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Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
Transport in human as at 290711
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Transport in human as at 290711

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Reference for Sec3Express Biology students

Reference for Sec3Express Biology students

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  • Biliverdin is a green tetrapyrrolicbilepigment,
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    • 1. Transport in Mammals <br />Chapter 8<br />1<br />
    • 2. Lesson Objectives<br />(a) State the functions of blood<br />(b) List the different ABO blood groups &amp; all possible combinations for the <br /> donor&amp; recipient in blood transfusions.<br />(c) Identify the main blood vessels to &amp; from the heart, lungs, liver &amp; <br /> kidney.<br />(d) Relate the structure of arteries, veins &amp; capillaries to their functions.<br />(e) Describe the transfer of materials between capillaries &amp; tissue fluid.<br />(f) Describe the structure&amp; function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves.<br />(f) Outline the cardiac cycle in terms of what happens during systole and diastole. (Histology of the heart muscle, names of nerves and transmitter substances are not required).<br />(h) Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the occlusion of coronary arteries and list the possible causes, such as diet, stress and smoking, stating the possible preventative measures.<br />2<br />
    • 3. Transport in Mammals<br />Introduction<br />3<br />
    • 4. Q. Can we depend on only diffusion and osmosis for the uptake of useful substances and the removal of waste products?<br />4<br />
    • 5. Think about this…<br />Are all blood RED?<br />5<br />
    • 6. 6<br />
    • 7. 7<br />
    • 8. Skink<br />8<br />
    • 9. Haemoglobin, Hemocyanin &amp; Hemovanabin<br />9<br />
    • 10. Are monkeys (our closest relative) blood cells the same as ours?<br />10<br />
    • 11. Animals and bacteria have cell surface antigens referred to as a blood type<br />Antigens from the human ABO blood group system are also found in apes such as chimpanzees, bonobos and gorillas.<br />11<br />
    • 12. 12<br />
    • 13. Why do athletes train in high altitude places?<br />13<br />
    • 14. Think about this . . . <br /> A leech feeds on blood of other animals without causing blood clots. Why?<br />14<br />
    • 15. Think about this . . . <br />Why Draculas are able to live for thousands of years?<br />15<br />
    • 16. Transport in Mammals<br />Components of Transport System<br />16<br />
    • 17. Task: Create a flowchart of components of transport in mammals<br />Pair work<br />Blank papers provided<br />Write your name, class, date<br />Write Title: I used to think…<br />17<br />
    • 18. Q. What kind of transport systems have mammals developed?<br />18<br />
    • 19. Transport in Mammals<br />Components of Blood<br />19<br />
    • 20. Study of Haemotology<br />20<br />
    • 21. 1. Can you identify the following blood disorder?<br />Sickle Cell Anaemia<br />21<br />
    • 22. 2. Can you identify the following blood disorder?<br />Haemophilia<br />22<br />
    • 23. 3. Can you identify the following blood disorder?<br />Leukemia<br />23<br />
    • 24. 4. Can you identify the following blood disorder?<br />Thalassemia<br />24<br />
    • 25. A. Components of Blood<br />25<br />
    • 26. A.1 What is blood made up of?<br />Plasma (55%)<br />Red Blood cells<br />White blood cells<br />Platelets<br />45% <br />26<br />
    • 27. A.1. State the functions of bloodComponents of Transport System<br />27<br />
    • 28. A.2 Think about this . . . .<br />Is blood a tissue?<br />Yes, it is fluid tissue<br />Consists of blood cells and platelets<br />28<br />
    • 29. A.3 Plasma<br />29<br />
