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SELF-
CONCEPT
F L O R A M . T E L E Q U E N
COMPONENTS OF SELF-CONCEPT
Identity body image
role (role
performance
Self-esteem relates more to how a person
feels about him- or herself (eg, good, bad,
dislike).
Self-concept is defined as the way an
individual thinks of him- or herself (eg,
dumb, tall, short, mild-mannered,
There are four dimensions of
self-concept:
 Self-knowledge: insight into
one’s own abilities, nature,
and limitations
 Self-expectation: what one
expects of oneself; may be
realistic or unrealistic
expectations
 Social self: how a person is
perceived by others and
society
 Social evaluation: the
appraisal of oneself in
relationship to others, events,
• Cultural expectations:
• Developmental stage
• Past experiences
• Health deviations
INFLUENCING FACTORS
• An altered self-concept may be manifested by
a person’s failure to perform self-care activities.
• The individual may demonstrate poor hygiene,
inappropriately expose or conceal his or her
body, deny health concerns, become
noncompliant with recommended treatments,
or even refuse to participate in planning her or
his care.
• A patient with an altered self-concept may also
exhibit anxiety, depression, and self-destructive
behaviors such as drug abuse and overeating.
He or she may also withdraw from social
interactions.
ALTERATIONS IN SELF-CONCEPT
FAMILIES, ROLES, AND RELATIONSHIPS
• The nurse working with individual clients must consider their
roles and relations within social networks.
INFLUENCING FACTORS
• Values and Beliefs
• Finances
• Past Experiences
• Crisis Situations
ALTERATIONS IN ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS
• Changes necessitated by any of the above-identified influencing
factors may result in various alterations in roles and relationship
Role Disorders
• Role strain: Perceived or actual inability to perform the
expectations of a roles and inability to perform the expectations
of a role inability to perform the expectations of a role
• Role conflict: Occurs when an individual is functioning in roles
that are incompatible with each other
• Role confusion: Occurs when there is uncertainty about what role
to assume
Examples of alterations that may occur include:
 Separation and divorce, although not the most
most desirable choice, is sometimes a necessary
choice
 Abuse may be physical, sexual, or emotional.
emotional.
 Depression, developmental deviations, and
and social isolation are also potential
manifestations of altered roles and relationships.
THANK YOU!!

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VIII.1 Nursing Interventions to Promote Healthy Psychological responses, SELF-CONCEPT.pptx

  • 1. SELF- CONCEPT F L O R A M . T E L E Q U E N
  • 2. COMPONENTS OF SELF-CONCEPT Identity body image role (role performance Self-esteem relates more to how a person feels about him- or herself (eg, good, bad, dislike). Self-concept is defined as the way an individual thinks of him- or herself (eg, dumb, tall, short, mild-mannered, There are four dimensions of self-concept:  Self-knowledge: insight into one’s own abilities, nature, and limitations  Self-expectation: what one expects of oneself; may be realistic or unrealistic expectations  Social self: how a person is perceived by others and society  Social evaluation: the appraisal of oneself in relationship to others, events,
  • 3. • Cultural expectations: • Developmental stage • Past experiences • Health deviations INFLUENCING FACTORS • An altered self-concept may be manifested by a person’s failure to perform self-care activities. • The individual may demonstrate poor hygiene, inappropriately expose or conceal his or her body, deny health concerns, become noncompliant with recommended treatments, or even refuse to participate in planning her or his care. • A patient with an altered self-concept may also exhibit anxiety, depression, and self-destructive behaviors such as drug abuse and overeating. He or she may also withdraw from social interactions. ALTERATIONS IN SELF-CONCEPT
  • 4.
  • 5. FAMILIES, ROLES, AND RELATIONSHIPS • The nurse working with individual clients must consider their roles and relations within social networks. INFLUENCING FACTORS • Values and Beliefs • Finances • Past Experiences • Crisis Situations ALTERATIONS IN ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS • Changes necessitated by any of the above-identified influencing factors may result in various alterations in roles and relationship Role Disorders • Role strain: Perceived or actual inability to perform the expectations of a roles and inability to perform the expectations of a role inability to perform the expectations of a role • Role conflict: Occurs when an individual is functioning in roles that are incompatible with each other • Role confusion: Occurs when there is uncertainty about what role to assume
  • 6. Examples of alterations that may occur include:  Separation and divorce, although not the most most desirable choice, is sometimes a necessary choice  Abuse may be physical, sexual, or emotional. emotional.  Depression, developmental deviations, and and social isolation are also potential manifestations of altered roles and relationships.

