The Circulatory System

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The Circulatory System

  1. 1. The CirculatorySystemT- 1-855-694-8886Email- info@iTutor.comBy iTutor.com
  2. 2.  The Circulatory System is responsiblefor transporting materials throughoutthe entire body. It transports nutrients, water, andoxygen to your billions of body cellsand carries away wastes such ascarbon dioxide that body cellsproduce. It is an amazing highway that travelsthrough your entire body connectingall your body cells.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  3. 3. Components Heart Blood Vessels Arteries Veins CapillariesHeartBloodArteriesVeins© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  4. 4.  Which gases are transported to and from the body’scells by the blood flowing in the circulatory system?carbondioxideoxygenOxygen is the gas needed for respiration and istransported to the body’s cells.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  5. 5.  The circulatory system carries two types of blood Arrangement of the circulatory system means that thesetwo types of blood do not mix.Oxygen-richbloodcOxygen-poorblood Blood travellingto the body cells High oxygen content Low carbon dioxide content Blood travellingaway from the body cells Low oxygen content High carbon dioxide content© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  6. 6.  The heart is the organ at the centre of the circulatorysystem. It pumps blood around the body.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  7. 7.  The inside of the heart is divided into two sections sothat the two types of blood (oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor) are kept apartOxygen-poorbloodRight sideof the heartOxygen-richbloodLeft sideof the heart© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  8. 8.  Heart coverings Pericardium Covers the heart and large blood vessels attached tothe heart Visceral pericardium Innermost layer Directly on the heart Parietal pericardium Layer on top of the visceral pericardium
  9. 9.  Pericardium Protective sac ofconnective tissue Surrounds the heart Filled with fluid© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  10. 10.  Heart walls: Epicardium Outermost layer Fat to cushion heart Myocardium Middle layer Primarily cardiac muscle Endocardium Innermost layer Thin and smooth Stretches as the heart pumps© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  11. 11.  Myocardium The muscle of the heart Strong and thick Composed of spontaneouslycontracting cardiac musclefibers Can conduct electricity likenerves. It’s blood supply comesfrom the coronary arteries.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  12. 12.  The right and left sides of the heart are separated by aseptum, or wall. The septum prevents the mixing of oxygen rich andoxygen poor blood. On each side of the septum are two chambers. The upper chamber (receives blood) is the atrium. The lower chamber (pumps blood out of heart) is theventricle.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  13. 13.  Four chambers Two Atria Upper chambers Left and right Separated by interatrialseptum Two Ventricles Lower chambers Left and right Separated by interventricularseptum© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedRight VentricleRight AtriumLeft VentricleLeft Atrium
  14. 14.  The chambers of the heart have different functions:blood tothe bodyblood fromthe bodyblood tothe lungsblood fromthe lungsThe Atriacollect bloodthat enters theheart.The ventriclespump bloodout of theheart.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  15. 15.  The valves between the atria and ventricles are connectedto the inner walls of the heart by tough tendons.valve open© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  16. 16.  The tendons allow the valves to close and hold the valveflaps in place. They prevent the valves from flipping upand turning inside outvalve open valve closed© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  17. 17.  A valve acts like a door that only opens in one direction. If the door is held by someone at a fixed point, only the armmoves as the door opens and closes. When the door is closed the arm is fully extended, so thedoor can only be opened in one direction.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  18. 18.  A valve acts like a door that only opens in one direction. In the heart, the tendons holding the valve are like thearm holding the door. One end of each tendon is fixed to the wall of the heartand so the valve can only open in one direction.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  19. 19.  The heart can pump blood because it is made of muscle.Muscle tissue works by contracting (squeezing) andrelaxing.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  20. 20.  All the parts of the heart oneither side, work together in arepeated sequence. The two atria contract andrelax; then the two ventriclescontract and relax. This is how blood movesthrough the heart and ispumped to the lungs and thebody. One complete sequence ofcontraction and relaxation iscalled a heartbeat.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  21. 21.  As blood moves through thecirculatory system it movesthrough 3 types of bloodvessels: Arteries: Carry blood awayfrom the heart . Capillaries: Link arterioles toveins. Veins: Carry blood towardsthe heart© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  22. 22. Arteries Large vessels Carry blood from heart to tissues of body. Carry oxygen rich blood, with the exception of pulmonaryarteries. Thick walls-need to withstand pressure produced when heartpushes blood into them.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Smallest blood vessels Walls are only one cell thick and very narrow. Important for bringing nutrients and oxygen to tissuesand absorbing CO2 and other waste products.Capillaries
  23. 23.  Once blood has passed through the capillary systems itmust be returned to the heart. Done by veins Walls contains connective tissue and smooth muscle. Largest veins contain one way valves that keep bloodflowing toward heart. Many found near skeletal muscles. When musclescontract, blood is forced through veins.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  24. 24. © iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  25. 25.  The heart produces pressure The force of blood on the wall of the arteries isknown as blood pressure. Blood pressure decreases as the heart relaxes,but the rest of the circulatory system is stillunder pressure.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  26. 26.  When blood pressure is taken, the cuff is wrappedaround the upper portion of the arm and pumped withair until blood flow in the artery is blocked. As the pressure in the cuff is relaxed, 2 numbers arerecorded. Systolic pressure- the first number taken, is the force felt in thearteries when the ventricles contract. Diastolic pressure- the second number taken, is the force of theblood on the arteries when the ventricles relax.© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  27. 27. Blood What percent of your body is blood? How much blood do we contain? On average 4-6 liters We contain about a pint ofblood for every 15 poundsof body weight Composition of Blood: What percent of your blood iscellular? What percent of your blood isplasma?8%45%55%© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved
  28. 28. Blood Composed of plasma and blood cells Types of Cells are: Red Blood Cells White Blood Cells Platelets© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Plasma Straw colored 90% water 10% dissolved gases, salts, nutrients, enzymes,hormones, wastes, and proteins.
  29. 29. Blood Plasma proteins 3 Types: Albumins, globulins and fibrinogen. Albumins and Globulins- transport substances such as fattyacids, hormones and vitamins. Fibrinogen- Responsible for blood’s ability to clot© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Red Blood Cells Most numerous type Transport oxygen Get color from hemoglobin Disk shaped Made in red bone marrow Circulate for 120 days
  30. 30.  White Blood Cells Guard against infection, fight parasites, and attack bacteria Number of WBC’s increases when body is fighting Lymphocytes produce antibodies which fight pathogensand remember themBlood© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights Reserved Platelets Aid the body in clotting Small fragments Stick to edges of broken blood cell and secrete clottingfactor to help form clot.
  31. 31. BloodBlood has 3 mainFunctions Transport Protection TemperatureRegulation© iTutor. 2000-2013. All Rights ReservedPlasmaRed BloodCellsPlateletsWhite BloodCells
  32. 32. Call us for moreinformation:www.iTutor.com1-855-694-8886Visit

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