    • 30. A.3 How does plasma look like?<br />Straw coloured liquid<br />90% water<br />30<br />
    • 31. A.4 What are the functions of plasma?<br />Water<br />Solvent for transporting substances<br />Maintain constant body temperature<br />Proteins <br />Fibrinogen, prothrombin<br />Involved in blood clotting<br />Hormones<br />Transported from endocrine glands to target organs<br />31<br />
    • 32. A.4 What are the functions of plasma? (II)<br />Urea<br />Metabolic waste<br />Transported from liver to kidney for excretion<br />Carbon dioxide<br />From all tissues to lungs<br />Present as bicarbonate ions<br />Dissolved nutrients <br />From small intestine to all tissues<br />32<br />
    • 33. A.5 Red blood cells<br />33<br />
    • 34. A.5 How does a red blood cell / erythrocyte look like? <br />34<br />
    • 35. A.5 What is the function of red blood cells?<br />Contains haemoglobin (Hb) that transports oxygen<br />Haemoglobin (purplish red)<br />+<br />Oxygen<br />Lungs<br />Tissue<br />Oxyhaemoglobin<br />(bright red) (unstable compound)<br />35<br />
    • 36. A.5 How are RBC adapted for their function?<br />36<br />
    • 37. Q. Where are RBC formed?<br />Bone Marrow (Ribs)<br />37<br />
    • 38. Q. How are bone marrow biopsy done?<br />38<br />
    • 39. A.5. What are some characteristics of RBC?<br />Life span ~ 120 days<br />Once dead, broken down in spleen and liver<br />Replacement rate ~ 2 500 000 RBC / s<br />39<br />
    • 40. A.5 Think about this . . . .<br />Male ~ 5.4 million RBC per mm3 of blood<br />Female ~ 4.8 million RBC per mm3 of blood<br />Why does an average male have more RBC per mm3 of blood?<br />40<br />
    • 41. 41<br />
    • 42. 42<br />
    • 43. Think about this . . . .<br />What is carbon monoxide poisoning?<br />43<br />
    • 44. Q. What is carbon monoxide poisoning?<br />Haemoglobin<br />+<br />Carbon Monoxide<br />Carboxyhaemoglobin<br />(very stable compound)<br />44<br />
    • 45. A.6 White blood cells<br />45<br />
    • 46. A.6 How does a white blood cell / leucocyte look like?<br />46<br />
    • 47. A.6 What is the function of white blood cells?<br />Defend body against diseases<br />47<br />
    • 48. A.6 How are WBC adapted for their function?<br />48<br />
    • 49. A.6 Where are lymphocytes formed?<br />Lymph nodes<br />49<br />
    • 50. A.6 What is the difference between lymphocytes and phagocytes?<br />White Blood Cells<br />Lymphocyte<br />Phagocyte<br />Monocyte<br />Polymorph<br />50<br />
    • 51. Think about this . . . .<br />The white blood cell count of someone who has a fever is higher than that of a normal person. Why?<br />51<br />
    • 52. A.7 Platelets<br />52<br />
    • 53. A.7 How do platelets look like?<br />53<br />
    • 54. A.7 What is the function of platelets?<br />Involved in the formation of blood clots<br />Form a temporary plug at cut or wound<br />Prevent excessive loss of blood<br />Prevent entry of bacteria<br />54<br />
    • 55. A.7 How are blood clots formed?<br />Damaged tissues release thrombokinase<br />Thrombokinase + Calcium ions<br />Prothrombin<br />Thrombin<br />Thrombin + Vitamin K<br />Insoluble fibrin threads<br />Fibrinogen<br />55<br />
    • 56. Think about this . . . .<br />Why doesn’t the blood in your body clot even though platelets are present?<br />56<br />
    • 57. A.7 Why doesn’t the blood in your body clot even though platelets are present?<br />Heparin – an anticoagulant<br />Produced in liver<br />Present in <br /> undamaged cells<br />57<br />
    • 58. A.7 Think about this . . . <br />A leech feeds on blood of other animals without causing blood clots. Why?<br />58<br />
    • 59. A.7 What is leech therapy?<br />What is leech therapy?<br />59<br />
    • 60. A.7 Think about this . . . .<br />In the case of organ transplants, it is very important that the recipient’s body accepts the donor’s organ. How do doctors reduce the risk of tissue rejection during organ transplants?<br />60<br />
