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Circulatory system mine for 3rd


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Circulatory system mine for 3rd

  1. 1. Circulatory system.
  2. 2. What’s in the red blood cells digested food white blood cells oxygen waste (urea) platelets carbon dioxide plasma hormones
  3. 3. • • • Functions of Blood Replenishing tissue fluid Transport: to and from tissue cells – • Nutrients from small intestine to cells: amino acids, glucose, vitamins, minerals, lipids (as lipoproteins). – • Oxygen: by red blood corpuscles (oxyhaemoglobin - 4 x O2 molecules/haemoglobin)from lungs to tissues – • Waste products from cells: urea, CO2 (from liver kidneys / from tissueslungs) – Hormones to their target organs – Heat from muscles/brain/abdominal organs to head and limbs Defence against infection/Immunity: protection against pathogens blood clotting; phagocytes, lymphocytes and antibodies distributed in blood. What is HOMEOSTASIS, Sheldon? •Homeostatic functions Maintain constancy of internal environment (Temperature Regulation:by alter the blood flow through the skin.)
  4. 4. Blood red blood cell platelets The fluid that circulates in the heart, arteries, capillaries , and veins of a vertebrate animal carrying nourishment and oxygen to and bringing away waste products from all parts of the body. white blood cell plasma
  5. 5. Red Blood Cells a biconcave disc that is round and flat without a nucleus contain haemoglobin, a molecule specially designed to hold oxygen and carry it to cells that need it. (oxyhaemoglobin) can change shape to an amazing extent, without breaking, as it squeezes single file through the capillaries. After 4 months breakdown in the LIVER Iron (stored) Bilirubin  excreted in the BILE
  6. 6. Platelets Platelets are bits of cell broken off larger cells. No nucleus Made in the red bone marrow Platelets produce tiny fibrinogen fibres to form a net. This net traps other blood cells to form a blood clot.
  7. 7. White Blood Cells there are many different types and all contain a big nucleus. the two main ones are the lymphocytes and the phagocytes. Antibodies lymphocytes T and B ‘eat’ and digest micro-organisms Made in white bone marrow/lymph nodes. Mature in Thymus/ Spleen /Lymph Nodes some lymphocytes fight disease by making antibodies to destroy invaders by dissolving them. other lymphocytes make antitoxins to break down poisons.
  8. 8. Lymphocytes *B (from Bone marrow)  short- lived plasma cells May Lymphocytes attack antigens stick to the surface membrane of the alien cell *T (from Thymus) KILLER T  damaging cell membrane of infected cell HELPER T  stimulate B cells to % IMMUNITY * Natural Acquired * Innate * Artificially Acquire  Vaccine
  9. 9. Plasma It also contains useful things like; • carbon dioxide • glucose A strawcoloured liquid that carries the cells and the platelets which help blood clot. • lipids • amino acids • proteins • minerals (sodium/potassium/calcium) • vitamins • hormones • waste materials like urea.
  11. 11. External view of the heart superior vena cava pulmonary artery aorta pulmonary vein pulmonary vein left atrium coronary artery right atrium inferior vena cava left ventricle right ventricle
  12. 12. Explanation of Heart Left Atrium Right Atrium Which side of the heart is thicker What kind of blood does each side pump? Right Ventricle Valves Left Ventricle The heart has 4 chambers: 2 on the Right: received blood and 2 on the left: pumps the blood out How does the heart pump?
  13. 13. The vena cava carries deoxygenated blood from the body to the right atrium superior vena cava (transports blood from the head) inferior vena cava (transports blood from rest of body)
  14. 14. The right atrium collects deoxygenated blood and pumps it to the right ventricle right atrium
  15. 15. The right ventricle pumps deoxygenated blood to the lungs right ventricle
  16. 16. The pulmonary artery carries deoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs aorta
  17. 17. The septum separates the left and right sides of the heart septum
  18. 18. The pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood from the lungs to the left atrium Pulmonary veins
  19. 19. The left atrium collects the oxygenated blood and pumps it to the left ventricle Left atrium
  20. 20. The left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood to the body via the aorta Left ventricle
  21. 21. The aorta carries the oxygenated from the left ventricle to the rest of the body Aortic arch Aorta
  22. 22. Blood doesn’t flow Backwards because of 4 sets of valves RIGHT Tricuspid valves semi-lunar valve Tendon LEFT Bicuspid valve (mitral valve) semi-lunar valve
  23. 23. The Heart Artery to Lungs Vein from Head and Body Right Atrium valve Right Ventricle Artery to Head and Body Vein from Lungs Left Atrium valve Left Ventricle
  24. 24. The * receives FOOD and O2 from CORONARY ARTERIES •NORMAL RATE  50-100 beats per minute Depends on AGE SEX EXERCISE ADRENALINE The beat is initiated by the PACEMAKER Receives 2 sets of nerves from BRAIN 1set speeds up the 1set slows down the RIGHT ATRIUM Specialized muscle cells rate rate Has IMPUT from receptors in the circ. System for BLOOD PRESSURE and levels of O2 and CO2
  25. 25. How does the Heart work? STEP ONE blood from the body blood from the lungs The heart beat begins when the heart muscles relax and blood flows into the atria.
