Post Traumatic Stress Disorder

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  • 1. POST-TRAUMATIC STRESS DISORDER Amr Ellaithy
  • 2. LEARNING OUTCOMES
    • What is PTSD???
    • Who is at risk for PTSD???
    • When does PTSD start???& How long does it last???
    • Symptoms
    • Consequences
      • Physiological outcomes
      • Psychological outcomes
      • Self-destructive behaviors
    • Treatment
      • Psychotherapy
      • Pharmacotherapy
  • 3.
    • PTSD is an anxiety disorder that develops in response to a stressful event or situation of exceptionally threatening or catastrophic nature
    What is PTSD?
  • 4.
    • Traumatic events that may trigger PTSD include:
      • violent personal assaults
        • Sexual assault
        • Physical attack
        • Abuse
        • Stabbing
      • natural disasters
      • Accidents
      • Military combat.
    Traumatic events
  • 5. WHO IS AT RISK?
    • Every One!!!
  • 6.
    • People with military combat experience or civilians who have been harmed by war
    • People who have been raped, sexually abused, or physically abused
    • People who have been involved in or who have witnessed a life-threatening event
    • People who have been involved in a natural disaster, such as a tornado or an earthquake
    Who is at risk for PTSD??
  • 7. SYMPTOMS
  • 8.
    • The symptoms of PTSD can start after a delay of weeks, or even months. They usually appear within 3 months after the traumatic event.
    • Some people get better within 6 months. Others may have the illness for much longer.
    When does PTSD start?? & How long does it last???
  • 9.
    • Re-experiencing the event through flashbacks or nightmares
    • Avoiding people, places or thoughts that bring back memories of the trauma
    • Feeling angry & unable to trust people
    • Social withdrawal
    • Numbness
    • Insomnia
    • Lack of concentration
    Symptoms
  • 10. CONSEQUENCES 1)Physiological outcomes 2)Psychological outcomes 3)Self-destructive behaviors
  • 11.
    • Neurobiological changes (alterations in brainwave activity and in functioning of processes such as memory and fear response)
    • Psychophysiological changes
      • Hyper-arousal of the sympathetic nervous system,
      • Sleep disturbances
      • Increased neurohormonal changes that result in increased stress & depression
    • Headache
    • Stomach or digestive problems
    • Dizziness
    1)Physiological outcomes
  • 12.
    • Depression
    • Other anxiety disorders (such as phobias, panic, and social anxiety)
    • Splitting off from the present
    • Eating disorders
    2)Psychological outcomes
  • 13.
    • Low self esteem
    • Alcohol and drug abuse
    • Suicidal attempts
    • Self-injury
    • Risky sexual behaviors leading to unplanned pregnancy or STDs, including HIV
    3)Self-destructive behaviors
  • 14. TREATMENT
  • 15.
    • PTSD is treated by a variety of forms of psychotherapy (talk therapy) and pharmacotherapy (medication).
    • There is no single best treatment, but some treatments are quite promising, especially cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT).
    Treatment
  • 16. COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY (CBT)
    • A Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is a psychotherapy based on modifying beliefs and behaviors, with the aim of influencing disturbed emotions.
    • CBT includes a number of techniques such as:
        • Cognitive restructuring
        • Exposure therapy
        • Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR)
  • 17.
    • Cognitive restructuring aims at replacing dysfunctional thoughts with more realistic & helpful ones.
    • e.g.
    • “ I’ll never be normal again..I am gonna die”
    • “ I’ll get better..It will just take time”
    • Or “I feel scared..But I am safe”
    I. Cognitive Restructuring
  • 18.
    • In exposure therapy your goal is to have less fear about your memories.
    • By talking about your trauma repeatedly with your therapist, you'll learn to get control of your thoughts and feelings about the trauma.
    • You'll learn that you do not have to be afraid of your memories anymore.
    II. Exposure Therapy
  • 19.
    • EMDR is a new therapy for PTSD.
    • In EMDR, patients are instructed to focus on the traumatic memory while they visually track something that is moving from side to side (such as the therapist’s finger).
    • Thus, the therapist supplies positive emotional beliefs to replace the negative ones.
    III. EMDR
  • 20. MEDICATION
    • The use of medication in addition to psychotherapy has been shown to be beneficial in the treatment of PTSD.
    • The most widely used drug treatments for PTSD are the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), such as Prozac & Zoloft
    • N.B. Drug trials for PTSD are still at a very early stage
  • 21.