Real comm2e ch13


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Real comm2e ch13

  1. 1. Chapter 13 Organizing, Writing, and Outlining Presentations
  2. 2. • Organize and support your main points • Choose an appropriate organizational pattern for your speech • Move smoothly from point to point • Choose appropriate and powerful language Chapter Outcomes
  3. 3. Chapter Outcomes (cont.) • Develop a strong introduction, a crucial part of all speeches • Conclude with the same strength as in the introduction • Prepare an effective outline
  4. 4. Organizing Your Speech Points • Main points are… – The central claims that support your specific purpose and thesis statement – Ideas that will lead the audience to accept or consider what you are asking them to do, believe, or consider
  5. 5. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Identifying Your Main Points – Include about 3-4 per speech. – Each main point should be one major idea. – Ask yourself: • Does this point prove my thesis? • Does it help me achieve my specific purpose?
  6. 6. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Supporting Your Main Points – Subpoints support the main points. • Represent a clear hierarchy of ideas – Ask yourself: • Does this bit of information back up my main point? – Sub-subpoints support the subpoints.
  7. 7. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Supporting Your Main Points (cont.)
  8. 8. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Arranging Your Points – Chronological patterns organize points by time. – Topical patterns organize points by category. • Primacy-recency effect: save the best for last – Spatial patterns organize points by proximity to each other.
  9. 9. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Arranging Your Points (cont.) – Problem-solution patterns arrange three key points: • problem, possible solutions, best solution – Cause-effect patterns follow cause-to- effect or effect-to-cause relationships. – Narrative patterns arrange points using stories.
  10. 10. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Arranging Your Points (cont.) – Motivated sequence patterns follow five phases: • Attention • Need • Satisfaction • Visualization • Action
  11. 11. Organizing Your Speech Points (cont.) • Connecting Your Points – Use transitions such as “in addition to” or “next, let me describe.” – Use signposts such as “next,” “once,” “on the other hand.” – Use internal previews to show what’s coming. – Use internal summaries to remind the audience of what’s been covered.
  12. 12. Using Language That Works • Respect your audience. • Keep it simple. • Use vivid language. • Use language to make a lasting impression through – Repetition – Allusion – Comparisons (similes, metaphors)
  13. 13. Writing a Strong Introduction • Capture your audience’s attention by... – Using surprise – Telling a story – Starting with a quote – Asking a question – Making them laugh
  14. 14. Writing a Strong Introduction (cont.) • Introduce Your Purpose and Topic – Incorporate your thesis statement. • Preview Your Main Points – Tell listeners the points you will discuss in the order in which you will discuss them. • Connect with Your Audience – Show them why they should care. – Appeal to their personal needs.
  15. 15. Writing a Strong Conclusion • Signal the End – Use a transitional phrase. • Reinforce Your Topic, Purpose, and Main Points – Give listeners a mental check-list.
  16. 16. Writing a Strong Conclusion (cont.) • Make an Impact – Use quotes, statements, questions, or a final story. • Challenge the Audience to Respond – Encourage them to use their “new” information. – Encourage a call to action where appropriate.
  17. 17. Outlining Your Speech • An outline is a structured form of your speech content that... – Confirms your points are arranged clearly – Ensures you’ve cited your research – Assists you in your delivery
  18. 18. Outlining Your Speech (cont.) • Outlining Essentials – Use standard symbols. – Use subdivisions properly. – Separate the parts of your speech. – Call out your specific purpose and thesis. – Cite your sources. – Give your speech a title.
  19. 19. Outlining Your Speech (cont.) • Styles of Outlines – Sentence outlines use the full text of your speech. – Phrase outlines use key phrases. • Key-word outlines use key words to jog your memory. • Phrase / Key-word are best for speaking outlines
  20. 20. Outlining Your Speech (cont.) • From Preparation Outline to Speaking Outline – Preparation (working) outline: • Firms up thesis, creates main points and supporting points – Speaking (delivery) outline: • Final speech plan; includes delivery cues, oral citations