Chapters 1 4

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Chapters 1 4

  1. 1. Chapter One: Universals of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>This multimedia product and its contents are protected under copyright law. The following are prohibited by law: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>any public performance or display, including transmission of any image over a network; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>preparation of any derivative work, including the extraction, in whole or in part, of any images; </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>any rental, lease, or lending of the program. </li></ul></ul>The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed. Joseph A. DeVito
  2. 2. Areas of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Interpersonal Interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Health Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Family Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Business and Organizational </li></ul><ul><li>Social and Personal Relationships </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  3. 3. Interpersonal Communication is Everyday <ul><li>Talking to Others </li></ul><ul><li>Giving/Receiving Compliments </li></ul><ul><li>Making New Friends </li></ul><ul><li>Asking for a Date </li></ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  4. 4. <ul><li>Maintaining and Repairing Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Breaking Off Relationships </li></ul><ul><li>Applying for Jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Giving Directions </li></ul><ul><li>Persuading a Supervisor </li></ul>Interpersonal Communication is Everyday Microsoft Image
  5. 5. <ul><li>Dyadic Primacy </li></ul><ul><li>Dyadic Coalitions </li></ul><ul><li>Dyadic Consciousness </li></ul>Nature of Interpersonal Communication Microsoft Image
  6. 6. <ul><li>Often Face-to-Face </li></ul><ul><li>Online </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Email </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mailing List Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Instant Messaging </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chat Groups </li></ul></ul>Forms of Interpersonal Communication Microsoft Image
  7. 7. <ul><li>Source-Receiver </li></ul><ul><li>Encoding-Decoding </li></ul><ul><li>Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback Messages </li></ul>Elements of Interpersonal Communication
  8. 8. Elements of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Types of Feedback </li></ul><ul><li>Positive-Negative </li></ul><ul><li>Person Focused-Message Focused </li></ul><ul><li>Immediate-Delayed </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Monitoring-High Monitoring </li></ul><ul><li>Supportive-Critical </li></ul>
  9. 9. Elements of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Functions of Feedforward </li></ul><ul><li>Open Channels of Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Preview a Message </li></ul><ul><li>Disclaim </li></ul><ul><li>Altercast </li></ul>
  10. 10. Elements of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Message Overload </li></ul><ul><li>Channel </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  11. 11. Elements of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Types of Noise </li></ul><ul><li>Physical </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological </li></ul><ul><li>Psychological </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  12. 12. Elements of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Context </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Physical Dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social-Psychological Dimension </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cultural Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ethics </li></ul><ul><li>Competence </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  13. 13. Purposes of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>To Learn </li></ul><ul><li>To Relate </li></ul><ul><li>To Influence </li></ul><ul><li>To Play </li></ul><ul><li>To Help </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  14. 15. Axioms of Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Interpersonal Communication is a Process </li></ul><ul><li>In Interpersonal Communication, Elements are Interdependent </li></ul><ul><li>Interpersonal Communication is ambiguous </li></ul><ul><li>Is Inevitable, Irreversible, and Unrepeatable </li></ul>
  15. 16. Interpersonal Communication <ul><li>Relationships are Symmetrical or Complementary </li></ul><ul><li>Involves Content and Relationship </li></ul><ul><li>Is a Series of Punctuated Events </li></ul>Microsoft Image Microsoft Image
  16. 18. The Interpersonal Communication Book 11th Ed.
