Inter Cultural Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher
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Inter Cultural Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher



Inter cultural communication for students of MBA of KSRCT

Inter cultural communication for students of MBA of KSRCT



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Inter Cultural Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher Inter Cultural Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher Presentation Transcript

  • Intercultural Communication Marinita Schumacher
  • Culture
    • is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity and sense-making
    • provides people with different ways of thinking, seeing, hearing and interpreting the world
    • involves a number of man-made, collective artefacts and is shared by the members of a social group
    • is something that shapes one‘s behaviour or structures one′s perception of the world
  • Culture and Communication
    • Culture is often defined in interrelation to communication:
    • "Culture is communication
    • and communication is culture.“
    Hall, 2000 ! Culture is passed on via communication and communication reflects one′s culture
  • Cultural factors
    • Behaviour is not only affected by culture but also by other factors such as
      • organizational norms
      • education
      • age
      • social class
    • each of these factors can be understood and manifested in a cultural context
    ! while communicating we use different cultural habits and meaning systems
  • Intercultural Communication
    • is a research field that studies how people from different cultural backgrounds communicate with each other
    • is an instrument which transmits a certain meaning, composes and reinforces identity and expresses feelings
    • is an instrument to connect with others
  • Constraints for intercultural understanding
    • cognitive constraints
      • the frame of reference or world-view which provides a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into
    • behaviour constraints
      • each culture has its own rules concerning proper behaviour which affect verbal and nonverbal communication
    • emotional constraints
      • different cultures regulate the display of emotions differently. Some cultures get very emotional while others try to keep their emotions hidden
    Ting-Toomey, 1999
  • low- and high-context settings
    • low-context settings
      • screens its direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to the context surrounding the words
      • we “say what we mean, and mean what we say”
      • leaves few space for interpretation of the explicit message
    • high-context settings
      • are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relations or shared understandings
      • nonverbal signals are used to infer, imply, insinuate or deliver messages that we want to transmit indirectly
    Hofstede, 2002
  • Individual Strategy
    • Depending on the kind of relationship, the situation and the purpose of communication the low- and high-context communication, used as an individual strategy, may be more or less explicit and direct.
    Hofstede, 2002 ! Low- and high-context communication are not only individual strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups
  • Low- and high-context-culture
    • Low-context-culture
      • values the individualist’s goals
      • separates person and issue
      • is confrontational
      • uses logic-deductive thinking and explicit codes of speech
      • expresses emotional information through facial expressions, tone of voice and body movements
      • individualist cultures tend to gravitate towards low-context starting points
    • High-context-culture
      • values the collectivist’s goals
      • merges person and issue
      • relies on contextual cues and situational knowledge
      • uses implicit references and indirect speech
      • masks its emotions
      • collectivist cultures tend to use high-context communication
    Hofstede, 2002
  • Situational Factors
    • most people use a mixture of low- and high-context-communication
    • even in the most direct, low-context setting, implicit meanings will be conveyed
    • there are 3 factors that could affect the choice of direct or indirect communication in intercultural workplaces
      • cultural identity
      • work status
      • time urgency
    Hall, 2000
  • Cultural Identity: Third Culture
    • intercultural communication takes place in a “third culture”
    • Part of “third culture” dynamics is the establishment of common communication rules
    • People take into account
      • the demand of situational characteristics
      • the cultural identity of the other person
      • the existence of shared intercultural norms
    • that are not necessarily the same as one's home culture.
    Maletzke, 1996
  • low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators
    • should be mindful that
    • building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time and nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said
    • status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement
    • face-saving and tact may be important and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly
  • high-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators
    • should be mindful that
    • things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning
    • roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity
    • efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks
    • direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals
    • indirect cues may not be enough to get the attention
  • Work status
    • Individualists
      • don’t alter their behaviour according to status
      • value low power distance resulting in a more egalitarian approach
    • Collectivists
      • use more confrontational techniques when power and status increase
      • tend to value high power distance or the unequal distribution of power
    Hall, 2000
  • Time urgency
    • Monochronic
      • one task at a time
      • efficient task performance
      • need to save time and energy
      • short-term framework, time is tangible
      • stress caused by deadlines will increase directness and terseness as they tend to be achievement-oriented and goal-driven
    • Polychronic
      • many task are handled simultaneously
      • less emphasis on prioritising tasks and an approximate attitude to timeframes
      • obscurer and less mindful of time constraints
      • long-term perspective, time is fluid and flexible
      • able to retain their composure and to draw on social support from other team members
    Hall, 2000
  • Stereotypes
    • Stereotypes often reflect the differences in socioeconomic status, religion or dialect
    • It is important to suspend judgement, avoid misconceptions, narrow perspectives and immature reactions
    • Stereotypes often contain a grain of truth, but cannot characterize an entire culture
    • Getting the whole picture of culture needs active participation
  • How to communicate effective
    • Desire
      • to communicate
      • to connect with other humans
      • to be proactive when approaching a new culture
    • Knowledge
      • knowing about other cultures will help to develop skills and to act in a way that respects these preferences
    • Stereotypes
      • reach beyond stereotypes
  • Conclusion
    • Intercultural competence means understanding what culture is and how it works
    • Culture is not congenital, but adapted and modified by the individual’s personality
    • The knowledge about cultural concepts are useful to compare cultures that are relatively closed
    • The various levels of culture show that culture can be seen as an onion-like construct
    • Cultural understanding is a journey, that never finishes, because the process and the endpoints change constantly
  • Bibliography
    • Adler, N.J., 1997, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, New York, Wadsworth Publishing
    • Hall, E.T./ Red Hall, M., 2000, Understanding Culture Differences, Intercultural Press Inc.,U.S
    • Hall, E.T./ 1959, The silent language, New York, Double Day
    • Hofstede G., 2006, Lokales Denken, globales Handlen, interkulturelle Zusammenarbeit und globales Mangement , Berlin, DTV-Beck
    • Hofstede G., 1980: Culture‘s consequences: international differences in work-related. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications
    • Hofstede G., 1994, Cultures and Organizations: software of the mind: intercultural. London HarperCollins
    • Maletzke, G., 1996, Interkulturelle Kommunikation: zur Interaktion zwischen Menschen, Opladen. Westdeutscher
    • Ting-Toomey, S., 1999, Communication Across Cultures (Guilford Communication Series) Guilford Publications
    • Learning Menu developed by Leonardo Project MENS available at