TechniquesTechniques are various systematised tried and tested principles of action to bring in behavioural changes in the targeted population
  8. 8. Behaviour Modification techniques Systematic application of learning principles and techniques to assess and improve individuals covert and overt behaviours in order to help them function more fully in society.
  9. 9. Some Behaviour Modification techniques• Reinforcement• Punishment• Systematic De-sensitisation• Aversion• Extinction• Shaping and Chaining• Prompting and Fading• Behaviour Contracting• Token Economy• Timeout• Overcorrection• Stimulus Satiation• Flooding• Assertiveness Training• Bio-feedback• Relaxation Methods
  10. 10. ReinforcementThe process used to help increase theprobability that a specific behaviour will occur with the delivery of a stimulus/item/immediately after a response/behaviour is exhibited.
  11. 11. Reinforcement Two Types:• Primary Reinforcement• Secondary Reinforcement
  12. 12. Primary Reinforcement Also known as Unconditional Reinforcement Occurs naturally Doesn’t require learning Have an evolutionary basisIt aids in the survival of the speciesIncludes: food, air, water, sleep, sex
  13. 13. Secondary Reinforcement Also known as Conditioned Reinforcement Involves stimuli that have become rewarding by being paired with another reinforcing stimulus.eg: When training a dog praise and treats must be used.
  14. 14. Positive ReinforcementPositive reinforcement is very powerful and effective tool to help shape and change behaviour
  15. 15. Positive ReinforcementWorks by presenting a motivating item to the person after the desired behavior is exhibited, making the behaviour more likely to happen in future.
  16. 16. Adding Something Pleasant• Mother giving her son a candy for cleaning up his toys• A little girl receives Rs. 5/- for every A+ she earns
  17. 17. Negative Reinforcement Negative reinforcement is reinforcement of adesired behaviour by the removal of astimuli/item after a particular behaviour is exhibited.
  18. 18. Negative ReinforcementThe likelihood of the particular behaviour occurring again in the future is increased because of removing/avoiding the negative stimuli.
  19. 19. Removing Something UnpleasantLisa always complains headache when it’s time to start doing her homework. Her parents allow her to go to bed without doing her homework.
  20. 20. PunishmentIs used to help decrease the probability that a specific undesired behaviour will occur with the delivery of a consequence immediately after the response behaviour is exhibited.
  21. 21. PunishmentPeople think, typically that punishment produces something wrong or harmful; it shouldn’t necessarily be the case.
  22. 22. PunishmentThe punishment procedures have been used with both typical and atypical developing children, teenagers, elderly persons, animals and people exhibiting different psychological disorders.
  23. 23. Positive Punishment Works by presenting a negative consequence after an undesiredbehaviour is being exhibited, making the behaviour less likely to happen in the future.
  24. 24. Examples of Positive PunishmentA child pricks another’s nose during class and the teacher reprimands him in front of his classmates.
  25. 25. Examples of Positive PunishmentA child wears his favourite hat to church or at dinner, parents chides and ask him to remove it.
  26. 26. Alternatives to PunishmentThere are harmful effects of physical or verbal punishment. Yelling, slapping, hitting and spanking teach violence, destroy self esteem, create anger, interfere with learning and damage the relationship between.
  27. 27. Alternatives to PunishmentPrevent unwanted behaviour by meeting your child’s needs when they are first expressed.
  28. 28. Alternatives to Punishment Provide safe child friendly environment
  29. 29. The Golden RuleThink about how you would like to be treated if you were to find yourself in the same circumstances as your child. To err is humane.
  30. 30. EmpathyTo empathise means placing yourself in the other man’s place. Show empathy to your children.
  31. 31. Non-Violent CommunicationUnderstand and meet the need that led to the undesired behaviour.
  32. 32. Emotional TankFill the child’s emotional tank with: Eye contact Gentle touch Undivided attention
  33. 33. Parental Command V/s. Cordial Persuasion Please “Slow down” Is often better than “Stop Running”
  34. 34. Systematic DesensitisationIs a behavioural treatment that is used to treat anxiety causing behaviour such as phobias and fears.
  35. 35. 3 Steps of Systematic Desensitisation Training to relax: Hierarchy of Anxiety: Desensitisation process:
  36. 36. Training to RelaxTraining to relax: Progressive relaxation, one first tightens and then relaxes various muscle groups in the body.
  37. 37. Hierarchy of AnxietyHierarchy of Anxiety: a catalogue ofanxiety provoking situations or stimuli arranged in order from least to most distressing.
