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The Language of Discovery: Designing Big Data Interactions
 

The Language of Discovery: Designing Big Data Interactions

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The Language of Discovery: A Grammar for Designing Big Data Interactions ...

The Language of Discovery: A Grammar for Designing Big Data Interactions

The oncoming tidal wave of Big Data, with its rapidly evolving ecosystem of multi-channel information saturated environments and services, brings profound challenges and opportunities for the design of effective user experiences.

Looking deeper than the celebratory rhetoric of information quantity, at its core, Big Data makes possible unprecedented awareness and insight into every sphere of life; from business and politics, to the environment, arts and society. In this coming Age of Insight, 'discovery' is not only the purview of specialized Data Scientists who create exotic visualizations of massive data sets, it is a fundamental category of human activity that is essential to everyday interactions between people, resources, and environments.

To provide architects and designers with an effective starting point for creating satisfying and relevant user experiences that rely on discovery interactions, this session presents a simple analytical and generative toolkit for understanding how people conduct the broad range of discovery activities necessary in the information-permeated world.

Specifically, this session will present:
• A simple, research-derived language for describing discovery needs and activities that spans domains, environments, media, and personas
• Observed and reusable patterns of discovery activities in individual and collaborative settings
• Examples of the architecture of successful discovery experiences at small and large scales
• A vocabulary and perspective for discovery as a critical individual and organizational capability
• Leading edge examples from the rapidly emerging space of applied discovery
• Design futures and concepts exploring the possible evolution paths of discovery interactions

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The Language of Discovery: Designing Big Data Interactions The Language of Discovery: Designing Big Data Interactions Presentation Transcript

  • The Languageof Discovery#UXLX#languageofdiscovery
  • Joe LamantiaUX Lead: Discovery ProductsOracle@moJoeJoeLamantia.comJoe.Lamantia@oracle.comhttp://slideshare.net/mojoe
  • designed manydiscovery solutions
  • discovery is...?
  • more thanvisualization
  • not just search
  • DiscoveryAct or experience of seeing, finding,learning, or solving something.Something seen, found, learned, or solved.
  • search prediction visualization analysis
  • discovery ismaking sense of the world search prediction visualization analysis
  • InsightGrasping or understanding meaning,significance, and/or a solution.A valuable change in perspective or understandingthat enables or guides further action.
  • Welcome toThe Age of Insight
  • “In the next tenyears, digital dataalone is expectedto grow 44 times.By 2020, therewill be 4 billionpeople onlinecreating 50trillion gigabytesof data.”HP Intelligent Research
  • Volume: yotta, yotta, yottaVaried data ‘materials’ social, cultural, personal, environmental, economic, scientificFull spectrum of granularityReal-time & historical perspectivesCommoditized infrastructure storage, processing, distribution, publishingData ecosystem(s)
  • “The ability to take data - to be able to understand it, toprocess it, to extract value from it, to visualize it, tocommunicate its going to be a hugely important skill in thenext decades, not only at the professional level but even at the educational level forelementary school kids, for high school kids, for college kids. Because now wereally do have essentially free and ubiquitous data. So thecomplimentary scarce factor is the ability to understandthat data and extract value from it.”Hal Varianhttp://www.mckinseyquarterly.com/Hal_Varian_on_how_the_Web_challenges_managers_2286
  • Everything isdiscoverable
  • Horizon of Discoverability future soon present past
  • urban status http://citydashboard.org/london/
  • WAYWT?
  • social activity
  • influence
  • data journalism
  • ‘Cliodynamics’ is atransdisciplinary area ofresearch integratinghistorical macrosociology,economic history/cliometrics, mathematicalmodeling of long-termsocial processes, and theconstruction and analysis ofhistorical databases.