    • 61. A.7 Think about this . . . .<br />In Singapore, TV actress Andrea de Cruz narrowly escaped death after taking diet pills called Slim 10. She underwent an emergency liver transplant in May 2002, after her boyfriend, actor Pierre Png, donated half his own liver. Is it possible to have successful organ transplants even though the donor and recipient may not be genetically related?<br />61<br />
    • 62. In Summary… <br />BLOOD<br />62<br />
    • 63. A.7 What are the functions of blood?<br />63<br />
    • 64. A. What are the differences between RBC, WBC and platelets?<br />64<br />
    • 65. B. Blood group classification<br />65<br />
    • 66. B.1 Blood group classification<br />ABO blood groups<br />A, B, AB, O blood groups<br />Rhesus / Rh factor classification<br />Rh positive or Rh negative<br />66<br />
    • 67. Q. Why are blood groups named as ‘A’, ‘B’, ‘AB’ or ‘O’?<br />67<br />
    • 68. Human Blood Groups<br />68<br />
    • 69. B.2 Blood tranfusions<br />Recipient’s plasma must not contain antibodies that will react with antigen donor’s blood cells<br />69<br />
    • 70. Q. What happens when an A+ donates blood to a B+?<br />70<br />
    • 71. . Blood transfusions<br />Who can receive blood from whom?<br />Can receive blood from<br />Can give blood to<br />Antibodies<br />Antigens<br />Blood group<br />A and O<br />A and AB<br />b<br />A<br />A<br />B and O<br />B and AB<br />a<br />B<br />B<br />AB, A, B, O<br />AB<br />none<br />A and B<br />AB<br />O<br />AB, A, B, O<br />a and b<br />none<br />O<br />71<br />
    • 72. B.3 Universal Donor vs Universal Recipient<br />72<br />
    • 73. B.4 What is meant by the Rhesus Factor?<br />Protein found on surface of RBC<br />Presence of protein  Rh positive<br />Absence of protein  Rh negative<br />73<br />
    • 74. C. Major Blood Vessels<br />74<br />
    • 75. Pulmonary artery<br />Pulmonary vein<br />Vena cava<br />Aorta <br />Hepatic artery<br />Hepatic vein<br />Renal vein<br />Renal artery<br />75<br />
    • 76. C. Types of Blood Vessels<br />76<br />
    • 77. Q. What are Blood vessels?<br />System of tubes through which blood flows in the body<br />Three types of blood vessels :<br />Arteries<br />Capillaries<br />Veins<br />Total length of blood vessels  160 000 km<br />77<br />
    • 78. Types of Blood Vessels<br />3.5, <br />78<br />
    • 79. 79<br />
    • 80. C.1 ARTERY<br />80<br />
    • 81. Artery<br />81<br />
    • 82. Artery<br />Connective Tissue<br />Smooth muscle<br />Lumen<br />Wavy elastic band<br />Endothelium<br />82<br />
    • 83. Arteries<br />83<br />
    • 84. C.2 VEIN<br />84<br />
    • 85. Vein<br />Connective Tissue<br />Smooth muscle<br />Lumen<br />Endothelium<br />85<br />
    • 86. Vein<br />86<br />86<br />
    • 87. Valves<br />87<br />
    • 88. Exercising helps blood to flow!<br />88<br />
    • 89. C.3 Capillary<br />89<br />
    • 90. Capillary<br />Where exchange of materials take place between blood and tissues/cells<br />Branch repeatedly and found between cells of almost all tissues (why?)<br />Consists if a thin layer of flattened (why?) endothelial cells which are selectively permeable<br />90<br />
    • 91. Capillary<br />91<br />
    • 92. Capillary <br />92<br />
    • 93. Differences between Blood Vessels<br />93<br />
    • 94. How are the 3 blood vessels linked?<br />94<br />
    • 95. E. Transfer of materials between capillaries and fluid<br />95<br />
    • 96. Q. What is the relationship between capillaries, cells and lymph vessels?<br />Capillaries contain blood<br />Spaces between cells contain tissue fluid<br />Lymph vessels contain lymph<br />96<br />
