Introduction to physics
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Introduction to physics

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    Introduction to physics Introduction to physics Presentation Transcript

    •  
    • WHAT IS PHYSICS?
      • From Greek word ‘physikos’
      • IS A BRANCH OF SCIENCE CONCERNING THE STUDY ABOUT NATURAL PHENOMENA AND PROPERTIES OF MATTER
    • HAVE YOU EVER WONDER?
      • Why hot coffee will gradually turn cold after an hour?
      How your image can be formed on mirror?
    •  
    • Forces and pressure Electric and Electronic Wave Electromagnetism
    • Physical quantity
      • Is a quantity that can be measured
      • Eg: mass, length, volume, temperature
      Base quantity Derived quantity
      • Is a quantity that cannot be derived in other base quantity.
      • Is a quantity that can be derived from other base quantity by multiplication or division.
    • Base quantity Derived quantity Base Quantity SI units Length, l metres, m Mass, m kilogram, kg Time, t second, s Temperature, T Kelvin, k Electrical current, I Ampere, A Derived Quantity Units Volume, V m 3 Density,  kgm -3 Velocity, v ms -1 Force, F N Acceleration, a ms -2
    • Prefixes
      • Use to represent physical quantities which are very big or very small in S.I units .
      Prefix Symbol Multiplication factor Value Tera T × 10 12 1 000 000 000 000 Giga G × 10 9 1 000 000 000 Mega M × 10 6 1 000 000 Kilo k × 10 3 1000 Deci d × 10 -1 0.1 Centi c × 10 -2 0.01 Milli m × 10 -3 0.001 Micro  × 10 -6 0.000001 Nano n × 10 -9 0.000000001 Pico p × 10 -12 0.000000000001
    • Scientific notation/ Standard form
      • Numerical values which very small or big can be written in standard form:
      • A × 10 n
      • (1 ≤ A < 10, positive or negative integer)
      • Exercises:
      • Write 0.0000008 in scientific notation.
      • The equatorial diameter of earth is 12 760 000 m. Write the diameter in standard form.
    • Conversion unit
      • Convert the measurement:
      • 5.7 cm to metre
      • 1.5 km to metre
      • 1.1 g cm -3 to kg m -3
      • 1.45 × 10 -2 Mm to m
      • 2.25 × 10 10 μ m to m
      • 2.2 × 10 8 Gm to m
      • 36 kmh -1 to ms -1
      • 8 cm 2 to km 2
      • 16 m 2 to cm 2
      • 8.1 kgm -3 to gcm -3
      • 25 ms -1 to kmh -1
    •  
    • 1.3.1 Measure physical quantity using appropriate instruments.
      • a) Metre rule
      b) Thermometer c) Stopwatch Function Sensitivity Measure length from a few cm up to 1m 0.1 cm Function Sensitivity Measure temperature. 1 o C / 2 o C Function Sensitivity Measure time intervals. 0.1 s to 0.2 s
      • d) Ammeter
      e) Voltmeter f) Measuring tape Function Sensitivity Measure electric current. 0.1 A / 0.2 A Function Sensitivity Measure potential difference / voltage. 0.1 V / 0.2 V Function Sensitivity Measure long distance, circumference of round object. 1.0 cm
      • g) Vernier callipers
      Function Sensitivity Measure length, diameter inner and outer and depth object with dimension up to 12.0 cm . 0.01 cm
    • Function Main scale Scale of 0.1 cm to 12 cm Inside jaws Measure internal diameter Outside jaws Measure external diameter and length Tail Measure depth
    • How to take reading of vernier callipers?
      • Read main scale reading
      • Observe the zero mark ‘0’ on vernier scale.
      • The vernier scale lies between 1.2 cm and 1.3 cm.
      • Reading on main scale is 1.2 cm.
      • Read vernier scale reading
      • Read mark on vernier scale that is exactly in line with any mark on main scale.
      • Reading on vernier scale= 0.03 cm
      • Reading = Reading on + Reading on main scale vernier scale
      • = 1.2 + 0.03 cm
      • = 1.23 cm
      Main scale Vernier scale
    • h) Micrometer Screw Gauge Function Sensitivity Measure thickness or diameter of small object in range between 0.10 mm and 25.00 mm . 0.01 mm or 0.001 cm
    • Function Anvil and spindle Used to grip object. Sleeve Main scale Thimble Thimble scale Ratchet knob Used to prevent exceeding pressure
      • Read main scale reading
      • Read main scale at edge of thimble
      • Reading main scale = 5.5 mm
      • Read thimble scale reading
      • Thimble scale reading = 0.28 mm
      How to take reading of micrometer screw gauge? Reading = Main scale + Thimble scale = 5.5 + 0.28 = 5.78 mm
      • The smaller the change which can be measured by instrument, the more sensitive the instrument is.
      • The smallest scale division on measuring instruments is the more sensitive the instrument is.
      • Different measuring instruments have different levels of sensitivity.
      1.3.2 Explain Sensitivity Sensitivity of an instruments is its ability to detect small change in the quantity to be measured.
    • Which one is more sensitive?
    • 1.3.2 Explain Accuracy and Consistency Accurate Inaccurate ACCURACY CONSISTENCY Is how close the value of the measurement to the actual value. Ability to register the same reading. Consistence Inconsistence
    • ACCURACY CONSISTENCY
      • How to improve accuracy:
      • Repeat the experiment and take average reading.
      • Avoid zero error.
      • Avoid parallax error.
      • Use measuring instrument with high sensitivity.
      • How to improve consistency:
      • Avoid parallax error.
      • Consistence but not accurate
      • Accurate but inconsistence
      • Inaccurate and Inconsistence
      • Accurate and consistence
    • 1.3.3 Explain Types of Experimental Error SYSTEMATIC ERROR RANDOM ERROR
      • Zero error
      • Incorrect position of zero point of measuring instrument.
      • Incorrect calibration
      • Error in calibration of instrument which makes the instrument defective.
      • - Systematic error will lead to decrease in accuracy .
      • Parallax error
      • error because of the observers eyes.
      • Natural error
      • change in temperature, humidity etc when experiment in progress
      • Wrong technique
      • apply excessive pressure.
      • - Random error will lead to decrease in consistency .
      How to reduce systematic error: Correct reading = reading obtained - zero error
      • How to reduce random error :
      • Repeat the experiment and take average reading.
    • Zero error
    • Parallax error
    • How to eliminate zero error?
      • Micrometer Screw Gauge
      Negative zero error Zero error= -0.04 mm Positive zero error Zero error= 0.02 mm
      • Vernier Callipers
      No zero error Negative zero error Positive zero error zero error = 0.04 cm zero error = -0.02 cm