Real comm2e ch16

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Real comm2e ch16

  1. 1. Chapter 16 Persuasive Speaking
  2. 2. • Define the goals of persuasive speaking • Develop a persuasive topic and thesis • Evaluate your listeners and tailor your speech to them Chapter Outcomes
  3. 3. • Explain three forms of rhetorical proof: ethos, logos, and pathos • Identify the logical fallacies, deceptive forms of reasoning • Choose an appropriate organizational strategy for your speech Chapter Outcomes (cont.)
  4. 4. Persuasion The process of influencing attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors on a given topic
  5. 5. The Goals of Persuasive Speaking • Influencing attitudes, beliefs, and behaviors of your audience – Attitudes are evaluations of people, objects, ideas, or events. – Beliefs are how people perceive reality. – Behavior is how people act or function.
  6. 6. Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis• Your topic should… – be somewhat controversial – allow you to develop a message to bring about change in the audience
  7. 7. Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis (cont.) • A persuasive thesis may be stated as a... – proposition of fact – proposition of value – proposition of policy
  8. 8. Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis (cont.)• Propositions of Fact – Claim what something is or what something is not – Involve issues that have conflicting evidence or beliefs • Goal: Align your audience’s perception or opinion of the fact with your own.
  9. 9. Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis (cont.)• Propositions of Value – Claim that something meets or does not meet a specific standard of goodness or quality or right or wrong – Value statements reflect your opinion • Goal: Align your audience’s beliefs and attitudes with your own.
  10. 10. Developing a Persuasive Topic and Thesis (cont.)• Propositions of Policy – Make claims about what goal, policy, or course of action should be pursued – Commonly used during election campaigns • Goal: Persuade your audience that a current policy is or is not working.
  11. 11. Persuading Your Audience • Understanding Your Audience’s Disposition – Receptive audience – Hostile audience – Neutral audience
  12. 12. Persuading Your Audience (cont.) • Consider what you would like your audience to do at the speech’s conclusion. – What is their anchor position at the beginning of the speech? – This determines their latitude of acceptance and rejection.
  13. 13. Persuading Your Audience (cont.) • Understanding Your Audience’s Needs
  14. 14. Persuading Your Audience (cont.) • Understanding What Is Relevant to Your Audience – Elaboration Likelihood Model (ELM) • Central processing (longer lasting) • Peripheral processing
  15. 15. Persuading Your Audience (cont.) • Determining relevance: – Is your message relevant to listeners? – Did you present the topic at the correct level? – Did you establish your credibility? – Did you create a common bond?
  16. 16. Strategies for Persuasive Speaking • Forms of rhetorical proof – Ethos • Speaker’s qualifications and personality – Logos • Nature of speech’s message – Pathos • Audience’s feelings
  17. 17. Strategies for Persuasive Speaking (cont.) • Ethos (moral character) – Credibility – Character – Trustworthiness – Goodwill
  18. 18. Strategies for Persuasive Speaking (cont.) • Logos (reasoning) – Inductive reasoning draws general conclusions based on evidence. – Deductive reasoning proceeds from the general to the specific. • syllogism: major premise, minor premise, conclusion
  19. 19. Strategies for Persuasive Speaking (cont.) • Pathos (appeal to listener's emotions) – Should be combined with logical appeals for lasting effect
  20. 20. Strategies for Persuasive Speaking (cont.) • Avoiding logical fallacies – Bandwagoning – Reduction to the absurd – Red herring fallacy – Personal attacks (ad hominem fallacy) – Begging the question – Either-or fallacy (false dilemma fallacy) – Appeal to tradition – Slippery slope fallacy
  21. 21. Organizing Patterns in Persuasive Speaking • Problem-solution pattern – Alternative: problem-cause-solution • Refutational organizational pattern – Show points opposed to your own • Comparative advantage pattern – Effective when listeners know the issue
  22. 22. Organizing Patterns in Persuasive Speaking (cont.) • Monroe’s Motivated Sequence – Attention – Need – Satisfaction – Visualization – Action
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