    • 97. NOT IN NOTES-Describe the transfer of substances between capillaries and tissue fluid<br />Read TB pages 164-165<br />Questions to discuss<br />What is interstitial fluid?<br />How is tissue fluid formed?<br />Why is the interstitial fluid needed?<br />What is carried at the arterial end of the capillary?<br />What does the venous end of the capillary contain?<br />Look at the picture given. <br />What is the difference between the net pressure at the arterial and venous end? Why is this important?<br />97<br />
    • 98. Q. What are the differences between blood plasma, tissue fluid and lymph<br />Blood plasma<br />Appearance : Straw coloured liquid<br />Location : Liquid part of blood in blood vessels<br />Composition : Plasma, plasma proteins<br />98<br />
    • 99. Q. What are the differences between blood plasma, tissue fluid and lymph<br />Tissue fluid<br />Appearance : Colourless, watery liquid<br />Location : Surrounds all cells of body and fills the spaces between them<br />Composition : Same as blood plasma but no plasma proteins<br />99<br />
    • 100. Q. What are the differences between blood plasma, tissue fluid and lymph<br />Lymph<br />Appearance : Colourless, watery liquid<br />Location : Lymphatic capillaries<br />Composition : More waste products and lessfood substances than tissue fluid<br />100<br />
    • 101. Transport in Mammals (II)<br />101<br />
    • 102. F. Structure of heart<br />102<br />
    • 103. Lesson Objectives<br />(f) Describe the structure&amp; function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves.<br />(g) Outline the cardiac cycle in terms of what happens during systole and diastole. (Histology of the heart muscle, names of nerves and transmitter substances are not required).<br />(h) Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the occlusion of coronary arteries and list the possible causes, such as diet, stress and smoking, stating the possible preventative measures.<br />103<br />
    • 104. Q. What is the function of the heart?<br />Pumps oxygenated blood to all parts of the body<br />104<br />
    • 105. Q. Where is your heart located?<br />105<br />
    • 106. Q. How does the heart look like?<br />106<br />
    • 107. Q. How is the heart protected?<br />Muscles of chest walls<br />Rib cage<br />Sternum<br />Diaphragm<br />Pericardium<br />107<br />
    • 108. Q. Can the heart develop outside the body?<br />108<br />
    • 109. F.1 External Structure of the Mammalian Heart<br />109<br />
    • 110. 8) Aortic Arch<br />7) Pulmonary artery<br />6) Vena cava<br />3) Left Atrium<br />4) Right Atrium<br />2) Left Ventricle<br />5) Right Ventricle<br />1) Apex<br />110<br />
    • 111. F.2 Internal Structure of the Mammalian Heart<br />111<br />
    • 112. 11<br />6) Superior <br />vena cava<br />10) Aorta<br />8) Pulmonary <br />artery<br />1<br />5<br />5<br />9) Pulmonary vein<br />6<br />6<br />13) Semi-lunar <br />valves<br />7<br />2) Left atrium<br />4<br />10<br />3) Right atrium<br />12) Bicuspid <br />valve<br />9<br />2<br />8<br />11) Tricuspid <br />valve<br />1) Left <br />ventricle<br />3<br />7)Inferior <br />vena cava<br />1<br />5) Septum<br />4) Right ventricle<br />11<br />112<br />
    • 113. 113<br />
    • 114. F.3 Flow of blood in the heart<br />Left side of the heart<br />Right side of the heart<br />Lungs<br />Organ<br />All parts of the body<br />Pulmonary vein<br />Blood vessel<br />Superior and Inferior Vena Cava<br />Left atrium<br />Chamber<br />Right atrium<br />Bicuspid valve<br />Valve<br />Tricuspid valve<br />Left ventricle<br />Chamber<br />Right ventricle<br />Semilunar valve<br />Valve<br />Semilunar valve<br />Aorta<br />Blood vessel<br />Pulmonary artery<br />All parts of the body<br />Organ<br />Lungs<br />114<br />
    • 115. Q. In one complete circulation, how many times does blood pass through the heart?<br />Pulmonary circulation<br />Blood circulation to and from the lungs<br />Systemic circulation<br />Blood circulation to and from all other parts of the body<br />DOUBLE CIRCULATION in birds and mammals<br />115<br />