  38. 38. Desensitisation ProcessDesensitisation process: Direct confrontation of the situation.
  39. 39. Systematic DesensitisationThe patient is taught to relax through various relaxation techniques likelearning how to relax the muscles and applying various deep breathing relaxation techniques.
  40. 40. Systematic Desensitisation The patient is asked to think about only red rose.Of course this may generate the feeling of anxiety but only in a limited amount as the object of fear is only imaginary and not real.
  41. 41. Systematic DesensitisationSlowly a picture of rose is presented to the person in a pleasant situation. Forinstance a picture of a boy offering a red rose to a girl as a symbol of love will be shown to the person. This will help him to associate pleasant feeling to rose.
  42. 42. Systematic Desensitisation Then the person is presented a funnydrawing, representing a person or scene, that includes a rose. If this generatesanxiety the person will be asked to close his eyes, relax his mind, and once relaxed presented with the picture again.
  43. 43. Systematic DesensitisationNow the person has to see a real rose in a vase, from a distance. This will be done with a constant reassurance that it can possibly cause no harm.
  44. 44. Systematic DesensitisationThe person will slowly be made toapproach the red rose and look at it from a shorter distance.
  45. 45. Systematic DesensitisationThe person will go close to the rose placed in a vase and be asked just to touch the vase.
  46. 46. Systematic Desensitisation The to touch the rose real.
  47. 47. Systematic DesensitisationHolds the red rose in his hands.
  48. 48. Systematic DesensitisationFinally he will be able to hold the entire bouquet of red roses without experiencing any anxiety of fear.Thus works the Systemic Desensitisation
  49. 49. Aversion TherapyA behaviour therapy in which an aversive (causing a strong feeling of dislike or disgust) stimuli is paired with an undesirable behaviour in order to reduce or eliminate that behaviour.
  50. 50. Aversion Therapy is used in Alcohol abuse, drug abuse, gambling,sexual deviations, smoking or behaviour problems
  51. 51. Examples Aversion TherapyElectric Shock, drugs, disturbing media such as graphic images or loud and painful noises, unappealing scenes or sensations,
  52. 52. Drugs used Aversion TherapyPungent smelling chemicals, strong emetics, noxious and irritating chemicals, irritating ophthalmic applications, capsicum aerosols etc
  53. 53. Precautions of Aversion TherapyThe chemicals and medicaments generate very unpleasant and often physically painful responses. This type of aversive stimulation may be risky for persons with hear or lung problems.
  54. 54. Precautions of Aversion TherapyBeahavioural contract to be executed.
  55. 55. Precautions of Aversion Therapy Worsening of the present medical conditions.
  56. 56. ExtinctionExtinction is used to stop an undesirable behaviour.
  57. 57. ExtinctionLike punishment, an extinction behaviour is used when you need to get your subject to stop some behaviours.
  58. 58. ExtinctionParents can create behaviour “extinction” by carefully observing their child’s behavour and noticing what reward the child receives for that inappropriate behaviour.
  59. 59. ExtinctionHigh magnitude of reinforcement of the undesired behaviour makes it hard to remove by extinction.
  60. 60. Associative Loss theory in ExtinctionThe simplest explanation of extinction is that as the CS is presented without the aversive US, the animal gradually “unlearns” the CS-US association.
  61. 61. Shaping and ChainingThis is a behavioural term that refers to gradually moulding or training anorganism to perform a specific response (behaviour) by reinforcing any responsethat are similar to the desired response.
  62. 62. Examples of Shaping and Chaining Dolphin Training in Circus
  63. 63. Prompting and FadingA prompt can be defined as a cue or hint meant to induce a person to perform desired behaviour.
  64. 64. Prompting and FadingPrompting is an act of helping a behaviour to occur
  65. 65. Prompting and FadingA coach help a small child hold a baseball bat to teach a proper swing
  66. 66. FadingFading is when the trainer gradually withdraws the prompt Eg: Learning to drive a vehicle
  67. 67. Behaviour ContractingIt’s a therapeutic approach in which an agreement is reached with a client usually in the form of a written contract.
  68. 68. Behaviour Contracting This would make clear theconsequences that would follow certain identified behaviours.
  69. 69. Behaviour ContractingEg: A contract may be drawn up with a child specifying their reward for bed- wetting. These agreement make clear the schedule of reinforcement being applied and in signing up to the agreement it’s understood that this might motivate the client to cooperate with the programme
  70. 70. Behaviour ContractingIs applied to stopping of smoking, drinking etc.
