Inter Cultural Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher

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Inter cultural communication for students of MBA of KSRCT

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Inter Cultural Communication by Madam. Marinita Schumacher

  1. 1. Intercultural Communication Marinita Schumacher
  2. 2. Culture <ul><li>is linked to communication and a wide range of human experience including feelings, identity and sense-making </li></ul><ul><li>provides people with different ways of thinking, seeing, hearing and interpreting the world </li></ul><ul><li>involves a number of man-made, collective artefacts and is shared by the members of a social group </li></ul><ul><li>is something that shapes one‘s behaviour or structures one′s perception of the world </li></ul>
  3. 3. Culture and Communication <ul><li>Culture is often defined in interrelation to communication: </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Culture is communication </li></ul><ul><li>and communication is culture.“ </li></ul>Hall, 2000 ! Culture is passed on via communication and communication reflects one′s culture
  4. 4. Cultural factors <ul><li>Behaviour is not only affected by culture but also by other factors such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>organizational norms </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>education </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>age </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>social class </li></ul></ul><ul><li>each of these factors can be understood and manifested in a cultural context </li></ul>! while communicating we use different cultural habits and meaning systems
  5. 5. Intercultural Communication <ul><li>is a research field that studies how people from different cultural backgrounds communicate with each other </li></ul><ul><li>is an instrument which transmits a certain meaning, composes and reinforces identity and expresses feelings </li></ul><ul><li>is an instrument to connect with others </li></ul>
  6. 6. Constraints for intercultural understanding <ul><li>cognitive constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the frame of reference or world-view which provides a backdrop that all new information is compared to or inserted into </li></ul></ul><ul><li>behaviour constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>each culture has its own rules concerning proper behaviour which affect verbal and nonverbal communication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>emotional constraints </li></ul><ul><ul><li>different cultures regulate the display of emotions differently. Some cultures get very emotional while others try to keep their emotions hidden </li></ul></ul>Ting-Toomey, 1999
  7. 7. low- and high-context settings <ul><li>low-context settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>screens its direct attention more to the literal meanings of words and less to the context surrounding the words </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>we “say what we mean, and mean what we say” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>leaves few space for interpretation of the explicit message </li></ul></ul><ul><li>high-context settings </li></ul><ul><ul><li>are designed to let in implied meanings arising from the physical setting, relations or shared understandings </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>nonverbal signals are used to infer, imply, insinuate or deliver messages that we want to transmit indirectly </li></ul></ul>Hofstede, 2002
  8. 8. Individual Strategy <ul><li>Depending on the kind of relationship, the situation and the purpose of communication the low- and high-context communication, used as an individual strategy, may be more or less explicit and direct. </li></ul>Hofstede, 2002 ! Low- and high-context communication are not only individual strategies, but may be used to understand cultural groups
  9. 9. Low- and high-context-culture <ul><li>Low-context-culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>values the individualist’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>separates person and issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is confrontational </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses logic-deductive thinking and explicit codes of speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>expresses emotional information through facial expressions, tone of voice and body movements </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>individualist cultures tend to gravitate towards low-context starting points </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High-context-culture </li></ul><ul><ul><li>values the collectivist’s goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>merges person and issue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relies on contextual cues and situational knowledge </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>uses implicit references and indirect speech </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>masks its emotions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>collectivist cultures tend to use high-context communication </li></ul></ul>Hofstede, 2002
  10. 10. Situational Factors <ul><li>most people use a mixture of low- and high-context-communication </li></ul><ul><li>even in the most direct, low-context setting, implicit meanings will be conveyed </li></ul><ul><li>there are 3 factors that could affect the choice of direct or indirect communication in intercultural workplaces </li></ul><ul><ul><li>cultural identity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>work status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>time urgency </li></ul></ul>Hall, 2000
  11. 11. Cultural Identity: Third Culture <ul><li>intercultural communication takes place in a “third culture” </li></ul><ul><li>Part of “third culture” dynamics is the establishment of common communication rules </li></ul><ul><li>People take into account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the demand of situational characteristics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the cultural identity of the other person </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the existence of shared intercultural norms </li></ul></ul><ul><li>that are not necessarily the same as one's home culture. </li></ul>Maletzke, 1996