  • “The instability of large,complex societies is apredictable phenomenon,according to a newmathematical model thatexplores the emergence ofearly human societies viawarfare.”“Capturing hundreds of years of human history, the model revealsthe dynamical nature of societies, which can be difficult to uncoverin archaeological data.” http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/01/110119151816.htm
  • “What we found are the constants that describe every city,” he says. I don’t know anything about this city or even where it is or its history, but I can tell you all about it. And the reason I can do that is because every city is really the same.”http://www.nytimes.com/2010/12/19/magazine/19Urban_West-t.html
  • cultural analytics
  • Everyonediscovers
  • ready data
  • viz tools
  • management tools
  • engagement models
  • consumer devices
  • “The datasexual looks a lot likeyou and me, but what’s different istheir preoccupation with personaldata.They are relentlessly digital, theyobsessively record everythingabout their personal lives, andthey think that data is sexy. Infact, the bigger the data, the sexierit becomes.Their lives - from a data data as lifestyleperspective, at least - are perfectlygroomed.”
  • Discovery is the leadingemerging interaction categoryof the Age of Insight
  • mediated sense making
  • As I was waiting for a table at alocal restaurant the other day, Iflipped through a couple of thefree classified papers.I was shocked to realize howdependent I’ve grown onthree simple features that justaren’t available in the analogworld: search, sort and filter. http://uxdesign.smashingmagazine.com/2012/04/10/ui-patterns-for-mobile-apps-search-sort-filter/
  • Complex ecosystems: multi-channel experiences everyware environmentsnetwork & service models dynamic perspectives fluid data
  • How to design discoveryexperiences...?
  • Need & context vary wildly Patterns of form are inadequate.
  • Task patterns = vague...
  • Activity Centered Design
  • The Language of Discovery:A concrete descriptive language forhuman discovery activity in diversecontexts.A simple and consistent vocabulary thatis independent of domain, role,information type, etc.
  • Leverages what is commonin human discovery.Allows for what varies incontexts of discovery
  • Enables understanding ofdiscovery needs and context
  • Generative tool for discoverycapability and experience
  • works like musical notes
  • grammaticalstructure & behavior
  • visual grammars
  • activity grammars
  • Research-based
  • scenario analysis
  • Call Centers & Maintenance Data Quality & Knowledge Repair & Governance Mgmt Overhaul Claims Analysis Enterprise Search Digital Asset & Knowledge Mgmt Mgmt Warranty Analysis Field Service Operations Financial Analysis & Planning Analysis Service Measure Customer Human Capital Risk Analysis Support & Plan & Management Maintain Operate Market Research Program & Portfolio Pricing Sell & Develop & Mgmt Analysis Deliver Produce Manufacturing & Quality Inventory & Inventory & Demand VisibilitySales & DeliveryCustomer Part, CommodityAnalysis Product & Supplier Information Analysis Market Spend Mgmt Intelligence diverse roots Analysis
  • User Scenarios“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set inmanufacturing and the field so that I can determine if I should replacethat part.”- Engineering“Understand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess thequality of the investment opportunity.”“Understand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-levelinvestment mix.”- Portfolio Manager“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I cannegotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecast business riskbased on market indices.”- Procurement
  • DISCOVERY S
  • Literary Modes“a broad, but identifiable literary method, mood, or manner, that is not tied exclusively to a particular form or genre.” http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mode_(literature)
  • ArgumentationThe purpose of argumentation (also called persuasive writing) is to prove the validityof an idea, or point of view, by presenting sound reasoning, discussion, andargument that thoroughly convince the reader.
  • Discovery Modes“a broad, but identifiable discovery activity that is not tied exclusively to a particular context or domain.”
  • MODE
  • Identifying Modes“Understand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturingand the field so that I can determine if I should replace that part.”- Engineering“Understand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of theinvestment opportunity.”“Understand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix.”- Portfolio Manager“I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate betterterms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices.”- Procurement Mode = ‘Comprehend’ (understand)
  • Comprehending‘To generate insight by understanding the nature ormeaning of an item or data set’e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to informbrand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • Identifying Modes“I need visibility into the parts my colleagues are using globally in order to find thebest part possible for my assembly.”- Engineering“I need to identify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-brandingbased on performance problems.”- Account Rep“I need to identify problem/success areas and where to intervene and reward.”- SVP Sales“I need to identify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products.”- Brand Manager Mode = ‘Explore’
  • Exploring‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data setfor the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate betterterms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”– Procurement
  • Modes are the verbs ofdiscovery scenarios.
  • You can explore:peopleplaceseventsobjectsdatatopics...?