    • 116. 3) Oxygenated blood at low pressure<br />2) Deoxygenated blood at high pressure<br />Pulomonary Circulation<br />4) Oxygenated blood at high pressure<br />1) Deoxygenated blood at low pressure<br />Systemic Circulation<br />116<br />
    • 117. F.4 What is the function of the atria?<br />Right atrium<br />Receives deoxygenated blood from the vena cava<br />Left atrium<br />Receives oxygenated blood from the lungs via the pulmonary vein<br />117<br />
    • 118. F.4 What is the function of the ventricles?<br />Right ventricle<br />Pumps blood to the lungs via pulmonary artery<br />Left ventricle<br />Pumps blood to all parts of the body (except the lungs) via the aorta<br />118<br />
    • 119. Why is there a need for this difference?<br />Q. How do the atria walls differ from ventricle walls?<br />119<br />
    • 120. F.4 What is the function of the vena cava? <br />Superior vena cava<br />Returns deoxygenated blood from the head and upper limbs to the heart<br />Inferior vena cava<br />Returns deoxygenated blood from the lower limbs and organs to the heart<br />120<br />
    • 121. F.4 What is the function of the pulmonary artery/vein?<br />Pulmonary artery<br />Carries deoxygenated blood to the lungs<br />Pulmonary vein<br />Carries oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium of the heart<br />121<br />
    • 122. F.4 What is the function of the aorta?<br />Aorta<br />Carries oxygenated blood to all parts of the body except the lungs<br />122<br />
    • 123. F.5 What is the function of the atrioventricular valves?<br />Tricuspid valve (Right)<br />Prevents backflow of blood to the right atrium when the right ventriclecontracts<br />Bicuspid valve (Left)<br />Prevents backflow of blood to the left atrium when the left ventricle contracts<br />123<br />
    • 124. F.5 What is the function of the semilunar valves?<br />Pulmonary valve<br />Prevent backflow of blood from the pulmonary artery into the right ventricle when the right ventricle relaxes<br />Aortic valve<br />Prevent backflow of oxygenated blood from the aorta into the left ventricle when the left ventricle relaxes<br />124<br />
    • 125. F.5 How do heart valves look like?<br />125<br />
    • 126. x<br />126<br />
    • 127. F.5 Where are the heart valves located?<br />127<br />
    • 128. 128<br />
    • 129. Q. Have you heard of “tugging at one’s heart strings”?<br />Chordae tendineae<br />Attached to walls of ventricles<br />Prevent flaps of valve from being flapping back into the atrium when ventricles contract<br />129<br />
    • 130. F.6 How does the chordae tendineaelook like? <br />130<br />
    • 131. 131<br />
    • 132. 132<br />
    • 133. F. Cardiac Cycle<br />133<br />
    • 134. Cardiac Cycle Overview<br /><ul><li>Both atria and ventricles are relaxed.
    • 135. Right atrium receives blood from the vena cava (both superior and inferior vena cava)
    • 136. Left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary vein.</li></ul>1<br />pulmonary vein<br />1<br />left atrium<br />vena cava<br />left ventricle<br />right atrium<br />right ventricle<br />2<br />3<br />134<br />
    • 137. Cardiac Cycle<br /><ul><li>Atria fill up with blood.
    • 138. Atria contract, blood is pumped into the ventricles
    • 139. Tricuspid and bicuspid valves are forced open.</li></ul>3<br />1<br />2<br />2<br />left ventricle<br />right ventricle<br />135<br />
    • 140. Cardiac Cycle<br />Ventricular Systole<br /><ul><li>Ventricles filled with blood.
    • 141. Ventricles contract.</li></ul>(blood pressure increases)<br /><ul><li>Tricuspid and bicuspid valves close, producing LOUD ‘lub’ sound.</li></ul>(prevents backflow of blood into atria)<br /><ul><li>Aortic and pulmonary semi-lunar valves open.