  12. 12. low-context communicators interacting with high-context communicators <ul><li>should be mindful that </li></ul><ul><li>building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness over time and nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said </li></ul><ul><li>status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriate acknowledgement </li></ul><ul><li>face-saving and tact may be important and need to be balanced with the desire to communicate fully and frankly </li></ul>Hofstede www.idec.gr./mens
  13. 13. high-context communicators interacting with low-context communicators <ul><li>should be mindful that </li></ul><ul><li>things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layers of meaning </li></ul><ul><li>roles and functions may be decoupled from status and identity </li></ul><ul><li>efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks </li></ul><ul><li>direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarify and advance shared goals </li></ul><ul><li>indirect cues may not be enough to get the attention </li></ul>Hofstede www.idec.gr./mens
  14. 14. Work status <ul><li>Individualists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>don’t alter their behaviour according to status </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>value low power distance resulting in a more egalitarian approach </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Collectivists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>use more confrontational techniques when power and status increase </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tend to value high power distance or the unequal distribution of power </li></ul></ul>Hall, 2000
  15. 15. Time urgency <ul><li>Monochronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one task at a time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>efficient task performance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>need to save time and energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>short-term framework, time is tangible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>stress caused by deadlines will increase directness and terseness as they tend to be achievement-oriented and goal-driven </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Polychronic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>many task are handled simultaneously </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less emphasis on prioritising tasks and an approximate attitude to timeframes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>obscurer and less mindful of time constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>long-term perspective, time is fluid and flexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>able to retain their composure and to draw on social support from other team members </li></ul></ul>Hall, 2000
  16. 16. Stereotypes <ul><li>Stereotypes often reflect the differences in socioeconomic status, religion or dialect </li></ul><ul><li>It is important to suspend judgement, avoid misconceptions, narrow perspectives and immature reactions </li></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes often contain a grain of truth, but cannot characterize an entire culture </li></ul><ul><li>Getting the whole picture of culture needs active participation </li></ul>
  17. 17. How to communicate effective <ul><li>Desire </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to connect with other humans </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to be proactive when approaching a new culture </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge </li></ul><ul><ul><li>knowing about other cultures will help to develop skills and to act in a way that respects these preferences </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>reach beyond stereotypes </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Conclusion <ul><li>Intercultural competence means understanding what culture is and how it works </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is not congenital, but adapted and modified by the individual’s personality </li></ul><ul><li>The knowledge about cultural concepts are useful to compare cultures that are relatively closed </li></ul><ul><li>The various levels of culture show that culture can be seen as an onion-like construct </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural understanding is a journey, that never finishes, because the process and the endpoints change constantly </li></ul>
  19. 19. Bibliography <ul><li>Adler, N.J., 1997, International Dimensions of Organizational Behavior, New York, Wadsworth Publishing </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, E.T./ Red Hall, M., 2000, Understanding Culture Differences, Intercultural Press Inc.,U.S </li></ul><ul><li>Hall, E.T./ 1959, The silent language, New York, Double Day </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede G., 2006, Lokales Denken, globales Handlen, interkulturelle Zusammenarbeit und globales Mangement , Berlin, DTV-Beck </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede G., 1980: Culture‘s consequences: international differences in work-related. Beverly Hills, Sage Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Hofstede G., 1994, Cultures and Organizations: software of the mind: intercultural. London HarperCollins </li></ul><ul><li>Maletzke, G., 1996, Interkulturelle Kommunikation: zur Interaktion zwischen Menschen, Opladen. Westdeutscher </li></ul><ul><li>Ting-Toomey, S., 1999, Communication Across Cultures (Guilford Communication Series) Guilford Publications </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Menu developed by Leonardo Project MENS available at www.idec.gr./mens </li></ul>

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