  • Explore something to... result or goal. verb object predicate
  • Locate Verify Monitor Compare9 distinct Comprehendmodes Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • Modes seem to beinternalized & common.
  • domain independent scale independent structurally consistent semantically distincteach orthogonalmode is... conceptually connected sequencable combinable
  • you said theywork like music?
  • Chains &Sequences
  • scenario analysis: multiple /sequential modes
  • 1. Replace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective)2. ...with an equivalent or better part3. ...without compromising quality and cost.
  • 1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective)2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • Comparison–driven Search1. Replace a problematic part Analyze (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective)2. ...with an equivalent or better part Compare3. ...without compromising quality Evaluate and cost.
  • 1. Analyze2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity3. versus best in class manufacturing costs.
  • 1. Analyze Analyze2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • Comparison–driven Search1. Analyze Analyze2. and understand gaps between current cost of commodity Compare3. versus best in class manufacturing costs. Evaluate
  • recognizable mode chains
  • Comparison- Analyze Compare Evaluatedriven SearchExploration- Explore Analyze Evaluatedriven SearchStrategic Analyze Comprehend EvaluateInsightStrategic Monitor Analyze EvaluateOversightComparative Analyze Compare SynthesizeSynthesis
  • Comparison–driven Search Analyze Compare EvaluateIdentify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core EngineerReplace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part withoutcompromising quality and cost. - EngineeringCompare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,quality and functionality. - EngineeringCompare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the leads claims - Portfolio ManagerSee the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (betweenactual PO and should costs). - ProcurementAnalyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - CostEstimators
  • Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze EvaluateMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP SalesMonitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/InspectorMonitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - CoreEngineerMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District ManagerMonitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand ManagerFinancial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • Exploration-driven Search Explore Analyze EvaluateIdentify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core EngineerIdentify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-crosssell; promotional targets - District ManagerEvaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should webe making/selling? - Category ManagerIdentify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand ManagerDetermine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core BuyerIdentify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - ProgramAdministrator
  • Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend EvaluateTrack module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - EngineeringUnderstand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if Ishould replace that part. - EngineeringUnderstand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - PortfolioManagerUnderstand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio ManagerI need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecastbusiness risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • Comparison–driven Synthesis Analyze Compare SynthesizeAnalyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -Director, Brand ImageFind out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - EngineeringFormulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core BuyerAnalyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brandstrategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst
  • Mode Networks VerifyAnalyze Comprehend Synthesize Compare EvaluateMonitor AnalyzeExplore
  • Mode
  • When I use the tool, I can... Monitor...currently popular colors over usefulintervals Explore...currently popular colors, or colorspopular in the past VerifyThat a color is popular now or in thepast
  • As a user, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze the popularity and importance of colors over time to see patterns 2. Compare colors in terms Compare of importance and popularity at various cycles, trends, and moments. 3. Evaluate colors vs. their Evaluate current and historic importance and popularity.Comparison-driven Search ...of colors I may use for my purposes
  • As a reader, I can... Monitor...articles to see what is new andavailable. Explore...available articles and topics toidentify those of interest to me. Locate... and read articles of interest,supporting information, andrelated materials.
  • As a reader, I can... Analyze 1. Analyze events and topics using the data and tools provided Comprehend 2. Understand the events and topics using the Guardian’s perspective and my own. Evaluate 3. Evaluate all perspectives, as well as the actions and decisions based on them.Strategic Insight into events & actions of government & society
  • As a reader, I get... Analyze 1. Analyze the causes, participants and events of the UK riots 2. Compare suggested Compare causes, insights and explanations into the events. Synthesize 3. Synthesize these insights into a coordinated perspective on the riotsComparative synthesis of all insights into the causes of the UK riots
  • My twitter home page allows me to... Monitor...the tweets of people I follow, myfollowers, community interactions. Explore...trends and active topics, andsuggestions for people to follow. Locate..tweets, people, hashtags / topics Synthesize...new tweets via composition,retweet, or favorite tweets.