  71. 71. Procedure of Behaviour ContractingPlan the contract, set up a meeting, communicate the laid out conditions, benefits and dead lines. Schedule follow ups.
  72. 72. Token Economy Is a system of behaviour modification based on thesystematic positive reinforcement of target behaviour.
  73. 73. Token Economy The reinforcement symbols ortokens that can be exchanged for other reinforcers. It’s based on the conditions of operant conditioning.
  74. 74. Token Economy Are applied with children andadults. Give the reward whenever the behaviour occur.
  75. 75. Steps of Token EconomyStep 1: Select target behaviour for change.
  76. 76. Steps of Token EconomyStep 2: Develop a method for recording or token or points.
  77. 77. Steps of Token EconomyStep 3: Identify powerful rewards.
  78. 78. Steps of Token EconomyStep 4: Establish Goals- number of tokens or points to be won for obtaining the rewards.
  79. 79. Steps of Token EconomyStep 5: Detail the programme to the child.
  80. 80. Steps of Token EconomyStep 6: Provide the feedback.
  81. 81. Steps of Token EconomyStep 7: Finally present the reward.
  82. 82. Steps of Token EconomyStep 8: Change the programme. When the desired result isobtained too you should change the programme ingredients.
  83. 83. Time OutTemporarily changing or separating the child from the environment where inappropriate behaviour has occurred. It’s intended to remove a positive reinforcement of the undesired behaviour.
  84. 84. Time OutIt’s an educational and parentingtechnique recommended by somepaediatricians and developmental psychologists as an effectivemeasure to ensure child discipline.
  85. 85. Time Out Recommended for younger children. Thepurpose is to isolate or separate the child for a short period of time (usually 5 to 15 minutes) in order to allow the child to calmdown as well as to discourage inappropriate behaviour. May on chair, steps, corner or any other locations where there is no distractions.
  86. 86. Time OutTemporarily changing or separating the child from the environment where inappropriate behaviour has occurred. It’s intended to remove a positive reinforcement of the undesired behaviour.
  87. 87. Time OutType of a behaviour control method based on removing positive reinforcements.
  88. 88. OvercorrectionA type of Positive practice which involves performing an action repeatedly until it’s performed correctly.
  89. 89. OvercorrectionIf you have trouble in producing the exact musical note in a song you overcorrect it by practicing singing until you reach the desired level of performance.
  90. 90. Stimulus satiation This response of eliminationprocedure involves the repeated presentation of the desired stimulus for the purpose of reducing its attractiveness.
  91. 91. Stimulus satiationExcessive presentation of desired stimulus to reach levels or satiation (to get cloyed with).
  92. 92. FloodingA form of desensitisation for treating phobias and anxieties by repeated exposure to highly distressing stimuli until the lack of reinforcement of the anxiety response causes its extinction.
  93. 93. FloodingA form of desensitisation used in behaviour therapy in which the person imagines or is actually exposed to anxiety-producing stimuli.
  94. 94. Assertiveness Training A form of behaviour therapydesigned to help people stand up for themselves- to empower themselves.
  95. 95. Assertiveness TrainingAssertiveness is a response thatseeks to maintain an appropriate balance between passivity and aggression.
  96. 96. Assertiveness Training Assertiveness response thatpromotes fairness and equality in human interaction, based onpositive sense of respect for self and others.
  97. 97. Assertiveness TrainingThe purpose of assertiveness training is to teach persons appropriate strategies for identifying and acting on their desires, needs and opinions while remaining respectful of others.
  98. 98. Bio-feedback Applied Psychological feedback- is a patient guided treatment that teachesan individual to control muscle tension, pain, body temperature, brain waves and other bodily functions and processes through relaxation,visualisation and other cognitive control techniques.
  99. 99. Bio-feedbackTemperature Bio-feedbackGSR Galvanic Skin Response EEG Bio-feedback Bio-Life Feedback-Return
  100. 100. Bio-feedback Applied Psychological feedback- is a patient guided treatment that teachesan individual to control muscle tension, pain, body temperature, brain waves and other bodily functions and processes through relaxation,visualisation and other cognitive control techniques.
  101. 101. Relaxation MethodsRelaxation is not just zoning our before a TV at the end of a stressful day.
  102. 102. Relaxation MethodsTo effectively combat stress, we need to activate the body’s natural relaxation response. We can do this by practicing relaxation techniques such as deep breathing, mindful meditation, rhythmic exercises and YOGA.
  103. 103. I think..I have covered the topic fairly well. Your suggestions to improve this effort is welcome.
  104. 104. babuappat@gmail.comwww.ldinchildren.webs.com

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