  26. 26. How does the Heart work? STEP TWO The atria then contract and the valves open to allow blood into the ventricles.
  27. 27. How does the Heart work? STEP THREE The valves close to stop blood flowing backwards. The ventricles contract forcing the blood to leave the heart. At the same time, the atria are relaxing and once again filling with blood. The cycle then repeats itself.
  28. 28. 1 2 Systoles
  29. 29. What is DIASTOLE? • The time period when the heart is in a state of relaxation What is SYSTOLE? • It is a phase of the cardiac cycle where the myocardium is contracting
  30. 30. Summary SYSTOLE Atria contract Valve opens Blood enters ventricles Blood pressure closes tricuspid and bicuspid valves Semi-lunar valve opens SYSTOLE  Ventricles contract Blood enters arteries DIASTOLE  Ventricles relax Blood pressure in arteries close the semi-lunar valves
  31. 31. How does this system work? pulmonary vein pulmonary artery lungs head & arms aorta main vein Right Left liver digestive system kidneys legs Circulatory System
  32. 32. Our circulatory system is a double circulatory system. This means it has two parts. Lungs the right side of the left side of the system the system deals with deals with oxygenated deoxygenated blood. blood. Body cells
  33. 33. Blood travels through the heart twice before returning to the body The double circulatory system
  34. 34. blood from the heart gets around the body through blood vessels There are 3 types of blood vessels a. ARTERY b. CAPILLARY c. VEIN
  35. 35. The ARTERY Arteries carry blood away from the heart. the elastic/muscle fibres allow the artery to stretch under pressure thick muscle and elastic fibres Semi- lunar valves the thick muscle can contract to push the blood along.
  36. 36. The Aorta The largest artery in the body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it branches off into two smaller arteries and arterioles. The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body.
  37. 37. The VEIN Veins return blood to the heart. veins have valves which act to stop the blood from going in the wrong direction. thin muscle and elastic fibres body muscles surround the veins so that when they contract to move the body, they also squeeze the veins and push the blood along the vessel --
  38. 38. The CAPILLARY Capillaries link Arteries with Veins they exchange materials between the blood and other body cells. the wall of a capillary is *only one cell thick *permeable The exchange of materials between the blood and the body can only occur through capillaries.
  39. 39. A collection of capillaries is known as a capillary bed.
  40. 40. Type of blood ARTERIES VEINS CAPILLARIE S Direction Structure Valves Reason for structure Oxygenated (in most arteries) From heart to body Elastic tissues+muscle fibres THICK WALLS (To resist the pressure of blood) Semi-lunar Thick walls as arteries carry blood with high pressure, this prevents walls from collapsing deoxygenated (less food more CO2) (in most veins) From body to heart Less elastic, less muscular THINNER WALLS/ WIDER LUMEN Valves for blood not to go backwards Less thick walls as they carry blood with low pressure oxygenated or deoxygenated Supply all the cells with their requirements/ take away waste 1 cell-thick thin walls PERMEABLE Narrow lumen ------------- It allows tissue fluid to squeeze out and give the cells what they need and take away waste
  41. 41. BLOOD CLOTTING • 2 functions prevents loss of blood  prevents entrance of bacteria Stimulus  damage in blood vessels Activates platelets (they aggregate) Produce chemicals to activate Prothrombin Fibrinogen (always in the blood) Thrombin (enzyme) acts on Fibrinogen (soluble) CLOT red cells + Fibrin(insoluble)
  42. 42. • When the pumps  it produces pressure • Arteries HIGH pressure • Capillaries offer resistance to blood flow blood pressure in VEINS is LOW • Blood pressure  varies with sex/age/activity • Fairly consistent for the FILTRATION process in the KIDNEYS • Blood pressure  heart disease/ stroke • Blood pressure  kidney fail