    • 142. Blood flows from ventricles into pulmonary artery and aorta.</li></ul>1<br />2<br />aortic arch<br />3<br />3<br />bicuspid valve<br />pulmonary arch<br />tricuspid valve<br />136<br />
    • 143. Cardiac Cycle<br />Ventricular Diastole<br /><ul><li>Ventricles relax.</li></ul>(blood pressure decreases)<br /><ul><li>Aortic and pulmonary semi-lunar valves close, producing SOFT ‘dub’ sound</li></ul>(prevent backflow of blood into ventricles)<br /><ul><li>Tricuspid and bicuspid valves open.</li></ul>pulmonary vein<br />4<br />4<br />left atrium<br />vena cava<br />left ventricle<br />right atrium<br />right ventricle<br />2<br />3<br />WHOLE CYCLE (1-4) REPEATS!<br />137<br />
    • 144. Heart sounds…<br />Lub dub …. Lub dub<br />138<br />
    • 145. F.1 What causes heart sounds?<br />Opening and closing of valves<br />‘Lub’ Sound<br />Closing of bicuspid and tricuspid valves<br />‘Dub’ Sound<br />Closing of semilunar valves<br />139<br />
    • 146. F.2 What happens when your valves don’t function properly?<br />Heart murmurs<br />140<br />
    • 147. F. Blood Pressure<br />141<br />
    • 148. Q. What is blood pressure?<br />Force that blood exerts on walls of blood vessels as a result of the contraction and relaxation of the heart<br />Highest in the aorta, lowest in the veins<br />Higher during ventricular contraction and lower during relaxation<br />142<br />
    • 149. Q. How is blood pressure measured?<br />Measured using a sphygmomanometer<br />Reading 120/80 (120-systole, 80-diastole)<br />143<br />
    • 150. Q. What happens if a person has high blood pressure?<br />Pressures above 140/90<br />Causes the walls of the arterioles to thicken, narrowing the lumen and reducing supply of oxygen to the tissues<br />Higher risk of arteriole ballooning out and possibly bursting<br />144<br />
    • 151. Blood pressure graph<br />Capillaries<br />Venules<br />Small veins<br />Large veins<br />Vena cava<br />Large veins<br />Small veins<br />Vena cava<br />Capillaries<br />Venules<br />Arterioles<br />Small arteries<br />Small arteries<br />Large arteries<br />Arterioles<br />Aorta <br />Large arteries<br />Aorta <br />145<br />
    • 152. Heart pressure graph<br />Refer to your worksheet …<br />146<br />
    • 153. Function:<br /><ul><li>Comparing the pressure of the aorta, right ventricle and right atrium.
    • 154. Predict the sequence of events in the heart.</li></ul>147<br />
    • 155. Pre Point 1<br /><ul><li>Both atrium pressure and ventricle pressure are low.
    • 156. When Atria P &gt; Ventricle P
    • 157. Atrial Systole occurs: Tricuspid / Bicuspid valves open to allow blood flow from atria  ventricles
    • 158. Ventricle pressure rises above atrium pressure.
    • 159. Ventricle P &gt; Atria P
    • 160. Ventricular Systole occurs &amp; resulting in 2 events:</li></ul>At Point 1: Tricuspid &amp; Biscuspid closes <br />(2) At Point 2: Semi-lunar valves open <br />148<br />
    • 161. Point 1 &amp; 2<br />To allow blood flow into aorta &amp; pulmonary artery<br />Tri/Biscuspid closes<br />Aortic semi-lunar valves open<br />To prevent backflow from ventricle back into atrium<br />
    • 162. At Point 3:<br /><ul><li>Ventricle pressure falls below aorta pressure
    • 163. Aorta P &gt; Ventricle P
    • 164. Blood backflows from Aorta / pulmonary artery  ventricles
    • 165. Aortic SL valves close
    • 166. Ventricle pressure falls sharply
    • 167. Ventricle undergoing ventricular DIASTOLE</li></ul>Aortic SL valves close<br />150<br />
    • 168. At Point 4:<br /><ul><li>Ventricle pressure falls below atrium pressure.
