The Civil War Begins


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Brief Presentation about the opening and first battles of the Civil War. Followed by a little Common Core Practice. Accompanies section 11.1.

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The Civil War Begins

  1. 1. Section 11.1
  2. 2. Democrats struggle with their views on slavery  Northern: Douglas prefers Platform of 1856  Congressional noninterference with slavery  Southern: Breckinridge gains Buchanan’s supporters  Demand for federal protection for slavery in the territories
  3. 3. Positioned themselves for unity and against slavery  Condemned the actions of John Brown  Reaffirmed their opposition to extending slavery into the territories  Supported a protective tariff  More liberal naturalization laws (process by which a non-citizen can become a citizen)  Promoted internal improvements (including a Pacific Railroad)
  4. 4. The last ditch effort by the remaining Whigs  Their only platform: “the Constitution of the Country, the Union of the States, and the Enforcement of the Laws”
  5. 5. Sectionalism Reigns  North was more about Lincoln v. Douglas  South was more about Breckinridge v. Bell
  6. 6. Election of 1860 Political Party Candidate Popular Vote % Popular Vote Electoral Vote % Electoral Vote Republican Abraham Lincoln 1,865,593 39.8 180 59.4 Democrat Stephen Douglas 1,382,713 29.5 12 4.0 Democrat John C. Breckinridge 848,356 18.1 72 23.8 Constitutional Union John Bell 592,906 12.6 39 12.9
  7. 7. 39.8 29.5 18.1 12.6 % Popular Vote Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas John C. Breckinrid ge John Bell 59.4 4 23.8 12.9 % Electoral Vote Election of 1860 Abraham Lincoln Stephen Douglas John C. Breckinrid ge John Bell
  8. 8. 1. November 1860  Lincoln wins Presidency 2. December 20, 1860  South Carolina Secedes 3. February 4, 1861  Confederate States of American is formed (CSA) 4. February 9, 1861  Jefferson Davis elected President of the Confederacy
  9. 9. 5. March 4, 1861  Lincoln Inaugurated as the 16th President of the USA 6. April 12, 1861  First shots of the Civil War fired on Ft. Sumter, SC
  10. 10.  Located in South Carolina on an island in Charleston harbor it was one of two Southern forts that were still Union but the Confederacy was demanding the fort to surrender or face attack  Lincoln’s decision  he could reinforce the fort by force but then he would start armed conflict and border states that had not seceded might then secede  he could order an evacuation then it would look like he thought the Confederacy a legitimate nation  he decided to send in food for his soldiers and basically do nothing
  11. 11.  Jefferson Davis’ decision  he could do nothing which would damage the image of the Confederacy as an independent country  declare war; he chose war  Virginia would secede to the Confederacy which was a big loss to the North as it was very populated and had good ironworks and navy yard  the western part of Virginia was anti-slavery so it would form its own state and be admitted to the Union  The fall of Fort Sumter united the North and increased enlistment
  12. 12. Head of Union Forces  Anderson Head of Confederate Forces  Beauregard Outcome of the Battle  Confederate Victory Important Facts  First Battle of the Civil War  Increased northern enlistment  Lincoln mobilizes troops  South viewed as the aggressor
  13. 13.  North: (+) more resources, more fighting power, more factories, greater food production, more extensive railroads, good leadership in Lincoln  South: (+) “King Cotton” brought in huge profits, good generals, military tradition, highly motivated soldiers; (-) local/limited government with resistance to centralized authority, states’ rights
  14. 14.  North called it the Anaconda Plan (1) blockade Southern ports to prevent cotton going out and imports of manufactured goods coming in (2) move riverboats and armies up and down the Mississippi to split the Confederacy (3) capture the Confederate capital of Richmond, Virginia  South: to defend itself and if the possibility arose invade the North  h?v=nANJYQ9pd_Y
  15. 15.  The Union attempts to take the Confederate capital, both sides are inexperienced  Confederate General Thomas J. Jackson, aka Stonewall Jackson, gained the upper hand and reinforcements arrived  the Union army fled but the Confederates were to disorganized to pursue more attacks  The Confederates chose to stay at Manassas to defend their hard- won position. Some deemed it a lost chance, believing the South could have taken Washington DC.  battle-of-bull-run
  16. 16. Head of Union Forces  McDowell Head of Confederate Forces  “Stonewall” Jackson Outcome of the Battle  Confederate Victory Important Facts  Inexperienced troops on both sides  Jackson earns his nickname “Stonewall”  North realizes the war will be more difficult than originally thought
  17. 17.  After the defeat at Bull Run Lincoln increased his enlistment and called for General George McClellan to lead the Union army encamped near Washington which would be known as the Army of the Potomac  (February 1862) Union General Ulysses S. Grant, aka Unconditional Surrender, Grant captured two Confederate forts of Henry and Donelson on strategic rivers
  18. 18.  Shiloh was a small Tennessee church where Confederate forces surprised Grant but reinforcements allowed a counterattack Head of Union Forces  Grant Head of Confederate Forces  Johnson & Beauregard Outcome of the Battle  Union victory or a draw Important Facts  The Union strategy to take control of the Mississippi may succeed  The war will be deadly
  19. 19.  New Orleans (April 1862): Union General David Farragut seized the Confederate’s largest city and busiest port in spite of facing enemy guns and fire rafts  Lessons: had to use scouts, dig trenches, build fortifications, would be a bloody war  Signal to the Union that their Anaconda Plan of using the Mississippi to split the Confederacy might work  Their campaign along the Mississippi would continue
  20. 20.  Ironclad ships  the North’s Monitor and the South’s Merrimack were the first  they could splinter wooden ships, withstand cannon fire and resist burning  Rifle  could be loaded more quickly and fire more rounds during battle  they were more accurate than old muskets  Minie ball  soft lead bullet that was more destructive  Primitive grenades and land mines  Could kill more people and fighting in trenches gave an advantage
  21. 21.  General McClellan was slow and cautious and finally decided to attack Richmond in the spring of 1862  the Confederate army was under the lead of General Joseph E. Johnston who was wounded then Robert E. Lee took over (he did not want secession but was from Virginia so fought for his state)  Confederate Lee pursued McClellan in a series of successful battles known as the Seven Days’ Battle to save Richmond  Confederate Lee won a second Battle of Bull Run, crossed the Potomac and headed towards Washington, DC
  22. 22.  Union McClellan had a corporal that discovered a copy of Lee’s orders which revealed a plan for Lee and Jackson to unite  Union McClellan quickly moved and clashed with Lee at a creek called Antietam and won but did not pursue Lee which could have ended the war  Bloodiest single-day battle in American history, McClellan was fired by Lincoln
  23. 23. Head of Union Forces  McClellan Head of Confederate Forces  Lee Outcome of the Battle  Union victory or draw Important Facts  Bloodiest single-day battle in US History  South lost 25% of its soldiers
  24. 24. 1) Which had NOT occurred by the time the statement above had been printed? a) the Dred Scott Decision b) John Brown’s raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia c) the Lecompton Constitution d) the beginning of Lincoln’s first term as president
  25. 25. 2) What initiated (began) the “revolution of 1860?” a) South Carolina’s secession from the Union b) the formation of the Confederacy c) the firing on Fort Sumter d) Virginia’s secession from the Union