Chapter 16: Persuasive public speaking


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Chapter 16: Persuasive public speaking

  1. 1. Persuasive Public Speaking If you are opinionated, here is your chance.
  2. 2. Types of persuasive speeches <ul><li>Conviction </li></ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul><ul><li>Good persuasive speeches are… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Timely </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controversial </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Audience-aware </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-developed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Valuable to society </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Persuasion process <ul><li>Claim </li></ul><ul><li>Appeals </li></ul><ul><li>Done? </li></ul><ul><li>NO! </li></ul>
  4. 4. Persuasion process Things to consider <ul><li>Theory of field-related standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Not all people reach conclusions in the same way, thus they may react differently to the same evidence or psychological appeals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Include as many appeals as you can </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Group norm standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>When speaking to a group, you can assume that they will have some similar or overlapping views </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Individual norm standards </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some individuals are more influential than others. If you get them on your side, everyone else is in the bag </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Components of the persuasive speech
  6. 6. <ul><li>Ethos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaker credibility </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Logos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical arguments </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pathos </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychological appeals </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Ethos
  8. 8. Speaker credibility (ethos) <ul><li>Competence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Wisdom </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Speaker credibility (ethos) <ul><li>Charisma </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appealing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Concerned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiastic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sincere </li></ul></ul>
  10. 10. Speaker credibility (ethos) <ul><li>Character </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reputation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Honesty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sensitivity </li></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Logos
  12. 12. Logical arguments (logos) <ul><li>Your speech has to “make sense” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear statement of the purpose of what you are proposing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasons you believe or want the audience to believe in what you are proposing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Cite credible sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Well-developed arguments that flow </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Statement of desired outcome, stand or action </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of false facts, or partial information </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Logical arguments guide your central idea <ul><li>Proposition of facts (will) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposition of value (good, bad) </li></ul><ul><li>Proposition of policy (should) </li></ul><ul><li>Inductive argument (evidence, conclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Deductive argument (premise, conclusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Whatever your choice, you need valid evidence </li></ul>
  14. 14. Logical fallacies <ul><li>Generalizations </li></ul><ul><ul><li>All Greeks… </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faulty analogical reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>AIDS vs. Bubonic plagues </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Faulty causal reasoning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Something caused something else, no qualification </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ignoring the issue </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relevant arguments used to obscure the issue </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Logical fallacies <ul><li>Ad hominem arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attacks on personal character of the source </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ad populum arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Appeal to people ’s prejudices and passions </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ad ignorantium arguments </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attempt to prove that something is true because it cannot be disproved </li></ul></ul>
  16. 16. How do you sell your point of view? <ul><li>Critical thinking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose plan of action, Set forth criteria, Propose solution </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Comparative advantage </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Propose solution(s) that are workable, desirable, and practical </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. How do you sell your point of view? <ul><li>Elaboration Likelihood Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the topic is one that the listener has encountered before, is interested and involved in, and enjoys talking about, he/she is more likely to process the speaker ’s arguments </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. How do you sell your point of view? <ul><li>Social support </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If the individual feels that he/she has the support of others and they ’re all “in it together,” he/she will be persuaded by a message </li></ul></ul>
  19. 19. How do you sell your point of view? <ul><li>Monroe ’ s Motivated Sequence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attention </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Need </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Satisfaction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visualization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Action </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Pathos
  21. 21. Psychological appeals (pathos) <ul><li>Maslow ’s Hierarchy of Needs </li></ul>
  22. 22. Appeals to motivate listeners <ul><li>Adventure </li></ul><ul><li>Anger </li></ul><ul><li>Companionship </li></ul><ul><li>Deference </li></ul><ul><li>Fear </li></ul><ul><li>Gender </li></ul><ul><li>Guilt </li></ul><ul><li>Happiness </li></ul><ul><li>Health </li></ul><ul><li>Hero worship </li></ul>Humor Independence Liking Loyalty Nostalgia Revulsion Safety Savings Sex Sympathy
  23. 23. And remember that all of this has to be arranged in a way that makes sense