  • The profile snapshot lets me... Evaluate...the author of a tweet to decide if Iam interested in them Locate...the profile and homepage of theauthor of a tweet
  • A twitter profile page lets me... Explore...the authors profile to learn moreabout them Evaluate...their activity, followers, tweets,relevance to me Comprehend...the author’s interests, point of view,
  • Twitter Profile viewers can... Explore 1. Explore the author’s profile, activity and community interactions. 2. Analyze the author’s Analyze followers, activity, tweets, community interaction, who they follow. Evaluate 3. Evaluate the author to decide their relevance and value.Exploration-driven search ... for valuable people streams to follow
  • MICRO view - visual artdata: 25 canonical paintings representingtransition from realism to modernism,1849-1916
  • Strategic Analyze Comprehend EvaluateInsightComparative Analyze Compare SynthesizeSynthesis
  • Strategic Analyze Comprehend EvaluateInsight
  • Analyze Synthesize Explore Compare ComprehendCultural Analytics software running on HIPerSpace (May 2009)
  • Comparative Analyze Compare SynthesizeSynthesis
  • Using the language
  • To inform the core principles for the user experience of the product To coordinate the design of product features and functions across channels and form-factorsproduct To evaluate the quality and success ofstrategy, product designs, in terms of usability, engagement, value, etc.definition To establish a roadmap for the products& design evolution and determine development efforts To shape strategy for a portfolio of products by understanding the value proposition of current and potential new products
  • To guide the deployment of the product as part of a solution for customerssolution identifying needs via scenarios and other solution specification toolsdesign for crafting functional requirements andproduct interaction designs for deployed applicationscustomers To describe and publish patterns and best practices in implementation of the product - workspace, application, application suite
  • Mode-based design
  • application Supply Chain Planning and Managementtemplate
  • Role / Persona Scenarios & Goals • Create and update accurate forecasts on a weekly basis at a very detailed level, such as the number of packs of each product SKU needed for a single store. Forecasts evolve through several iterations before reaching their final state, allowing and requiring Planners to incorporate data on sales, inventory, customer activity, etc. as it accumulates in real Planner / Analyst time. • Improve the accuracy of forecasts and forecasting methods by understanding the nature, degree, and source of forecasting errors in reference to a large number of defined metrics and performance measures • Analyze and understand changes in the factors affecting forecast accuracy, and enhance forecasting methods to reflect these changes • Monitor and review the accuracy of Planners’ forecasts to assess individual and team performance • Determine the specific metrics and performance measurements that Planning teams use Planning Manager for reference, based on the long-term goals of the organization. • Evaluate and improve the effectiveness of forecasting practices and tools used by planning teams • Achieve 100% forecast accuracy • Maintain forecast accuracy over time, and in all situations. Planning Team
  • Role / Persona Modes & Mode Chains Planners needing to create new forecasts based on previous forecasts and newly identified causal factors will follow the Comparison-driven Synthesis chain (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize): this involves analyzing their previous forecasts and comparing them to accuracy baselines and the expected impact of known causal and correlating factors such as seasonal events or weather, then creating (synthesizing) new forecasts that Planner / Analyst reflect insights realized from these activities. Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis Planners working to improve forecasting accuracy will follow the Strategic Insight chain (Analyze – Comprehend – Evaluate), when they review previous forecasts to understand their accuracy and identify possible sources of error: analyzing cumulative and historical accuracy and error rates to understand the factors affecting those forecasts, then evaluating the relevance and usefulness of newly identified causal factors by retrospectively including them in previous forecasts. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Planning Managers will follow the Strategic Oversight chain (Monitor – Analyze – Evaluate) when assessing the performance of Planners: monitoring the accuracy of forecasts made by individual analysts and the team, analyzing forecasts for patterns and trends in variance and accuracy, and evaluating the effectiveness of analysts, and forecasting methods. Planning Manager Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate Oversight
