AIM & OBJECTIVEAim To understand the concept of Intercultural CommunicationObjectives To examine the different between high-context society and low-context society To assess the role of culture influencing marketing activities To apply the Intercultural Communication concept to marketing strategy
TABLE OF CONTENTS Culture and Communication The definition of Intercultural Communication Hall’s Theory - High-context vs Low-context Direct vs Indirect communication Intercultural communication (Hall’s theory) & Marketing Conclusion Recommendations References
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT TO HAVE UNDERSTANDING BETWEEN DIFFERENT CULTURES?
CULTURE UNDERSTANDINGTo understand people behaviourTo prevent the misunderstandingTo respect the differences betweenculturesTo communicate the right message tothe right people
“Communication is the vehicle by which meanings are conveyed,identity is composed and reinforced, and feelings are expressed.As we communicate using different cultural habits and meaning systems,both conflict and harmony are possible outcomes of any interaction.” LeBaron, 2003
“Interpersonal interaction between members of differentgroups, which differ from each other in respect of knowledgeshared by their members and in respect of their linguisticforms of symbolic behaviour” Miric, 2008
HIGH-CONTEXT & LOW-CONTEXT “Communication varies according to its degree of fielddependence, and that it can be classified into two general categories = High-context and Low-context” LeBaron, 2003 “High-context and Low-context Communication refers to the degree to which speakers rely on factors other than explicit speech to convey their message” Hall, 1971
EDWARD T. HALLCultural anthropologistPh.D., Columbia universityBest known for his work inintercultural relation andcommunicationOne of the founders ofintercultural communicationstudy
HALL’S FRAMEWORKLow-context culture High-context culture (High Individualism) (Collectivism) Explicit manner Implicit manner Focused on requirements High commitment to long term relationship Avoid merging of issues Merge Precise Not kept separate Punctuality Relaxed about time
HALL’S THEORY High-Context Low-Context Covert messages Overt Messages Internalized Messages Plainly Coded MessagesExtensive non-verbal codes Details verbalized Reaction Reserved Reaction on surfaceDistinct In and Out Groups Flexible In and Out GroupsStrong interpersonal bonds Weak interpersonal bonds High commitment Low commitment Open time Closed time
HIGH & LOW CONTEXTHigh-context cultures, verbal messages have little meaningwithout the surrounding context, which includes the overallrelationship between all the people engaged incommunication.Low-context cultures exclude many of those stimuli andfocus more intensely on the object communication event.The message itself means everything. McDowell, 2003
PAUSE FOR THOUGHTSDo I recognize implied messages from others, and am Iaware of the verbal and non-verbal cues that let meunderstand the speaker’s meaning?Do I let my words speak for themselves? Do I prefer to bemore direct, relying on what is explicitly stated in myspeech?
WHY UNDERSTANDING THE INTERCULTURALCOMMUNICATION BENEFIT MARKETING ACTIVITIES?
CROSS-CULTURAL & MARKETINGCross-cultural marketing can be seen as the strategic process ofmarketing among customers whose culture differs from that themarketers’ own cultureConsumption research is an essential precondition for appropriateproduct designAll market behaviours are culture-bound, so the marketers need tounderstand the culture and match marketing mix with consumerpreferences, purchasing behaviour and product-used patterns in apotential market.
DIRECT-INDIRECT COMMUNICATION* Direct communication is when the meaning of the messageis communicated mainly via words* Indirect communication is when meaning is not only in thewords, but mainly in the surrounding context of aconversation. In other words, somebody who is indirect willleave it up to the listener to fill in the blanks and make outthe meaning by correctly reading the contextual clues (non-verbal communication, status and/or age of people involvedin the conversation etc.)