Editor's Notes

  1. INTRODUCTION Self-concept is one’s mental image of oneself. A positive self-concept is essential to a person’s mental and physical health. Individuals with a positive self-concept are better able to develop and maintain interpersonal relationships and resist psychological and physical illness. An individual possessing a strong self-concept should be better able to accept or adapt to changes that may occur over the life span. How one views oneself affects one’s interaction with others. Nurses have a responsibility to assess clients for a negative self-concept and to identify the possible causes in order to help them develop a more positive view of themselves. Individuals who have a poor self-concept may express feelings of worthlessness, self-dislike, or even self-hatred. They may feel sad or hopeless and may state they lack the energy to perform even the simplest of tasks.
  2. SELF CONCEPT All of us experience periods of time when we have low self-esteem. However, a person’s core self-esteem (low or high) is stable over time and is a better indicator of how a person truly feels about him- or herself. Individuals are not born with a self-concept or self-esteem; both develop over the course of a lifetime and are influenced by many variables. An individual’s self-concept is very important because it significantly influences interpersonal interactions and the person’s ability to form healthy relationships. Self-concept involves all of the self-perceptions—appearance, values, and beliefs—that influence behavior and are referred to when using the words I or me. Self-concept influences the following: How one thinks, talks, and acts How one sees and treats another person Choices one makes Ability to give and receive love Ability to take action and to change things. COMPONENTS OF SELF-CONCEPT Identity, body image, and role (role performance) all help to define a person’s self-concept and core self-esteem. Each plays a unique role. Identity is the organizing principle of the self, the awareness that one is a distinct individual separate from others. Initially, individuals rely on others to define who they are. Parents strongly influence their children’s identity in the early years. However, as children grow older and begin to interact with individuals other than their parents, they develop different reference points or expand the boundaries for defining who they are. Adolescent identity, in particular, is strongly influenced by peers (people whom they perceive to be very similar to them). Eventually, an individual will participate in a self-evaluation process and further define who she or he is. The outcome of the self-evaluation and the resulting establishment of his or her unique identity will be more than the sum of parents, peers, and other influences. Body image is an individual’s description of his or her physical body (eg, weight, height, body shape, skin color). Furthermore, a person develops perceptions about his or her physical makeup. A person may perceive him- or herself to be feminine, masculine, strong, weak, pretty, or ugly. Positive perceptions of body image contribute to the establishment of a positive self-concept as well as high core self-esteem. Conversely, negative perceptions of body image contribute to poor self-concept and low core self-esteem. A role is “an expected behavior in a given individual.” Roles may be ascribed or forced, in which case the individual has no control over being in the role (eg, sister, child), or roles may be assumed. Assumed roles may or may not be by choice (eg, husband, mother, nurse, politician). Role performance is an individual’s perception of his or her success in performing a certain role. A person’s self-concept is influenced in a positive way when the individual perceives success in his or her role performance. The opposite effect occurs when an individual believes he or she has failed to successfully function in a particular role. There are four dimensions of self-concept: Self-knowledge: insight into one’s own abilities, nature, and limitations Self-expectation: what one expects of oneself; may be realistic or unrealistic expectations Social self: how a person is perceived by others and society Social evaluation: the appraisal of oneself in relationship to others, events, or situations. People who value “how I perceive me” above “how others perceive me” can be termed me-centered. They try hard to live up to their own expectations and compete only with themselves, not others. In contrast, strongly other-centered people have a high need for approval from others and try hard to live up to the expectations of others, comparing, competing, and evaluating themselves in relation to others. They tend to have difficulty asserting themselves, and fear disapproval. The positive self-concept, therefore, is me-centered and is formed with limited reference to others’ opinions. In addition to assessing and promoting a positive self-concept with clients, a nurse’s own self-concept is important. Nurses who understand the different dimensions of themselves are better able to understand the needs, desires, feelings, and conflicts of their clients. Nurses who feel positive about themselves are more likely to help clients meet their needs.
  3. INFLUENCING FACTORS Multiple variables can influence a person’s self-concept. Examples of influencing factors include: Cultural expectations: Physical characteristics such as large size may be viewed negatively in one culture and completely acceptable or even desired in another culture. Developmental stage: The self-concept evolves over the life span and is influenced by developmental tasks unique to the various developmental stages. For example, toddlers are tasked with establishing a sense of autonomy and do so by experimenting with their environment. If the toddler is allowed to explore the environment, he or she will feel confident and begin establishing a sense of confidence. On the other hand, if the toddler is constantly told “no” and not allowed to explore the environment, then he or she may develop feelings of shame and doubt. Past experiences: Whereas successful past experiences build a positive self-concept, repeated instances of failure lead to the formation of a negative self-concept and poor self-esteem. Health deviations: Illnesses, surgery, and trauma may change an individual’s outward appearance or functional capacity. Changes in appearance may cause the individual to feel shame, withdraw, and develop poor self-esteem. Changes in functional capacity may require role changes, affect an individual’s ability to be self-sufficient, and may change relationships, all of which may lead to a negative self-concept and poor self-esteem.