  • Role / Persona Chains & Sequences Planners will follow the Strategic Oversight chain for visibility into the status of their published final forecasts vs. actual activity in the supply chain; when errors or variances beyond an acceptable threshold emerge in one or more forecasts, they will switch to the Strategic Insight chain in order to understand the new situation; they will move on to the Comparison-driven Synthesis chain to revise their forecasts to reflect their newly generated insights and improved understanding; they will then switch back to Strategic Planner / Analyst Oversight to maintain ongoing awareness of the accuracy and effectiveness of their revised forecasts over time. Strategic Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Oversight Insight Synthesis Oversight Planning Managers seeking to improve the forecasting practices and methods of their teams will employ a sequences of mode chains that begins with Exploration-driven Search, to identify exemplars of particularly strong or weak forecasts and forecasting practices; they will move to Strategic Insight to understand how and why these practices exhibit strength or weakness; Comparison-driven Synthesis will help Managers Planning Manager formulate new or improved measurements and forecasting practices; and they will rely on Strategic Oversight to gauge the effectiveness of new or enhanced practices once in effect. Exploration-driven Strategic Comparison-driven Strategic Search Insight Synthesis Oversight
  • Application Structure3 screen typeseach composed of defined components visualization, navigation, tabular data, search, context management, alerts, etc.apps have multiple instances of screen types each populated by differing data ‘content’supports
  • Dashboard Screen TypeThe Dashboard screen is designed primarily to enable theStrategic Oversight (Monitor-Analyze-Evaluate) chain, bypresenting an overview of the major areas of supply chainactivity. Individual Planners use the Dashboard to Monitorthe accuracy of their own forecasts compared withestablished baselines and targets. Planning Managers usethe Dashboard screen to Monitor the accuracy of all theforecasts made by the Planning team.One pane enables monitoring of each major area of supplychain activity, such as Inventory or Capacity, providingsummaries of the status of processes via KPIs andmeasurements using a component from our library, as wellas a chart presenting historical values of these measures forAnalysis via visualization component.A list of alerts provides a guide to notable changes acrossthe supply chain, allowing Planners and Managers tomonitor, analyze, and evaluate notable events and changesas part of a steady flow of information.The Dashboard enables Planners and Managers to executethe Strategic Oversight chain by following the linked datapoints in charts, metrics and alerts ‘deeper’ into theinformation for analysis. Strategic Monitor Analyze Evaluate OversightPlanner / Analyst Planning Manager
  • Trends Screen TypePlanning teams use the Trends screen to explore and understand thestate of the supply chain, and the accuracy of their forecasts over time.For this purpose, the Trends screen is primarily designed to support theExploration-driven Search (Explore-Analyze-Evaluate) andComparison-driven Synthesis (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize) chains,in which Planners and Managers seek to identify new patterns in timeand supply chain activity and suggest potential causal factors.The value of the Trends screen is best understood in the context ofsequences of mode chains, such as Strategic Oversight in companionwith Comparison-driven Synthesis or Exploration Driven Search incompanion to Strategic Insight. Exploration-driven Explore Analyze Evaluate Search Comparative Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • Analysis Screen TypeThe Summary and Analysis screen is designed to support the StrategicInsight (Analyze-Comprehend-Evaluate), and Comparison-drivenSynthesis (Analyze-Compare-Synthesize) mode chains. Each Analysisscreen in the template is focused on one sub-function of the supply chain.This Analysis screen focuses on the forecasts and activity for ‘restocking’of products in retail settings and various stages of the supply chain.On the left side, the Search, Breadcrumb, and Faceted