  17. 19. Nature of Culture <ul><li>Culture Refers to... </li></ul><ul><li>Specialized Lifestyle of People </li></ul><ul><li>Values, Beliefs, Artifacts, Ways of Behaving, Ways of Communicating </li></ul><ul><li>Includes Language, Modes of Thinking, Laws, and Religion </li></ul>
  18. 20. Nature of Culture <ul><li>Not Synonymous with Race or Nationality </li></ul><ul><li>Gender is a Cultural Variable </li></ul><ul><li>Culture is Passed Through Generations </li></ul><ul><li>Enculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Ethnic Identity </li></ul><ul><li>Acculturation </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Beliefs and Values </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  19. 21. How Cultures Differ <ul><li>Power Distances </li></ul><ul><li>High Power Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power Concentrated in Hand of Few </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mexico, Brazil, India, Philippines </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Low Power Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Power More Evenly Distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Denmark, Sweden, New Zealand </li></ul></ul>
  20. 22. How Cultures Differ <ul><li>Masculine vs. Feminine Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People Socialized to be Assertive, Ambitious, Competitive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Confront Conflict Directly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Feminine Cultures </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasize Quality of Life </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People Socialized to be Modest, Emphasize Personal Relationships </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  21. 23. How Cultures Differ <ul><li>Individual vs. Collective Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>Individualist Culture - Members Responsible for Self and Family </li></ul><ul><li>Collectivist Culture - Members Responsible for Entire Group </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  22. 24. How Cultures Differ <ul><li>High- vs. Low-Context Cultures </li></ul><ul><li>High-Context - Information Known by All Members Through Previous Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Low-Context - Information is Explicitly Stated in Verbal Message </li></ul>
  23. 25. Improving Cultural Communication <ul><li>Educate Yourself </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Access Realistic Information about the Culture </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Face Your Fears </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reduce Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Uncertainty and Ambiguity Greater with Cultural Differences </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Listen Actively, Perception Check, Seek Feedback </li></ul></ul>
  24. 26. Improving Cultural Communication <ul><li>Recognize Differences </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences between Self and Culturally Different </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences within Culturally Different Groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Differences in Meaning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Confront Your Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Operate and Low Levels of Consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leads to Major Barriers </li></ul></ul>
  25. 27. Improving Cultural Communication <ul><li>Adjust Your Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Both Verbal and Nonverbal </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Manage Culture Shock </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  26. 28. Culture Shock - Stages <ul><li>Stage 1 - The Honeymoon </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 2 - The Crisis </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 3 - The Recovery </li></ul><ul><li>Stage 4 - The Adjustment </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  27. 29. Self-Concept <ul><li>Others’ Images of You </li></ul><ul><li>Social Comparison </li></ul><ul><li>Cultural Teachings </li></ul><ul><li>Your Own Interpretations and Evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Awareness </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  28. 31. Self-Awareness <ul><li>What You Know about Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Affects Self-Concept </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  29. 32. Self-Awareness—Your Four Selves <ul><li>Open Self </li></ul>Johari Window Open
  30. 33. Self-Awareness—Your Four Selves <ul><li>Open Self </li></ul><ul><li>Blind Self </li></ul>Johari Window Open Blind
  31. 34. Self-Awareness—Your Four Selves <ul><li>Open Self </li></ul><ul><li>Blind Self </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden Self </li></ul>Johari Window Open Blind Hidden
  32. 35. Self-Awareness—Your Four Selves <ul><li>Open Self </li></ul><ul><li>Blind Self </li></ul><ul><li>Hidden Self </li></ul><ul><li>Unknown Self </li></ul>Johari Window Open Unknown Blind Hidden
  33. 36. Self-Esteem <ul><li>How Much Do You Like Yourself? </li></ul><ul><li>Attack Your Self-Destructive Beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Secure Affirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Seek Nourishing People </li></ul><ul><li>Work on Projects That Will Result in Success </li></ul>
  34. 37. Self-Disclosure <ul><li>Communicating Information About… </li></ul><ul><li>Your Values, Beliefs, and Desires </li></ul><ul><li>Your Behavior </li></ul><ul><li>Your Self-Qualities or Characteristics </li></ul>
  35. 38. Self-Disclosure—Influences <ul><li>Who You Are </li></ul><ul><li>Your Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Your Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Your Listeners </li></ul><ul><li>Your Topic and Channel </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  36. 39. Self-Disclosure <ul><li>Rewards </li></ul><ul><li>Self-Knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Communication and Relationship Effectiveness </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological Health </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  37. 40. Apprehension in Communication