BODY LANGUAGE & SILENT LANGUAGEBody language is a form of non-verbal communication,which consist of body posture, gestures, facial expressionsand eyes movementBody language may provide clues to the attitude or state ofmind of a personSilent or indirect communication doesn’t always showdisinterest, but could be a sign for respect
CULTURAL DIFFERENCES& MARKETING APPROACHESHigh-context culture: Indirect and transformationaladvertising messages creating emotions through picturesand entertainmentLow-context culture: Direct and rational advertisingmessages providing product information
HIGH-CONTEXT ADVERTISEMENT EXAMPLEHigh-context communication* Ambiguous message with verylittle information about theproduct Advertisement for Kewpie half 50% less cholesterol Mayonnaise(From top to bottom): Whether or not I’m by myself is fine (the direct translation is actually ‘by myself is fine, not by myself is fine too’), Convenience, Kewpie half
LOW-CONTEXT ADVERTISEMENT EXAMPLELow-context communication* Informative, data-oriented withdirect message Advertisement for California Milk Processor BoardYou should see what underneath. The calcium in milk keeps bones strong and and helps prevent osteoporosis
CULTURE RELATEDDESIGN CRITERIALayout: written text -> information/ rational (low-contextcommunication)Layout: visual picture -> entertainment/ emotional (high-context communication)
CLASS ACTIVITIESHow can you sell this product according to the cultural concept of High-context and Low-context?
CONCLUSIONCompanies have to consider cultural differences andestablish a global mindsetCulture influences consumer behaviour and their perceptionTo send the right message, to the right person at the righttime is the key of intercultural communication of marketing
RECOMMENDATIONLow-context communicators interacting with high-contextcommunicators should be mindful that* nonverbal messages and gestures may be as important as what is said* status and identity may be communicated nonverbally and require appropriateacknowledgement* face-saving and tact may be important, and need to be balance with the desire tocommunicate fully and frankly* building a good relationship can contribute to effectiveness overtime* indirect routes and creative thinking are important alternatives to problem-solvingwhen blocks are encountered
RECOMMENDATIONHigh-context communicators interacting with Low-contextcommunicators should be mindful that* things can be taken at face value rather than as representative of layer of meanings* roles and functions maybe decoupled from status and identity* efficiency and effectiveness may be served by a sustained focus on tasks* direct questions and observations are not necessarily meant to offend, but to clarifyand advance shared goals* indirect cues may not be enough to get the other’s attention
REFERENCESAnnonymous, (2002-2011). Hall’s cultural factors, Changing mind. Available at http://changingminds.org/explanations/culture/hall_culture.htm [Accessed on September 17, 2011].Beyond Intractability, (2003). Cultural Diversity. Available at http://www.beyondintractability.org/essay/communication_tools/[Accessed on October 8, 2011].Hall, E., (2011). Nonverbal communication; Intercultural relations; Anthropology, Edward T. Hall. Available at http://www.edwardthall.com/ [Accessed on September 17, 2011].Hubpage, (2011). High Context vs. Low Context Communication. Available at http://mqjeffrey.hubpages.com/hub/High-Context-vs-Low-Context-Communication [Accessed on October 7, 2011]McDowell, M. (2003). High Context & Low Context. Available at faculty.pcc.edu/~mmcdowel/eng240fall03/eng240highlowcontext.pdf.[Accessed on October 8, 2011].Melcrum Publishing, (2009). Understand cultural differences for clearer communication. Available at http://www.internalcommshub.com/open/news/shrm08.us.shtml [Accessed on October 7, 2011].Miric, N., (2008). Re-imaging Understanding of Intercultural Communication, Culture and Culturing, Journal of InterculturalCommunication. xx(17). pp. xx. Available at http://www.immi.se/intercultural/nr17/bakic.htm [Accessed on October 8,2011].
REFERENCESMissana, S., (xx). The silent language, The Grip of Culture: Edward T. Hall. Available at http://www.ishk.net/hall.pdf [Accessed onOctober 7, 2011].Rika’s blog, (2009). High and Low Context Communication. Available at http://rninomiya.wordpress.com/2009/05/24/high-and-low-context-communication/ [Accessed on October 7, 2011].