Navigationcomponents allow the user to manage the data that is presented in thetables, charts, and lists to the right, by exploring the underlying informationspace. They also communicate this context to users to keep them oriented.At the top of the screen there is a ‘metric summary’, which follows on fromthe performance indicators identified on the Dashboard, providing visibilityinto the smaller scale measures that determine the status of the supplychain; specifically, the accuracy of forecasts.Below the summary, a group of components presents a visualization anddata grid of a single metric grouped by one or more variables (e.g. quantityby product type) to enable analysis. These ‘metric breakouts’ helpPlanners and Managers comprehend the factors contributing to the statusof each metric. This combination facilitates a wider range of analysismethods than either presentation method supports alone.At the bottom of the template, tables provide lists of the individualtransactions for detailed analysis and evaluation. Strategic Analyze Comprehend Evaluate Insight Planner / Analyst Planning Manager Comparative Analyze Compare Synthesize Synthesis
  • Groups &Collaboration
  • Discovery Profile Data ScienceLocate TeamVerifyMonitorCompareComprehendExploreAnalyzeEvaluateSynthesize
  • Collaborative Discovery Data Science Data Science Data Science Team Team TeamLocateVerifyMonitorCompareComprehendExploreAnalyzeEvaluate
  • Analysis ClusterDiscovery Capability Model Locate Verify Monitor Compare Comprehend Explore Analyze Evaluate Synthesize
  • Language of DiscoveryReferences & Resources
  • ResourcesThe sensemaking process and leverage points for analyst technology as identified through cognitive taskanalysis, Pirolli, P., & Card, S. (2005)https://analysis.mitre.org/proceedings/Final_Papers_Files/206_Camera_Ready_Paper.pdfExploratory search: from finding to understanding, Gary Marchionini, Communications of the ACM, Volume49 Issue 4, April 2006http://www.ischool.utexas.edu/~i385t-sw/readings/Marchionini-2006-Exploratory_Search.pdfLamantia, Joe. “Goal Based Information Retrieval Experiences” JoeLamantia.com, (June 20, 2006).http://www.joelamantia.com/informationarchitecture/goalbasedinformationretrievalexperiencesLamantia, Joe. “10 Information Retrieval Patterns” JoeLamantia.com, (June 29, 2006).http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/10-information-retrieval-patternsLamantia, Joe. “Discovering User Goals / IR Goal Definitions” JoeLamantia.com, (June 24, 2006).http://www.joelamantia.com/information-architecture/discovering-user-goals-ir-goal-definitionsSpencer, D. 2006. “Four Modes of Seeking Information and How to Design for Them”. Boxes & Arrows:http://www.boxesandarrows.com/view/four_modes_of_seeking_information_and_how_to_design_for_themBates, Marcia J. 1979. "Information Search Tactics." Journal of the American Society for Information Science30: 205-214Bates, Marcia J. 1989. "The Design of Browsing and Berrypicking Techniques for the Online SearchInterface." Online Review 13: 407-424.Broder, A. 2002. A taxonomy of web search, ACM SIGIR Forum, v.36 n.2, Fall 2002
  • ResourcesCool, C. & Belkin, N. 2002. A classification of interactions with information. In H. Bruce (Ed.), EmergingFrameworks and Methods: CoLIS4: proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Conceptions ofLibrary and Information Science, Seattle, WA, USA, July 21-25, 2002, (pp. 1-15).Glaser, B. & Strauss, A. 1967. The Discovery of Grounded Theory: Strategies for Qualitative Research. NewYork: Aldine de Gruyter.Jarvelin, K. and Ingwersen, P. 2004. “Information seeking research needs extension towards tasks andtechnology”, Information Research, Vol. 10, No. 1. (October 2004)Kuhlthau, C. C. 1991. Inside the information search process: Information seeking from the users perspective.Journal of the American Society for Information Science, 42, 361-371.Marchionini, G. 2006. Exploratory search: from finding to understanding. Commun. ACM 49(4): 41-46Norman, Donald A. 2006. Logic versus usage: the case for activity centered design. Interactions 13, 6ODay, V. and Jeffries, R. 1993. Orienteering in an information landscape: how information seekers get fromhere to there. INTERCHI 1993: 438-445Rose, D. and Levinson, D. 2004. Understanding user goals in web search, Proceedings of the 13thinternational conference on World Wide Web, New York, NY, USASalton, G. 1989. Automatic Text Processing: The Transformation, Analysis, and Retrieval of Information byComputer. Addison-Wesley, Reading, MA.Sutcliffe, A.G. and Ennis, M. 1998. Towards a cognitive theory of information retrieval. Interacting withComputers, 10:321–351.