  38. 41. Apprehension in Communication
  39. 42. Apprehension in Communication <ul><li>Defined </li></ul><ul><li>Shyness </li></ul><ul><li>Unwillingness to Communicate </li></ul><ul><li>Stage Fright </li></ul><ul><li>Reticence </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  40. 43. Apprehension in Communication <ul><li>Types </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Trait </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>State </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Behaviors </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  41. 44. Apprehension in Communication <ul><li>Influences </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>Subordinate Status </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Conspicuousness </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Unpredictability </li></ul><ul><li>Degree of Dissimilarity </li></ul><ul><li>Prior Success and Failure </li></ul><ul><li>Lack of Communication Skills and Experience </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  42. 45. Apprehension in Communication <ul><li>Culture and Apprehension </li></ul><ul><li>Varies According to Culture </li></ul><ul><li>Intercultural Communication May Increase Apprehension </li></ul>
  43. 46. Theories of Apprehension Management <ul><li>Cognitive Restructuring </li></ul><ul><li>Systematic Desensitization </li></ul><ul><li>Skill Acquisition </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Prepare and Practice </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Focus on Success </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Familiarize Self With Situation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Relax </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  44. 47. Dangers of Self-Disclosure <ul><li>Risks Ahead </li></ul><ul><li>Personal </li></ul><ul><li>Relational </li></ul><ul><li>Professional </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  45. 48. Stages of Perception 1. Stimulation <ul><li>Selective Perception </li></ul><ul><li>Selective Exposure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages that Confirm Beliefs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages of Greater Intensity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Messages of Contrast </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  46. 49. Stages of Perception 2. Organization <ul><li>Organization By Rules </li></ul><ul><li>Organization By Schemata </li></ul><ul><li>Organization By Scripts </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  47. 50. Stages of Perception <ul><li>3. Interpretation—Evaluation </li></ul><ul><li>4. Memory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Tags </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Filtered Through Scripts and Schemas </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  48. 51. Stages of Perception 5. Recall <ul><li>Recall Information Consistent with Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Fail to Recall Information Inconsistent with Schema </li></ul><ul><li>Recall Information that Drastically Contradicts Schema </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  49. 52. Self-Disclosure—Guidelines <ul><li>Consider Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Appropriateness </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Others’ Disclosure </li></ul><ul><li>Consider Burdens </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  50. 53. Perceptual Processes <ul><li>Self-Fulfilling Prophesy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Pygmalion Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implicit Personality Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Halo Effect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reverse Halo Effect </li></ul></ul>© Dan Cavaaugh
  51. 54. Perceptual Processes <ul><li>Perceptual Accentuation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>See What Expect or Want to See </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Primacy—Recency </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First Impression Most Important </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Subsequent Data Discounted </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  52. 55. Perceptual Processes <ul><li>Consistency—We Expect </li></ul><ul><ul><li>People We Like Like Us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>People We Dislike Dislike Us </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul>Microsoft Image
  53. 56. Attribution Process <ul><li>Consensus—Similarity with Others </li></ul><ul><li>Consistency—Similarity over Time </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctiveness—Similarity in Different Situations </li></ul><ul><li>Controllability—Behavior Control </li></ul>
  54. 57. Increasing Accuracy in Perception <ul><li>Analyze Perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Recognize Own Role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Early Conclusions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Check Perceptions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Describe what You See and Hear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Avoid Mindreading </li></ul></ul>
  55. 58. Increasing Accuracy in Perception <ul><li>Reduce Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Observe Other </li></ul><ul><li>Manipulate Situation </li></ul><ul><li>Lurk in Chat Rooms </li></ul><ul><li>Collect Information </li></ul><ul><li>Interact with Other </li></ul>Microsoft Image
  56. 59. Increasing Accuracy in Perception <ul><li>Increase Your Cultural Sensitivity </li></ul><ul><li>Prepare Yourself </li></ul><ul><li>Reduce Uncertainty </li></ul><ul><li>Recognized Differences </li></ul><ul><li>Confront Stereotypes </li></ul><ul><li>Adjust Communication </li></ul><ul><li>Manage Culture Shock </li></ul>Microsoft Image

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