Real comm2e ch9


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Real comm2e ch9

  1. 1. Chapter 9 Communicating in Groups
  2. 2. • List the characteristics and types of groups and explain how groups develop • Describe ways in which group size affects communication • Identify the influence of networks on groups Chapter Outcomes
  3. 3. • Define the roles individuals play in a group • Identify key issues affecting group communication and effectiveness Chapter Outcomes (cont.)
  4. 4. Understanding Groups • A collection of more than two people who share some kind of relationship • Communicate in an interdependent fashion • Collaborate toward a shared purpose
  5. 5. Characteristics of Groups • Groups possess: – A shared identity • identify as part of the group – Common goals • either specific or general – Interdependent relationships • the behavior of each member affects the behavior of every other member
  6. 6. Group Types • Primary groups: – Family and friends • Support groups: – Address personal problems • Social groups: – Offer relationship opportunities • Problem-solving groups: – Address specific problems
  7. 7. Group Types (cont.) • Study groups: – Task-oriented • Focus groups: – Research-based • Teams: – Carry out a project or specific endeavor • Self-directed work teams – Skilled workers who accomplish a task
  8. 8. Group Development • Forming stage: – Determine who will be in charge – Define group’s goals • Storming stage: – Determine what roles members will play – Deal with conflicts
  9. 9. Group Development (cont.) • Norming stage: – Establish agreed norms governing expectations • Norms: recurring patterns of behavior or thinking that become the “usual” way of doing things in the group – Solidify roles – Leader emerges
  10. 10. Group Development (cont.) • Performing stage: – Members work together to achieve goals and overcome hurdles • Adjourning stage: – Members reflect on accomplishments and failures – Determine next steps as a group
  11. 11. Group Size and Communication • Larger groups lead to… – More formal interactions – Limited opportunities for individual members to contribute – Less intimate communication – More time-consuming interactions – More complex relationships
  12. 12. Group Size and Communication (cont.)
  13. 13. Size, Cliques, and Coalitions • Larger groups lead to… – Emergence of cliques (coalitions) • Small subgroups of individuals who have bonded together within a group – Development of countercoalitions • Subgroups that position themselves against each other on issues
  14. 14. Group Size and Social Loafing • The larger the group… – the more likely social loafing is to occur • Failing to invest the same level of effort in the group that you would put in if working alone • Affects participation and communication in groups – the more difficult it is to assess individual contributions to the group
  15. 15. Group Networks • Networks are patterns of interaction governing who speaks with whom in a group and about what. – Centrality: the degree to which an individual sends and receives messages from others in the group – Isolation: a position from which a group member sends and receives fewer messages than other members
  16. 16. Group Networks (cont.) • Types of Networks
  17. 17. Understanding Group Roles • Information giver: – Offers facts, beliefs, personal experience, or other input during group discussions • Information seeker: – Asks for additional input or clarification of ideas or opinions • Elaborator: – Provides further clarification of points, often adding to what others have said
  18. 18. Understanding Group Roles (cont.) • Initiator: – Moves the group toward its objective by proposing solutions, new ideas, or suggestions • Administrator: – Keeps the conversation on track • Elder: – Online group member who has participated a long time; respected by newbies
  19. 19. Understanding Group Roles (cont.) • Social roles include: – Harmonizers: smooth tension – Gatekeepers: ensure everyone contributes – Sensors: express group feelings and moods to recognize the climate
  20. 20. Understanding Group Roles (cont.) • Antigroup roles include: – Blockers: use destructive communication – Avoiders: change the subject, express cynicism – Recognition seekers: boast for attention – Distractors: go off on tangents – Trolls: insert irrelevant, inflammatory comments
  21. 21. Understanding Group Roles (cont.) • Role conflict: – Occurs when group expectations are incompatible with a member’s behavior – Makes group communication challenging
  22. 22. Additional Factors Affecting Group Communication• Cohesion: – The degree to which group members have bonded and consider themselves one entity – Necessary for a positive group climate • Groupthink: – When group members strive to maintain cohesiveness, minimize conflict by refusing to critically examine ideas, analyze proposals, or test solutions
  23. 23. Additional Factors Affecting Group Communication (cont.)• Norms: – Determined by the group; imposed by its members – Unproductive norms may hinder communication • Clarity of goals: – Define in terms of problem – Establish performance standards, resources, contingencies, reporting
  24. 24. Additional Factors Affecting Group Communication (cont.) • Individual differences: – Cultural factors • Individualistic vs. collectivist • Gender and sex differences – Communication apprehension • Low self-esteem • Status differences • Unbalanced participation