    • 169. Atria P &gt; Ventricle P
    • 170. Blood flows from</li></ul>Atrium  ventricle<br /><ul><li>Bicuspid valves open</li></ul>Bicuspid valves open<br />WHOLE CYCLE REPEATS!<br />151<br />
    • 171. 2. Aortic semi-lunar valves open<br />1. To prevent backflow from ventricle back into atrium<br />3. Aortic SL valves close<br />2. To allow blood flow into aorta &amp; pulmonary artery<br />4. Bicuspid valves open<br />1. Tri/Biscuspidcloses<br />152<br />
    • 172. H. Heart Diseases<br />153<br />
    • 173. Coronary Heart Disease (CHD)<br />154<br />
    • 174. Coronary arteries supply blood to the heart.<br />Blocked Coronary Arteries<br />HEART ATTACK<br />155<br />
    • 175. Atherosclerosis<br />Atherosclerosis is the deposition of fatty substances on the INNER surfaces of the coronary arteries.<br />Lumen<br />Blood pressure<br />156<br />
    • 176. Thrombosis<br />Blood clots form easily in the narrow lumen. <br />The blood clot is known as a thrombosis.<br />157<br />
    • 177. Coronary Heart Disease<br />Arteriosclerosis<br /> Hardened / thickened artery walls<br /> Fat deposits<br /> Blood clots can occur<br />158<br />
    • 178. Preventing CHD<br />Proper diet<br />Proper Stress Management<br />No smoking<br /><ul><li>Nicotine increases blood pressure and the risk of blood clotting in the coronary arteries
    • 179. Carbon monoxide increases fatty deposits</li></ul>Exercise<br />159<br />
    • 180. Summary<br />Q. What have we learned? <br />
    • 181. Lesson Objectives<br />(a) State the functions of blood<br />(b) List the different ABO blood groups &amp; all possible combinations for the <br /> donor&amp; recipient in blood transfusions.<br />(c) Identify the main blood vessels to &amp; from the heart, lungs, liver &amp; <br /> kidney.<br />(d) Relate the structure of arteries, veins &amp; capillaries to their functions.<br />(e) Describe the transfer of materials between capillaries &amp; tissue fluid.<br />(f) Describe the structure&amp; function of the heart in terms of muscular contraction and the working of valves.<br />(f) Outline the cardiac cycle in terms of what happens during systole and diastole. (Histology of the heart muscle, names of nerves and transmitter substances are not required).<br />(h) Describe coronary heart disease in terms of the occlusion of coronary arteries and list the possible causes, such as diet, stress and smoking, stating the possible preventative measures.<br />161<br />
    • 182. TRANSPORT SYSTEM IN MAMMALS<br />consists of<br />Lymphatic System<br />Blood Circulatory System<br />consists of<br />Blood<br />Blood vessels<br />Failure/<br />malfuction<br />Arteries<br />Venules<br />Capillaries<br />Arterioles<br />Veins<br />Heart<br />Heart <br />diseases<br />is divided into chambers<br />join up to form<br />branch into<br />branch into<br />join up to form<br />Consists of: • Red blood cells • White blood cells • Platelets • Plasma <br />Ventricles<br />Atria<br />right<br />left<br />right<br />left<br />Circulates from: • Heart to lungs and back (pulmonary circulation) • Heart to the rest of the body and back (systemic circulation) <br />pumps deoxygenated blood into the lungs<br />pumps oxygenated blood to the rest of the body<br />receives deoxygenated blood from the rest of the body<br />receives oxygenated blood from the lungs<br />162<br />
    • 183. Mechanism of Blood Clotting<br />The clotting process can be summarised in the three reactions shown below:<br />produce<br />Damaged tissue and platelets<br />Thrombokinase (enzyme)<br />1<br />Thrombin (active)<br />thrombokinase<br /> and calcium ions<br />Prothrombin (inactive)<br />2<br />thrombin<br />Insoluble fibrin threads form a mesh to trap blood cells<br />Fibrinogen<br />3<br />
    • 184. The Cardiac Cycle<br />4. The ventricles then relax. This is ventricular diastole. <br /><ul><li> The drop in pressure in the ventricles causes the semi-lunar valves in the two arches to close. This produces a soft ‘dub’ sound.</li></ul>This prevents the backflow of blood into the ventricles.<br /><ul><li> The drop in pressure in the ventricles also causes the bicuspid valves to open.
    • 185. The whole cycle (1-4) then repeats.</li></ul>1. Both the atria and the ventricles are relaxed.<br /><ul><li> The right atrium receives blood from the venae cavae while the left atrium receives blood from the pulmonary veins.</li></ul>pulmonary vein<br />1<br />4<br />left atrium<br />vena cava<br />left ventricle<br />right atrium<br />2<br />right ventricle<br />2. <br /><ul><li> The atria contract, forcing blood into the ventricles.</li></ul>aortic arch<br />3<br />3. <br /><ul><li> After a short pause, the ventricles contract. This is called ventricular systole. </li></ul>pulmonary arch<br />bicuspid valve<br />right ventricle<br />left ventricle<br />tricuspid valve<br />

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