Post Traumatic Stress Disorder


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Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

  2. 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES <ul><li>What is PTSD??? </li></ul><ul><li>Who is at risk for PTSD??? </li></ul><ul><li>When does PTSD start???& How long does it last??? </li></ul><ul><li>Symptoms </li></ul><ul><li>Consequences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physiological outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological outcomes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-destructive behaviors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Treatment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychotherapy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pharmacotherapy </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops in response to a stressful event or situation of exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature </li></ul>What is PTSD?
  4. 4. <ul><li>Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>violent personal assaults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sexual assault </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Physical attack </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Abuse </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Stabbing </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>natural disasters </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military combat. </li></ul></ul>Traumatic events
  5. 5. WHO IS AT RISK? <ul><li>Every One!!! </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>People with military combat experience or civilians who have been harmed by war </li></ul><ul><li>People who have been raped, sexually abused, or physically abused </li></ul><ul><li>People who have been involved in or who have witnessed a life-threatening event </li></ul><ul><li>People who have been involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado or an earthquake </li></ul>Who is at risk for PTSD??
  7. 7. SYMPTOMS
  8. 8. <ul><li>The symptoms of PTSD can start after a delay of weeks, or even months. They usually appear within 3 months after the traumatic event. </li></ul><ul><li>Some people get better within 6 months. Others may have the illness for much longer. </li></ul>When does PTSD start?? & How long does it last???
  9. 9. <ul><li>Re-experiencing the event through flashbacks or nightmares </li></ul><ul><li>Avoiding people, places or thoughts that bring back memories of the trauma </li></ul><ul><li>Feeling angry & unable to trust people </li></ul><ul><li>Social withdrawal </li></ul><ul><li>Numbness </li></ul><ul><li>Insomnia </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of concentration </li></ul>Symptoms
  10. 10. CONSEQUENCES 1)Physiological outcomes 2)Psychological outcomes 3)Self-destructive behaviors
  11. 11. <ul><li>Neurobiological changes (alterations in brainwave activity and in functioning of processes such as memory and fear response) </li></ul><ul><li>Psychophysiological changes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hyper-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sleep disturbances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased neurohormonal changes that result in increased stress & depression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Headache </li></ul><ul><li>Stomach or digestive problems </li></ul><ul><li>Dizziness </li></ul>1)Physiological outcomes
  12. 12. <ul><li>Depression </li></ul><ul><li>Other anxiety disorders (such as phobias, panic, and social anxiety) </li></ul><ul><li>Splitting off from the present </li></ul><ul><li>Eating disorders </li></ul>2)Psychological outcomes
  13. 13. <ul><li>Low self esteem </li></ul><ul><li>Alcohol and drug abuse </li></ul><ul><li>Suicidal attempts </li></ul><ul><li>Self-injury </li></ul><ul><li>Risky sexual behaviors leading to unplanned pregnancy or STDs, including HIV </li></ul>3)Self-destructive behaviors
  14. 14. TREATMENT
  15. 15. <ul><li>PTSD is treated by a variety of forms of psychotherapy (talk therapy) and pharmacotherapy (medication). </li></ul><ul><li>There is no single best treatment, but some treatments are quite promising, especially cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). </li></ul>Treatment
  16. 16. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT) <ul><li>A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions. </li></ul><ul><li>CBT includes a number of techniques such as: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive restructuring </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Exposure therapy </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) </li></ul></ul></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Cognitive restructuring aims at replacing dysfunctional thoughts with more realistic & helpful ones. </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ll never be normal again..I am gonna die” </li></ul><ul><li>“ I’ll get better..It will just take time” </li></ul><ul><li>Or “I feel scared..But I am safe” </li></ul>I. Cognitive Restructuring
  18. 18. <ul><li>In exposure therapy your goal is to have less fear about your memories. </li></ul><ul><li>By talking about your trauma repeatedly with your therapist, you'll learn to get control of your thoughts and feelings about the trauma. </li></ul><ul><li>You'll learn that you do not have to be afraid of your memories anymore. </li></ul>II. Exposure Therapy
  19. 19. <ul><li>EMDR is a new therapy for PTSD. </li></ul><ul><li>In EMDR, patients are instructed to focus on the traumatic memory while they visually track something that is moving from side to side (such as the therapist’s finger). </li></ul><ul><li>Thus, the therapist supplies positive emotional beliefs to replace the negative ones. </li></ul>III. EMDR
  20. 20. MEDICATION <ul><li>The use of medication in addition to psychotherapy has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of PTSD. </li></ul><ul><li>The most widely used drug treatments for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Prozac & Zoloft </li></ul><ul><li>N.B. Drug trials for PTSD are still at a very early stage </li></ul>