  4. FAMILIES, ROLES, AND RELATIONSHIPS The nurse working with individual clients must consider their roles and relations within social networks. There are varying types of social networks. The family is one such network. The family is a social group whose members share common values, occupy specific positions, interact over time, and have diverse strengths and needs. Not all families are alike; in fact, there are numerous types of family structures, including nuclear, single-parent, blended, cohabitated, extended, and communal (Figure 17-1). Family function may differ in each type of family, but almost all families include the basic functions of meeting physical and economic needs, sexual intimacy, reproduction, education, socialization, nurturing, and support. It is also important for healthcare workers to keep in mind that informal families (ie, those not established through marital ties and blood relationships) also exist and serve some of the same functions as a formal family structure. INFLUENCING FACTORS Factors influencing family roles and relationships include values and beliefs system, finances, past experiences, and health alterations as well as other life stressors Values and Beliefs The values and belief systems of a group of people may influence how individuals grow and function in society as well as what roles are acceptable or not both within and outside of the family. In some societies, gender and position in the family influence the roles assumed by the members of the family. For example, men in a family may be ascribed the role of provider or “breadwinner,” and women may assume the role of providing childcare. In today’s society, this may not be the case. Women may go outside of the family to work and assume the provider role, and the husband may stay at home and take care of the children, or both the husband and wife may share the provider and childcare roles equally. Finances We previously stated that one of the basic functions of most families is the provision of economic resources for the family. Therefore, it is logical that financial constraints may significantly alter family function as well as family roles. The family’s health, the type and availability of shelter, the type of education provided for the children, and many other things are impacted by the financial resources available to the family. Roles in the family may also be affected by available financial resources. Economic resources may allow a family who believes that it is important for the mother to stay at home with the children to do so or may prevent the family with this same belief from fulfilling this expectation. Children living in a household where both parents work outside of the home may serve as parent figures to younger siblings. Past Experiences Previous life experiences within the family may influence future family functions and relationships. Individuals who as children were accustomed to sitting down at the table and eating together may continue the tradition in their families and may demonstrate better communication and problem-solving skills than those who infrequently see each other. On the other hand, a person growing up in an environment of abuse may become an abuser, may shy away from relationships, may accept abuse as a normal part of relationships, or may seek out resources to build healthy relationships. Crisis Situations Loss of a family member, loss of employment, involvement in accidents or disasters, and illnesses (both acute and chronic) are all potential family crisis situations. Temporary changes in family roles or the assumption of additional roles may be required by any one of the above-mentioned situations. How well the family adapts will depend on the available support system that is in place and the coping skills of individual family members. Chronic illnesses may have a long-lasting, profound effect on the family. Many adjustments may be required. In some instances, families cannot withstand the stress. In such cases, divorce is usually the resulting outcome. ALTERATIONS IN ROLES AND RELATIONSHIPS Changes necessitated by any of the above-identified influencing factors may result in various alterations in roles and relationships (Box 17-1). Examples of alterations that may occur include:
  5. Examples of alterations that may occur include: Separation and divorce, although not the most desirable choice, is sometimes a necessary choice. Regardless of the motive for separation or divorce, the outcome almost always requires role adjustments. Abuse may be physical, sexual, or emotional. It may be directed toward children, husbands, wives, parents, or other extended family members (eg, grandparents). All forms of abuse may have devastating, long-lasting effects. In some instances, abuse can be resolved, and the family can be salvaged. In other instances, this may not be possible, and in extreme cases, the outcome may even be the death of the abused or neglected individuals. Depression, developmental deviations, and social isolation are also potential manifestations of altered roles and relationships. Individuals who are forced into role changes because of the loss of a job or retirement may exhibit depression. A lack of parental bonding may cause failure to thrive and developmental delays in children. Abuse and other forms of family dysfunction may impede mastery of developmental tasks by individual family members. For example, constant negative feedback about behavior in a preschooler may lead to feelings of guilt instead of initiative. Families or individual family members may not interact with others out of embarrassment about their financial status, as a means of hiding the presence of alcoholism or domestic violence, or out of fear of rejection or ridicule by outsiders. In other instances, isolation may not be by choice. For instance, isolation may be the result of discrimination, incapacitating illnesses, or forced job relocation.