  • Language of DiscoveryMode Definitions
  • Comprehending‘To generate insight by understanding the nature ormeaning of an item or data set’e.g. “I need to analyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to informbrand strategy & communications plan” – Director, Brand Image
  • Comparing‘To examine two or more items to identify similarities anddifferences’e.g. “I need to compare our module set teardowns with competitive teardowninformation to see if we’re staying competitive for cost, quality and functionality”– Engineer
  • Exploring‘To proactively investigate or examine an item or data setfor the purpose of serendipitous knowledge discovery’e.g. “I need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate betterterms with my suppliers and forecast business risk based on market indices”– Procurement
  • Locating‘To find a specific (possibly known) item’e.g. “I need to find a new part with particular technical attributes and then source it fromthe most qualified supplier”– Engineer
  • Verifying‘To confirm or substantiate that an item or set of itemsmeets some specific criterion’e.g. “How can I determine if I am looking at the latest information for a part or supplier?”– Supply Chain Specialist
  • Monitoring‘To maintain awareness of the status of an item or data setfor purposes of management or control’e.g. “I need to monitor at risk/failing customers/dealers so I can prompt my AccountReps to fix the problems”– Sales Manager
  • Analyzing‘To critically examine the detail of an item or data set toidentify patterns & relationships’e.g. “I need to know the cost drivers for a part such as materials that impact cost. Is therelationship a correlation or step function for a part cost driver?”– Engineering
  • Evaluating‘To use judgement to determine the significance or valueof an item or data set with respect to a specific benchmarkor model’e.g. “I need to determine my current state in my prints so I can evaluate if I have pricevariation to negotiate a better price”– Procurement
  • Synthesizing‘To generate or communicate insight by integrating diverseinputs to create a novel artifact or composite view’e.g. “I need to prepare a weekly report for my boss (sales mgr) of how things are going”– Account Rep
  • Language of DiscoveryMode Chains & Sequences
  • Comparison–driven Search Analyze Compare EvaluateIdentify parts used for same function as candidates for commonization and complexity reduction - Core EngineerReplace a problematic part (from sourcing, cost or technical perspective) with an equivalent or better part withoutcompromising quality and cost. - EngineeringCompare our module set teardowns with competitive teardown information to see if we’re staying competitive for cost,quality and functionality. - EngineeringCompare a leads performance claims with relevant benchmarks to assess the leads claims - Portfolio ManagerSee the difference between what we are spending and what we should be spending to maximize savings (betweenactual PO and should costs). - ProcurementAnalyze & understand gaps between current costs of commodity versus best in class manufacturing costs - CostEstimators
  • Strategic Oversight Monitor Analyze EvaluateMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - SVP SalesMonitor and grade incoming incidents; close incidents, add incident close codes - Supervisor/InspectorMonitor global commodity use in relation to plan/guidelines to identify gaps that require corrective action - CoreEngineerMonitor how well we are tracking to revenue and margin targets by division - District ManagerMonitor & evaluate how our brand is performing in re: revenue, margin, and market share targets - Brand ManagerFinancial Analyst: Monitor & assess commodity status against strategy/plan/target
  • Exploration-driven Search Explore Analyze EvaluateIdentify opportunities to optimize use of tooling capacity for my commodity/parts - Core EngineerIdentify sales opportunities and targets (increased key customer market share across categories/brands; upsell-crosssell; promotional targets - District ManagerEvaluate & optimize our product portfolio: Which products should we de-list and retire? What new products should webe making/selling? - Category ManagerIdentify the best customer/consumer/region targets for our brand/products - Brand ManagerDetermine suppliers to use for parts in my program and execute sourcing agreements - Core BuyerIdentify customers/marketers/dealers failing & at risk of de-branding based on performance problems - ProgramAdministrator
  • Strategic Insight Analyze Comprehend EvaluateTrack module cost versus functionality over time to determine trends. - EngineeringUnderstand the quality performance of a part and module set in manufacturing and the field so that I can determine if Ishould replace that part. - EngineeringUnderstand a leads underlying positions so that I can assess the quality of the investment opportunity - PortfolioManagerUnderstand a portfolios exposures to assess portfolio-level investment mix - Portfolio ManagerI need to understand the cost drivers for this commodity so I can negotiate better terms with my suppliers and forecastbusiness risk based on market indices. - Procurement
  • Comparative Synthesis Analyze Compare SynthesizeAnalyze and understand consumer-customer-market trends to inform brand strategy & communications plan -Director, Brand ImageFind out how many parts I have in my module set of parts and find ways to reduce cost across them - EngineeringFormulate scope & strategy for sourcing and gap closure - Core BuyerAnalyze and understand a market: marketer network, competitive position, customer sat, & share, etc. to inform brandstrategy and communications plan - Brand Image Analyst